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Coordination & Response Part 2 - The Endocrine System

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Coordination & Response Part 2 - The Endocrine System

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Coordination & Response Part 2 - The Endocrine System

  1. 1. BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 3 COORDINATION & RESPONSE PART 2
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVESLEARNING OBJECTIVES 3.3 Analysing the role of hormones in humans LEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMES  state what a hormone is,  state what the endocrine system is,  state why the endocrine system is necessary,  state physiological processes not directly regulated by the nervous system,  describe how the endocrine system complements the nervous system,  describe briefly coordination involving both the nervous system and endocrine system, in a “fight or flight” situation  state the effects of hormonal imbalance,  state the use of hormone in medicine
  3. 3. HORMONAL CONTROL: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  4. 4. A chemical communication system is made up of at least two types of cell: one cell: produces & releases the hormone ⇒ message released second cell with receptor: receives message ⇒ target cell activated
  5. 5. Receptors are SPECIFIC
  6. 6. A Gland is:  a structure which secretes a specific chemical substance or substances
  7. 7. A Gland secretes chemicals into: Some other part of the body The bloodstream
  8. 8. Glands in the body are: secrete an enzymesecrete an enzyme into ainto a ductduct  secrete hormonessecrete hormones  have no duct (ductless)have no duct (ductless)  have a rich blood supplyhave a rich blood supply Exocrine gland EndocrineEndocrine glandgland
  9. 9. What is a hormone?  a chemical which is produced by an endocrine gland, travels in the bloodstream and has an effect on the target organ
  10. 10. • The blood stream transports hormones throughout the body. • Each hormone acts on a certain type of tissue called its target tissue.
  11. 11. Endocrine System • Made up of endocrine glands and hormones • The glands are ductless • The glands release hormones directly into the blood stream
  12. 12. Endocrine Glands
  13. 13. Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Ovary Testes Position of the main endocrine glands in the human
  14. 14. Test: Name The Endocrine Organs
  15. 15. The main human endocrine glands and their secretions.
  16. 16. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland – Control much of the endocrine system Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland = master gland because it controls the other endocrine glands
  17. 17. The Pituitary Gland is a small red-grey gland weighs about 0.5g [size of a pea] hangs from the base of the brain by a short stalk is a link between the nervous system and many endocrine glands
  18. 18. Hypothalamus • Controls the pituitary gland • Receives information from the nervous system
  19. 19. The hypothalamus collects information from: 1. other regions of the brain 2. blood vessels passing through it What does the hypothalamus do with this information?
  20. 20. How does the pituitary gland respond? By releasing hormones, which directly or indirectly regulate the activity of all other endocrine glands
  21. 21. What parts of the body does the pituitary gland affect?
  22. 22. • Makes hormones which are stored & released from the posterior pituitary gland • Controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland and HYPOTHALAMUS
  23. 23. The Posterior Pituitary Gland: does not synthesise any hormones but stores and releases two hormones: ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin) Oxytocin
  24. 24. Hypothalamus & Posterior Pituitary Gland
  25. 25. Recap: Hormones are stored in and released from the posterior pituitary are Hypothalamus Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Axon Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary HORMONE ADH Oxytocin TARGET Kidney tubules Mammary glands, uterine muscles 1. ADH 2. OXYTOCIN
  26. 26. Functions of Oxytocin:  contraction of the uterus during birth  ejection of milk from the nipple Target: Uterus & mammary glands
  27. 27. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – Target: kidney – Enhances water reabsorption in in the kidneys
  28. 28. Function of ADH: Increased permeability to water by: Distal convoluted tubule Collecting tubule
  29. 29. Anterior Pituitary Gland – true endocrine gland – Produces both tropic and nontropic hormones Note: Tropic hormones from the hypothalamus control release of hormones from the anterior pituitary
  30. 30. Hormones Released by the Anterior Pituitary:  TSH  ACTH  LH  FSH  Prolactin  Growth Hormone Tropins orTrophic hormones
  31. 31. Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Gland • The four tropic hormones are – Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – Luteinizing hormone (LH) – Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) – Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  32. 32. 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – Target: Gonads – stimulates the development of follicles in ovaries (female) & spermatogenesis (males) Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Gland
  33. 33. 2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) – Target: gonads – controls ovulation, development of the corpus luteum, secretion of oestrogen & progesterone (females) – secretion of testosterone (males) Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Gland
  34. 34. OVULATION
  35. 35. 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) – Target: thyroid gland – Stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Gland
  36. 36. 4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Target: adrenal gland - Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release hormones. Tropic Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Gland
  37. 37. Nontropic Hormones • The nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary include Prolactin • Target: mammary gland • Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals
  38. 38. Nontropic Hormones Growth hormone (GH) • Target: Bones & soft tissues • stimulates the elongation of bones in the body. Growth Hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are important hormones that help you grow. They also keep muscles and bones strong, fat levels down and your energy levels up. GH is produced by the pituitary gland and sent in the blood. GH makes another hormone called IGF-1. This is made all over the body but mostly in the liver.
  39. 39. RECAP
  40. 40. 52 The role of the hypothalamus in regulating the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland HypotHalamus Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary ADH oxytocin Kidney tubules Smooth muscle in the uterus Adrenal cortex Thyroid Ovaries, testes Bones, tissues Mammary glands
  41. 41. GROWTH HORMONE IMBALANCE
  42. 42. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Excess GH during childhood - Gigantism Tallest man 8 feet 11 inches.
  43. 43. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Excess GH as an adult - Agromegaly Hands, bones, feet , cheeks, jaws thicken
  44. 44. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Low GH at childhood-dwarf Under secretion of growth hormone during childhood. Physical growth retarded but mental growth normal
  45. 45. Thyroid Gland • Located in the neck in front of the trachea • Thyroid gland releases iodine-containing hormone thyroxine.
  46. 46. Negative Feed Back Mechanism
  47. 47.  Hyperthyroidism, excessive secretion of thyroxine can cause Graves’ disease in humans Hyperthyroidism 10
  48. 48. Lack of thyroxine during childhood Cretinism - mentally & physically retarded Hypothyroidism During adulthood- Myxedema- Low metabolic rate, sluggish, low heart rate/body temperature.
  49. 49. Hypothyroidism  Goiter  Lack of iodine in diet  enlargement of thyroid gland.
  50. 50. Goiter
  51. 51. Hyperthyroidism  a condition in which the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. The condition is often called overactive thyroid. Symptoms Fatigue Goiter Hair loss Hand tremor Heat intolerance Increased appetite Increased sweating Irregular menstrual periods in women Nervousness Palpitations Restlessness Sleep problems Weight loss (or weight gain)
  52. 52. Adrenal Gland KidneysKidneys Adrenal glandsAdrenal glands• Location: on top of kidney • Hormone: Adrenaline • Function: Raises blood sugar level and increases heart beat and breathing rates.
  53. 53. Cortex Medulla Two regions in the adrenal glands: • made up of two glands: the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex
  54. 54. ADRENAL GLAND • Adrenal medulla - secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline *Adrenaline prepares body in a fight /flight (Increases the blood sugar level, heart & respiratory rate, metabolic rate, constricts blood vessels. • Adrenal cortex - secretes aldosterone Aldosterone controls reabsorption of sodium ions in the kidneys.
  55. 55. Adrenaline, the emergency hormone
  56. 56. Adrenaline prepares the body for action Muscles need ENERGY to contract!!Muscles need ENERGY to contract!!
  57. 57. Which process releases energy? glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy glucose oxygen muscle energy How can MORE glucose + oxygen reach the muscle?
  58. 58. Effects of adrenaline Heart beat increases Breathing rate increases
  59. 59. Effects of adrenaline  Arteries to muscles widen What is the effect of this?
  60. 60. 5 litres of blood in an adult If more blood flows to muscles less must flow to other organs. Which?
  61. 61. Gut & Skin get less blood  As arteries narrow A person becomes pale when afraid. Why?
  62. 62. Glycogen Glucose in the blood increases Glycogen is converted to glucose Effects of adrenaline
  63. 63. The pancreas:  is described as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland because: Produces both enzymes and hormones.  is richly supplied with blood: to carry hormones towards the target organs
  64. 64. Islets of Langerhans • Location: Pancreas • Produces Hormones: Insulin & Glucagon
  65. 65. Pancreas  Glucagon  Is produced by alpha cells  Converts glycogen to glucose  Insulin  Is produced by beta cells  Converts glucose to glycogen
  66. 66.  Insulin lowers blood glucose by increasing the rate of glucose uptake and utilization  Glucagon raises blood glucose by increasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose manufacture by the liver Insulin and glucagon
  67. 67. Control of blood sugar
  68. 68. Diabetes Melitus • Undersecretion of insulin. • High blood sugar
  69. 69. Question: Give a biological explanation for the following situation: A diabetic person received an insulin shot after intake of a meal rich in carbohydrates. (2) A diabetic person does not produce insulin. The insulin injected helps the person to reduce the sugar level in the blood back to normal.
  70. 70. Ovary • Hormone: Oestrogen Function: Develop secondary sexual characteristics in females. • Hormone: Progesterone Function: thickening of endometrium wall for implantation of foetus
  71. 71. Testes • Hormone: Testosterone • Function: 1. Stimulate sperm production (spermatogenesis) 2. Development of secondary sexual characteristics
  72. 72. Negative feedback control:  produces an effect which is the opposite of what has been happening before  e.g. if body temperature rises, sweat is produced to cool it down  is important to keep conditions constant in the body
  73. 73. Control of blood sugar as an example of: N O R M E x c e s s D e f ic ie n c y C o r r e c tiv e m e c h a n is m C o r r e c tiv e m e c h a n is m N O R M N e g a tiv e f e e d b a c k N e g a tiv e f e e d b a c k
  74. 74. Differences between nervous and endocrine co-ordination. Nervous Chemical Information passes as electrical impulses along nerve fibres Information passes as a chemical substance through the bloodstream Rapid transmission Slow transmission Response is immediate Response is usually slow e.g. growth Response is short-lived Response is long-lasting Response is very exact Response is usually widespread
  75. 75. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Testosterone causes an increase in muscle and bone mass – And is often taken as a supplement to cause muscle growth, which carries many health risks Figure 45.14
  76. 76. HORMONES IN MEDICINE  Insulin injection for treatment of diabetes mellitus  Growth hormone for treatment of dwarfism  Thyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism
  77. 77. Summary A hormone is a chemical messenger with the following properties: it travels in the blood; it has an effect at a site different from the site where it is made, called the target;
  78. 78. Summary it fits precisely into receptor molecules in the target like a key in a lock – it is therefore specific for a particular target; it is a small soluble organic molecule; it is effective in low concentrations.
  79. 79. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM THE END
  80. 80. THE END

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