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Behavior and health


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Behavior and health

  1. 1. DREN DE BONDOUKOU BACCALAUREATBLANC ANNEESCOLAIRE2013-2014 Coefficient : 2 EPREUVE D’ANGLAIS Durée : 3 h SERIE A2 Cette épreuve comporte trois (03) pages numérotées 1/3, 2/3 et 3/3. Do all the activities of this examination paper on your answer sheet. PART ONE: READING 40% Read the text below and do the tasks that follow. BEHAVIOR AND HEALTH What human behaviors reduce the risk of disrupting health? Simple reflexes such as closing the eyelids in response to a sudden, threatening movement or retracting the fingers quickly from a hot surface, are protective behaviors. Humans, with their capacity for complex thought, also have the option of choosing behaviors that may prevent disruption of bodily functions by reducing risks. For example, you can avoid being around someone who5 has the flu, you can choose always to buckle your seat belt while in a car, and you can adopt the habits of getting adequate sleep and eating nutritious food. None of these behaviors eliminates the risk of injury or illness, but they represent some factors under your control that may greatly reduce the risk of either mild or major disruptions. As we consider risk, it is important to distinguish controllable from uncontrollable10 factors. For instance, do you think you are in danger of developing lung cancer? Some factors such as a genetic tendency to develop certain forms of cancer are not under your control because you may have inherited this genetic tendency. Exposure to toxic substances in polluted outdoor or in an unsafe work place increases the risk of certain cancers. Would this factor be under your control?15 One of the most controllable factors related to lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke damages the lungs’ protective mechanisms and leaves a smoker more vulnerable than a nonsmoker to infection or to damage from other pollutants. Smoking does not guarantee that a smoker will get cancer, but it greatly increases the risk of lung cancer. It also increases the risk of heart disease from damaged blood vessels. A further20 disadvantage of smoking is that it damages the elasticity of lung tissue with each inhalation of smoke. This damage is progressive and results in the slow, and often painful, fatal disease known as emphysema. Many smokers find it extremely difficult to quit smoking because the nicotine contained in tobacco is one of the most addictive chemicals known. What is more interesting25 is why people who have access to accurate data about the effects of smoking choose to start smoking. With smoking, as with other controllable and risky behaviors such as skiing, drinking alcohol, or driving without a seat belt, an individual must weigh the risks against the benefits to make an informed decision. 30 Adapted from BSCS BIOLOGY: A HUMAN APPROACH, 1997 (E 84-85).
  2. 2. COMPREHENSION CHECK A- Find the opposite of each word below in the text. The line reference will help you. Write down your answers like this: 1- raise ≠ reduce. 1- raise (L. 1) 2- opening (L. 2) 3- extending (L. 2) 4- slowly (L. 3) 5- cold (L. 3) 6- serious (L. 9) 7- lowers (L. 14) 8- least (L. 16) 9- slightly (L. 19) 10-fast (L. 22) 11-wrong (L. 26) B- Say whether each statement below is true (T) or false (F) according to the text. Quote the lines that justify your answers. Example: 1- F (L 1 to 3) 1- Withdrawing one’s fingers from a burning surface is a sign of weakness. 2- Humans can make choices that are good for their health because they are intelligent. 3- The way you eat and sleep can affect your health. 4- If you behave adequately, you will never get injured or ill. 5- The more you try to control your behaviour the higher the risks of getting ill or injured. 6- Cancer has nothing to do with genetic inheritance. 7- You might get cancer if the air in your environment is polluted. 8- Nonsmokers are more vulnerable to other toxic substances than smokers. 9- Every smoker does not systematically get cancer. 10-It is very hard to stop smoking. 11-All the people who smoke ignore the risks linked to smoking. PART TWO: WRITING 40% Do only one of the two tasks . (25 lines) TASK 1: At your last English Club meeting, you were asked to give a talk on the following topic: “Your way of life can influence your health.” Write your speech as neatly as you can. TASK 2: As a member of a Non Governmental Organization concerned with environmental issues, you have decided to write an article to raise the awareness of the public on the importance of living in a clean environment. Write a letter to The Economist, an international news magazine, in order to reach a wider audience. The address of the magazine is in the box below. The Economist, 25 St James’s Street, London SW1A 1HG
  3. 3. PART THREE : LANGUAGE IN USE 20% A- Fill in each gap with an appropriate word from the box below. Write down your answers like this: 1- d. a- situations ; b- as ; c- danger ; d- influence ; e- injured ; f- restrict ; g- others; h- member ; i- drive ; j- case ; k- factories Not all the factors that (…1…) the risks to your health are under your control, but some of them are controllable by (…2…) in your society. For example, you may make the choice never to (…3…) a car recklessly or under the influence of alcohol, yet you still could be (…4…) in an accident caused by someone else who drove recklessly or while intoxicated. In this (…5…) the source of (…6…) is controllable but not by you, the victim. There are even more complicated (…7…) in which your risk as an individual is partly related to the group of friends or the larger society of which you are a (…8…). If your society has laws that (…9…) the amount of air pollutants that can be released from cars or (…10…), then society’s overall risk, as well (…11…) your individual risk, of getting lung cancer will be reduced. Is this a controllable or an uncontrollable factor? B- Use the words in the box below to fill in the gaps. Example: 1- e a- about ; b- in ; c- in ; d- by ; e- for ; f- for ; g- from ; h- out ; i- with ; j- to; k- with In the last four years, Thomas has been arrested eleven times (…1…) assault, malicious mischief, reckless endangerment, minor-in-possession and minor-in-consumption charges, and various probation violations. This time he’s locked up (…2…) the Juvenile Justice Detention Center (…3…) thirty days. Thomas knows he has a problem (…4…) alcohol, but he thinks he can quit whenever he wants. “I just don’t want (…5..),” he says with a confident smile. “Alcohol makes me feel good.” When he drinks, he does stupid things. He drives drunk. He has sex (…6…) girls he doesn’t care (…7…). He steals money (…8…) his friends and neighbours. Thomas is frightened (…9…) the fact that he feels like he’s in control when he’s drinking but says and does things that show he’s (…10…) of control. He’s afraid he’ll kill himself or someone else (…11…) a car wreck, get sent away to an institution, get a girl pregnant, or get AIDS from having unprotected sex .