Interactions within ecosystems

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Interactions within ecosystems

  1. 1. Interactions and Changes Within Ecosystems
  2. 2. Groups of living things interact within ecosystems The environment can be organized into five levels 1. Biome : region with similar climate, types of plants, and animals 2. Ecosystem: The living and non-living things that interact in one environment. 3. Community: The living organisms of an ecosystem 4. Population: A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area. 5. Organism: A single living thing, made up of one or many cells, that is capable of growing and reproducing.
  3. 3. Patterns Exist in PopulationsPatterns in Living Space Animals in a habitat are located based on food supplies, water, and shelter locations. Some animals live in large groups for safety ( fish and elephants )
  4. 4. Patterns in Time Population sizes can change with seasons Many organisms migrate to other areas (monarch butterflies and birds)
  5. 5. Populations Change Over TimePopulation growth and decline Predator-prey interactions can affect population increase or decrease ( as a wolf population increases the moose population decreases) Birth rate may decline or increase http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2007/10/071019183055-large.jpg
  6. 6. Populations Change Over Time Limiting factors: any factor or condition that limits the growth of a population in an ecosystem (food, water, light, large group of predators, small group of prey) http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/learning/hunter_education/homestudy/wildlife/wildlife/limit.phtml?print=true
  7. 7. Maintaining a Balance in an EcosystemCarrying Capacity: the maximum number of individuals that an ecosystem can support.Limiting factors affect the carrying capacity http://www.hunter-ed.com/images/graphics/carrying_capacity_chart.gif
  8. 8. Interactions among members of acommunity.
  9. 9. Organisms Interact in Different WaysOrganisms may cooperate, compete, or depend on each other for survivalPredator and Prey relationships Predators can affect how the prey populations are distributed (fish in large groups) Prey can affect the location and number in predator populations (birds feeding on insects migrate to the areas where the insects are plentiful)
  10. 10. Organisms Interact in Different WaysCompetition Competition is the struggle between individuals of the same species (intraspecific) or different species populations (interspecific) for a limited resource
  11. 11. ¡ Intraspecific competition can happen with the same species (plants compete for light, space, and nutrients)¡ Interspecific competition between different species (hyenas and vultures compete for remains of dead animals)
  12. 12. Survival of One Species Might Depend onAnother SpeciesSymbiosis: two different species who live together in a close relationship Both species benefit >> mutualism One species benefits while the other is not affected >> commensalism One species benefits while the other is harmed >> parasitism
  13. 13. Types of SymbiosisMutualism:Two species interacting with each other that benefits both species. (bees and flowers; savanna herbivores and oxpecker birds)
  14. 14. Types of SymbiosisCommensalism: two species interacting with each other with one species benefiting and the other unaffected. (jellyfish and fish; remora sharks)
  15. 15. Types of SymbiosisParasitism: two species interacting while one species benefits and the host species is harmedExamples of human parasites.
  16. 16. Three Types of Succession
  17. 17. Ecosystems change over timeEcological Succession: the gradual change in an ecosystem in which one biological community is replaced by another.
  18. 18. Primary SuccessionPrimary succession: The establishment of a new biological community in an area of bare rocks. (plants moving in after a lava flow or glacier retreats)
  19. 19. Secondary SuccessionSecondary Succession: Occurs after a major disturbance happens and the soil still remains. (after a forest fire or agricultural field abandoned)

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