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Hypothalamus
*Region of the brain
* Composed of small
nuclei
*Act As Conduit
between nervous
&endocrine sys.
*Also regulat...
Hypothalamic HormonesHypothalamic Hormones
Pituitary gland anatomyPituitary gland anatomy
*Is an endocrine gland
* Size of a pea
* Located at the base of
the brain
*...
Anterior & posterior lobeAnterior & posterior lobe
*The cells of the
Ant. Lobe are
embryologically
derived from an ???
*Th...
Pituitary Hormones and TheirPituitary Hormones and Their
TargetsTargets
The hormones of the
anterior pituitary are
synthes...
Growth hormoneGrowth hormone
Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190
amino acids that is synthesized and secreted...
Control of SecretionControl of Secretion
GHIH (or)
SST (somatostatin)
(-)
Anterior Pituitary:
Hypothalamus:
GHRH
(+)
GH
(s...
GROWTH HORMONE
direct effectsindirect effects
lipolysis in fat cells
+
carbohydrate
metabolism
+
Insulin-like Growth Facto...
Brain
Pituitary
Liver
IGF
IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs)
Growth
Growth Hormone (GH)
GH/IGF/IGFBP AxisGH/IGF/IGFBP Axis
IGFBPs—two main typesIGFBPs—two main types
IGFBP-3
most abundant form of IGFBP
main carrier of IGF in circulation
promotes...
IGFBP-3
IGF
IGF receptor
LIVER
Cell
Growth Functions
Growth Functions
Cell
IGF receptor
LIVER
IGFBP-1
IGF
Clinical AspectsClinical Aspects
GH
Adult
children
Acromegaly
gigantism
GH dwarfism
‫رواشده‬ ‫احمد‬‫رواشده‬ ‫احمد‬
Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms
•Obvious sign is kids
being much shorter
then kids of the same
age and gender
•Childr...
Diagnostic proceduresDiagnostic procedures
•blood test for protien
markers
•Pediatric nurses
chart : The growth
curve of c...
DiagnosisDiagnosis
X-rays to determine
bone age can also
help with the
diagnosis
DiagnosisDiagnosis
.MRI of the brain can also be used to view the
hypothalamus and pituitary gland
DiagnosisDiagnosis
Treatments
•
Growth hormone
injections.
Treatments
.Surgical
intervention is
another option
which may include:
-surgical operation on
pituitary gland itself.
-Bon...
PrognosisPrognosis
•
Depends on whether there’s any permanent
damage and the age of the child
•
Earlier treated, the bette...
dwarfism & GH
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dwarfism & GH

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about normal anatomy and physiology of hypothalamus & pituitary gland

and treatment of dwarfism

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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dwarfism & GH

  1. 1. Hypothalamus *Region of the brain * Composed of small nuclei *Act As Conduit between nervous &endocrine sys. *Also regulate homeostatic function. ( hunger , thirst & body temp(
  2. 2. Hypothalamic HormonesHypothalamic Hormones
  3. 3. Pituitary gland anatomyPituitary gland anatomy *Is an endocrine gland * Size of a pea * Located at the base of the brain * Rests in a small bony cavity * Is divided into ??? * Connected to hypothalamus by???
  4. 4. Anterior & posterior lobeAnterior & posterior lobe *The cells of the Ant. Lobe are embryologically derived from an ??? *The Ant. Pituitary regulate many processes (stress, growth & reproduction ( & Are achieved through ?? *The post. Lobe is composed of the endings of nevre cells *These nerve cells produce two hormone???
  5. 5. Pituitary Hormones and TheirPituitary Hormones and Their TargetsTargets The hormones of the anterior pituitary are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the cells as ???? The hormones of the post pituitary are released into the circulation in response to???? http://wps.aw.com/wps/media/objects/443/454188/st1003.html
  6. 6. Growth hormoneGrowth hormone Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism.
  7. 7. Control of SecretionControl of Secretion GHIH (or) SST (somatostatin) (-) Anterior Pituitary: Hypothalamus: GHRH (+) GH (somatotropin) Liver: IGF (somatomedins) (+) (-)
  8. 8. GROWTH HORMONE direct effectsindirect effects lipolysis in fat cells + carbohydrate metabolism + Insulin-like Growth Factor + fat cells muscle chondrocytes Protein synthesis cartilage formation lipogenesis Increases FFA, glycerol, and sugars in circulation
  9. 9. Brain Pituitary Liver IGF IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) Growth Growth Hormone (GH) GH/IGF/IGFBP AxisGH/IGF/IGFBP Axis
  10. 10. IGFBPs—two main typesIGFBPs—two main types IGFBP-3 most abundant form of IGFBP main carrier of IGF in circulation promotes IGF mediated somatic growth high IGFBP-3 associated w/ growth stimulation IGFBP-1 typically present in small amounts high IGFBP-1 associated w/ growth inhibition
  11. 11. IGFBP-3 IGF IGF receptor LIVER Cell Growth Functions
  12. 12. Growth Functions Cell IGF receptor LIVER IGFBP-1 IGF
  13. 13. Clinical AspectsClinical Aspects GH Adult children Acromegaly gigantism GH dwarfism
  14. 14. ‫رواشده‬ ‫احمد‬‫رواشده‬ ‫احمد‬
  15. 15. Signs and symptomsSigns and symptoms •Obvious sign is kids being much shorter then kids of the same age and gender •Children with pituitary dwarfism have a slow rate of growth •Children of this disorder still have normal intelligence and capabilities
  16. 16. Diagnostic proceduresDiagnostic procedures •blood test for protien markers •Pediatric nurses chart : The growth curve of children with pituitary dwarfism shows no growth or minimal growth.
  17. 17. DiagnosisDiagnosis X-rays to determine bone age can also help with the diagnosis
  18. 18. DiagnosisDiagnosis .MRI of the brain can also be used to view the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
  19. 19. DiagnosisDiagnosis
  20. 20. Treatments • Growth hormone injections.
  21. 21. Treatments .Surgical intervention is another option which may include: -surgical operation on pituitary gland itself. -Bone lenghthining usually on the femur and tibia.
  22. 22. PrognosisPrognosis • Depends on whether there’s any permanent damage and the age of the child • Earlier treated, the better chance child will grow to average adult height • Growth improvement of the injections slowly decrease

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