Vertebrates and Invertebrates


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Vertebrates and Invertebrates

  1. 1. Vertebrates & Invertebrates Interactive Presentation designed by Mr. Phillips July 2004
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>You are about to begin an interactive presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: This is not a normal presentation! </li></ul><ul><li>YOU will be participating! </li></ul><ul><li>You will be learning about two main classifications of animals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrates, invertebrates, and the differences between them. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are several ways to navigate through this presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>On some slides you can click on the boxes that look like this: </li></ul><ul><li>You can click the “next” or “back” buttons like the one at the bottom left of this page. </li></ul><ul><li>For slides with questions, just click on your choice. </li></ul>Directions
  4. 4. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>Given access to this presentation, the students will navigate through this presentation with 90% accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Given questions within the presentation, the students will correctly answer 70% of the questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Given at least 30 minutes to explore the presentation and given characteristics of a specific animal, students will be able to identify whether the animal is a vertebrate or an invertebrate with 80% accuracy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification of Animals Vertebrates Invertebrates Animals Click on vertebrates or invertebrates to learn more about each!! Click below after you have read about vertebrates and invertebrates
  6. 6. Vertebrates <ul><li>Animals that are vertebrates are simply animals with a backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrates have an endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It offers support and protects the soft parts of the animal. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Vertebrates <ul><li>Vertebrates can either be ectotherms or endotherms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms (cold-blooded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature changes to match their surroundings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endotherms (warm-blooded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate their body temperature so that it remains constant </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Vertebrates <ul><li>Vertebrate animals fall into the chordate phylum . </li></ul><ul><li>The chordate phylum is divided into classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphibians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reptiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mammals </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>This chart shows the vertebrates organized into classes. </li></ul>Vertebrates Vertebrates Fish Mammals Birds Amphibians Reptiles Click on a box to learn more about that class of vertebrates! When you are done, click the link at the bottom left of the screen to learn about invertebrates! Click here to go to Invertebrates
  10. 10. <ul><li>Fish are cold-blooded animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that their blood temperature changes with the temperature of the surrounding water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most fish live close to the shore in water that is less than 600 feet deep. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the ocean, the deeper the water, the dimmer the light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many fish who live at 2000 feet or deeper glow in the dark. </li></ul></ul>Fish
  11. 11. <ul><li>All fish have gills . These gills absorb oxygen from the water and pass it along to the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>A fishes scales are called armor because they protect it. A slimy substance moistens the scales. This protects the fish from infection and helps the fish slip through the water faster. </li></ul>Fish
  12. 12. <ul><li>Fish stay afloat because they have swim bladders. By changing the amount of air in its bladder, a fish never rises or sinks, but stays balanced. </li></ul>Fish
  13. 13. Fish <ul><li>Fins move the fish forward, steer it, and help the fish to keep its balance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pectoral and pelvic fins are used for balance, steering, and braking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dorsal fin keeps the fish from rolling over and works along with the anal fin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tail (caudal fin) provides power, thrushing the fish forward. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fish Fish are actually divided into 3 different classes . Click the boxes to learn about these 3 types. You must click the boxes in order from top to bottom. Cartilaginous Fish Bony Fish Jawless Fish
  15. 15. <ul><li>Bony fish make up about 95% of all fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletons are made up of bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Their scaly skin is covered with a slimy mucous. </li></ul><ul><li>Their mouth is generally at the front of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a tail fin. </li></ul>Bony Fish Click the fish to see a diagram of bony fish.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Cartilaginous fish include the sharks, skates and rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Although these look different, they have many features in common. </li></ul><ul><li>None of them have any true bone - their skeleton is made of cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>They have strong jaws </li></ul>Cartilaginous Fish Chilean Skate Ray Great White Shark
  17. 17. <ul><li>Their mouth is on the underside of their body. </li></ul><ul><li>Their eyes are on the top of their body. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot see food as it enters their mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Some sharks solve this problem by touching their food briefly with their nose first. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some also use a powerful electrosensory system. </li></ul></ul>Cartilaginous Fish Continued… Click the shark to see a diagram of a shark!
  18. 18. <ul><li>This is a primitive eel-like fish which doesn't have a true jaw, but a sucker-like mouth (like suction cups!) and rasping teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lampreys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lampreys are found in freshwater lakes and streams as well as in salt water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hagfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hagfish, or blind eels, are found only in salt water and feed mainly on dead fish. </li></ul></ul></ul>Jawless Fish lamprey
  19. 19. <ul><li>Click on the correct choice. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of fish fall into which class? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jawless Fish </li></ul></ul>Let’s Review Fish!!!
  20. 20. OOPS! You chose B. Cartilaginous Fish . That is incorrect . Think about the majority of fish you have seen in your life…what is hard inside their body?
  21. 21. OOPS! You chose C. Jawless Fish . That is incorrect . Think about the majority of fish you have seen in your life…what is hard inside their body?
  22. 22. Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is A Bony Fish . About 95% of all fish are considered bony fish !
  23. 23. <ul><li>Click on the correct choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Which fin gives the fish balance, steering, and braking? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal Fin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudal Fin (tail) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoral and Pelvic Fins </li></ul></ul>Let’s Review Fish!!!
  24. 24. OOPS! You chose B. Caudal Fin (tail) . That is incorrect . The caudal fin (tail) actually gives the fish the power to move forward.
  25. 25. OOPS! You chose A. Dorsal Fin . That is incorrect . The dorsal fin keeps the fish from rolling over.
  26. 26. Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is C. Pectoral and Pelvic Fin . These allow the fish to balance, steer, and brake.
  27. 27. <ul><li>These animals have smooth skin </li></ul><ul><li>Most spend at least part of their life in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians are cold-blooded (hibernate in winter). </li></ul><ul><li>They usually have three life stages: egg, larva, adult ( metamorphosis ). </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, and Newts. </li></ul>Amphibians Salamander newts toad Ever wonder what the difference between a frog and a toad was? Click here to find out!
  28. 28. <ul><li>These animals have dry, scaly skin. </li></ul><ul><li>They are cold-blooded (hibernate in winter). </li></ul><ul><li>Some live in the water, but most are adapted to life on land. </li></ul><ul><li>Most reptiles lay soft-shelled eggs, but some bear live young. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, and Crocodiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Fact! </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know that snakes smell with their tongue! </li></ul>Reptiles Iguana Turtle Crocodile
  29. 29. <ul><li>Birds are warm-blooded. </li></ul><ul><li>They have hollow bones and feathers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most can fly at least short distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Birds are born from hard-shelled eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Raptors, Gulls, Songbirds, and Fowl. </li></ul>Birds Raptor Gull Fowl
  30. 30. <ul><li>These animals usually have hair/fur. </li></ul><ul><li>They give birth to live young and feed their young with milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the most complex brains and nervous systems of any animal on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals are warm-blooded. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: Rodents, Hoofed animals, Marsupials, Bats, Rabbits, Weasels, Raccoons, Bears, Dogs, and Cats. </li></ul>Mammals Rodent Bat Dog
  31. 31. Not So Fast!! Let’s try one quick review question!
  32. 32. Vertebrate Review <ul><li>You see a greenish-brownish colored animal walking in your yard. You get brave, and decide to touch it. It’s skin is dry and scaly. What kind of animal is it most likely? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptile </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. OOPS! You chose A. Amphibian . That is incorrect . Amphibians have smooth skin.
  34. 34. OOPS! You chose B. Mammal . That is incorrect . A mammal’s skin would most likely be furry.
  35. 35. Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is C. reptile Reptiles have dry, scaly skin.
  36. 36. <ul><li>What’s the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? </li></ul><ul><li>Click here to find out! </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between a reptile and an amphibian? </li></ul><ul><li>Click here to find out! </li></ul>Fun Facts!
  37. 37. <ul><li>Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>97% of all animals are invertebrates! </li></ul><ul><li>They are divided into different groups or phyla (plural of phylums). </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists look at something called symmetry to help classify invertebrates. </li></ul>Invertebrates
  38. 38. Invertebrates Radial symmetry: body parts are arranged around in a circle around a central point (starfish). Bilateral symmetry: have two sides that will match if you draw a line down the center of their body (lobster). Asymetric: these animals have no definite shape at all (sponges).
  39. 39. Invertebrates Invertebrates Cnidarian Sponges Arthropods Mollusks Echinoderms Annelids Flatworms Click on a box to learn more about that class of invertebrates! When you are done, click the man at the bottom left of the screen to move on! Click below when you are done learning about invertebrates:
  40. 40. <ul><li>Have radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes they have stinging tentacles around their mouths that they use to catch food. </li></ul>Cnidarians Polyp Jellyfish
  41. 41. <ul><li>Asymmetric bodies </li></ul><ul><li>They filter food out of the water as it passes through them. </li></ul>Sponges
  42. 42. <ul><li>These outnumber every other animal on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be predators, parasites, or decomposers. </li></ul>Roundworms
  43. 43. <ul><li>Have jointed body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Lobster, house fly, beetle, butterflies, spiders </li></ul>Arthropods Butterfly Beetle Tarantula House Fly Lobster Crustaceans Arachnids Insects
  44. 44. <ul><li>Crustaceans live mostly in the ocean or other waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly known crustaceans are the crab and lobster. </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans have a hard, external shell which protects their body. </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans have a head and abdomen. The head has antennae which are part of their sensory system. The abdomen includes the heart, digestive system and reproductive system. </li></ul><ul><li>The abdomen also has appendages, such as legs, for crawling and swimming. Many crustaceans also have claws that help with crawling and eating. </li></ul>Arthropods Crustaceans Crustaceans Arachnids Insects
  45. 45. <ul><li>Arachnids are a type of arthropod. You know many of them as spiders. </li></ul><ul><li>Like other arthropods, the arachnids have a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages for walking. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other arthropods, arachnids do not have antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>Common arachnids are the spider, scorpions, ticks and mites. </li></ul>Crustaceans Arachnids Insects Arthropods Arachnids
  46. 46. <ul><li>Insects are the largest group of arthropods. There are over 800,000 different types of insects. </li></ul><ul><li>The insect's head has a pair of antennae, and a pair of compound eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound eyes are different from human eyes which have a single lens for each eye. Compound eyes have many lenses for each eye. For example, the fly has about 4,000 lenses in a single eye. This provides them with very good eyesight. </li></ul>Crustaceans Arachnids Insects Arthropods Insects
  47. 47. <ul><li>Long, flat bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Most are parasites that invade other creatures and live off of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Planaria, tapeworms, liver flukes </li></ul>Flatworms Planaria Liver Flukes Tapeworm
  48. 48. <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><li>Ringed segments </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworms, leeches </li></ul>Annelids Earthworm Leech
  49. 49. <ul><li>Soft bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Protective shell </li></ul><ul><li>Land mollusks include snails and slugs and have lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Water mollusks include oysters, mussels, clams, squids, and octopuses which use gills to breathe. </li></ul>Mollusks Octopus Snail Oyster
  50. 50. <ul><li>Spiny skin </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of tube-like feet </li></ul><ul><li>Starfish, sea urchin, sand dollar, and sea cucumber. </li></ul>Echinoderms Sand Dollar Sea Urchin Starfish Sea Cucumber
  51. 51. Let’s Review <ul><li>What type of symmetry does the following invertebrate have? </li></ul><ul><li>Radial </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric </li></ul>
  52. 52. OOPS! You chose c. asymmetric . That is incorrect . Think about the left and right sides of a butterfly…
  53. 53. OOPS! You chose a. radial . That is incorrect . Are all their body parts arranged around a circle?
  54. 54. Good Job! Yes. The correct choice is B. bilateral Both sides of the butterfly are idential.
  55. 55. Congratulations! You have just finished learning about vertebrates and invertebrates! You are now an expert zoo keeper! Tomorrow we will continue our quest….