SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 66
 Study of hormones secreted by ductless
glands( endocrine glands) is called
endocrinology.
 The functions of the body are regulated by
two systems;
 1: the nervous system
 2: the endocrine system
 These two systems have interrelationship
with each other, for instance nervous system
stimulates hormonal secretions by endocrine
glands
 A hormone is a chemical substance that is
secreted into the body fluids by one cell or a
group of cells and has a physiological control
effect on other cells of the body.
 It is purified and identified as a distinct
chemical compound.
 Factor;
 A substance that has actions of a hormone
but that has not been identified as a distinct
chemical compound and is not purified is
called a Factor
 Hormone does not act on the target cell
directly.
 It combines with receptor to form hormone-
receptor complex.
 This complex executes the hormonal action
by any one of the following mechanisms:
 1. By altering permeability of cell membrane
 2. By activating intracellular enzyme
 3. By acting on genes
 There are 10 endocrine glands in the body.
 1: Pituitary gland
 2: Thyroid gland
 3: Parathyroid glands
 4: Adrenal gland
 5: Pancreas (islets of Langerhan cells)
 6: Ovaries
 7: Testes
 8: Placenta
 9: Thymus (if present) gland
 10: Pineal gland
 Pituitary gland or hypophysis is a small
endocrine gland with a diameter of 1 cm and
weight of 0.5 to 1 g.
 It is situated in a depression called ‘sella
turcica’, present in the sphenoid bone at the
base of skull.
 It is connected with the hypothalamus by the
pituitary stalk or hypophyseal stalk.
 Pituitary gland is divided into two divisions:
 1. Anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
 2. Posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis.
 Both the divisions are situated close to each
other.
 Still both are entirely different in their
development, structure and function.
 Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Relationship
 The relationship between hypothalamus and
pituitary gland is called Hypothalamo-
hypophyseal relationship.
 Hormones secreted by hypothalamus are
transported to anterior pituitary and posterior
pituitary.
 Hormones from hypothalamus are
transported to anterior pituitary through
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood
vessels
 The hormones from hypothalamus to
 Hypothalamus controls anterior pituitary by
secreting the releasing and inhibitory
hormones/factors, which are called
neurohormones.
 These hormones from hypothalamus are
transported to anterior pituitary through
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract blood
vessels.
 There are 6 releasing and inhibitory
hormones or factors from hypothalamus that
control the secretions of anterior pituitary;
 Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH),
causes release of GH.
 Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH),
causes inhibition of GH.
 Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), causes
secretion of TSH which causes the secretion
of thyroid hormones
 Prolactin inhibitory hormone (PIH), controls
secretion of prolactin
 Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH),
controls secretion of ACTH
 Leutinizing hormone releasing hormone
(Adrenal gland)
 It is also called somatotropic hormone
 ACTIONS OF GH:
 GH acts via somatomedins which are insulin
like growth factors (IGF I) formed by liver.
 Direct actions:
 1. decrease glucose uptake by tissues. Hence
GH is diabetogenic because it increases
glucose levels in blood
 2. increase lipolysis
 3. increase protein synthesis in muscle and
increase lean body mass
 4. increase production of IGF-I by liver
 Indirect actions via IGF-I:
 Increase protein synthesis in chondrocytes
and increase in linear (pubertal growth)
 Increase protein synthesis in muscle and
increase lean body mass
 Increase protein synthesis in most organs and
increase organ size.
 Secretion of GH is controlled by GHRH and GHIH from
hypothalamus via negative feedback mechanism
 Hypothalamus and feedback mechanism play an
important role in the regulation of GH secretion
 GH secretion is stimulated by:
 1. Hypoglycemia
 2. Fasting
 3. Starvation
 4. Exercise
 5. Stress and trauma
 6. Initial stages of sleep.
 GH secretion is inhibited by:
 1. Hyperglycemia
 2. Increase in free fatty acids in blood
 3. Later stages of sleep.
 1. Gigantism
 Gigantism is the pituitary disorder
characterized by excess growth of the body
 The subjects look like the giants with average
height of about 7 to 8 feet.
 Causes
 Gigantism is due to hypersecretion of GH in
childhood or in pre-adult life before the
fusion of epiphysis of bone with shaft.
 Hypersecretion of GH is because of tumor of
 acidophil cells in the anterior pituitary.
 Signs and symptoms
 i. General overgrowth of the person leads to
the development of a huge stature, with a
height of more than 7 or 8 feet. The limbs are
disproportionately long
 ii. Giants are hyperglycemic
 iii. Tumor of the pituitary gland itself causes
constant headache
 iv. Pituitary tumor also causes visual
disturbances. It compresses the lateral fibers
of optic chiasma.
 2. Acromegaly
 Acromegaly is the disorder characterized by
the enlargement, thickening and broadening
of bones, particularly in the extremities of the
body.
 Causes
 Acromegaly is due to hypersecretion of GH in
adults after the fusion of epiphysis with shaft
of the bone.
 Hypersecretion of GH is because of tumor of
acidophil cells in the anterior pituitary
 Signs and symptoms
 i. Acromegalic or gorilla face: Face with rough features such as
protrusion of supraorbital ridges, broadening of nose, thickening
of lips, thickening and wrinkles formation on forehead and
prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw)
 ii. Enlargement of hands and feet
 iii. Kyphosis (extreme curvature of upper back – thoracic spine)
 iv. Thickening of scalp. Scalp is also thrown into folds or wrinkles
like bulldog scalp
 v. Overgrowth of body hair
 vi. Enlargement of tongue and visceral organs such as lungs,
thymus, heart, liver and spleen
 vii. Hyperactivity of thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands
 viii. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria, resulting in diabetes mellitus
 ix. Hypertension
 x. Headache
 xi. Visual disturbance
 Treatment:
 Surgical Removal of the tumor
 But difficult to treat.
 1. Dwarfism
 Dwarfism is a pituitary disorder in children,
characterized by the stunted growth.
 Causes
 Reduction in GH secretion in infancy or early
childhood causes dwarfism.
 Causes:
 Congenital
 Inflammation of anterior pituitary gland
 Trauma to anterior pituitary gland
 Signs and symptoms:
 Body growth is proportionate but rate of
growth is slow
 Primary symptom of hypopituitarism in
children is the stunted skeletal growth.
 The maximum height of anterior pituitary
dwarf at the adult age is only about 3 feet
 ii. But the proportions of different parts of the
body are almost normal. Only the head
becomes slightly larger in relation to the
body
 iii. Pituitary dwarfs do not show any deformity
 Treatment:
 human growth hormone by recombinant
DNA technology
 Posterior pituitary hormones are:
 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
 2. Oxytocin.
 Actually, the posterior pituitary does not
secrete any hormone.
 ADH and oxytocin are synthesized in the
hypothalamus.
 From hypothalamus, these two hormones are
transported to the posterior pituitary through
the nerve fibers of hypothalamo-hypophyseal
tract
 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted
mainly by supraoptic nucleus of
hypothalamus.
 From here, this hormone is transported to
posterior pituitary through the nerve fibers of
hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, by means of
axonic flow.
 Actions:
 Increase water permeability of the late distal
convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of
the kidney and increase water reabsorption
from kidneys back into blood hence increases
 Diabetes Insipidus (DI):
 It is a disease characterized by passage of
excess water in urine due to deficiency of
ADH.
 Causes:
 Destruction of supraoptic nucleus
 Tumor of hypothalamus
 Types:
 Central DI:
 There is absolute deficiency of ADH
 Nephrogenic DI:
 Quantity of ADH is normal but kidneys are
 Signs and symptoms:
 Polyuria: increase urination
 Polydipsia: increase water intake
 Treatment:
 By injecting ADH suspended in oil
 Oxytocin is secreted mainly by
paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus
 It is transported from hypothalamus to
posterior pituitary through the nerve fibers of
hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.
 Actions:
 1: Contraction of myoepithelial cells in the
breast causes milk ejection in lactating
breasts
 2: Causes powerful uterine contractions
towards the end of gestation and helps in
parturition(delivery)
 Thyroid is an endocrine gland situated at the
root of the neck on either side of the trachea.
It has two lobes, which are connected in the
middle by an isthmus
 It weighs about 20 to 40 g in adults.
 Thyroid is larger in females than in males.
 HORMONES OF THYROID GLAND
 Thyroid gland (follicles) secretes three
hormones:
 1. Tetraiodothyronine or T4 (thyroxine)
 2. Tri-iodothyronine or T3
 3. Calcitonin. Secreted by para follicular cells
of thyroid gland
 T4 is otherwise known as thyroxine and it
forms about 90% of the total secretion,
whereas T3 is only 9% to 10%.
 Both T4 and T3 are iodine-containing
derivatives of amino acid tyrosine.
 REGULATION OF SECRETION OF THYROID
HORMONES
 Secretion of thyroid hormones is controlled
by anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
through feedback mechanism via TSH.
 Thyroid hormones have two major effects on
the body:
 I. To increase basal metabolic rate
 II. To stimulate growth in children.
 1. ACTION ON BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)
 It increases BMR by increasing the oxygen
consumption of the tissues.
 The action that increases the BMR is called
calorigenic action
 2. ACTION ON PROTEIN METABOLISM
 Thyroid hormone increases the synthesis of
proteins in the cells.
 The protein synthesis is accelerated by the
following ways:
 i. By Increasing the Translation of RNA
 ii. By Increasing the Transcription of DNA to
RNA
 iii. By Increasing the Activity of Mitochondria
 iv. By Increasing the Activity of Cellular
Enzymes
 3. ACTION ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
 Thyroxine stimulates almost all processes
involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate.
 Thyroxine:
 i. Increases the absorption of glucose from GI
 tract
 ii. Enhances the glucose uptake by the cells,
by accelerating the transport of glucose
through the cell membrane
 iii. Increases the breakdown of glycogen into
glucose
 iv. Accelerates gluconeogenesis.
 5. ACTION ON BODY TEMPERATURE
 Thyroid hormone increases the heat
production in the body, by accelerating
various cellular metabolic processes. and
increasing BMR. It is called thyroid hormone
induced thermogenesis.
 6. ACTION ON GROWTH
 Thyroid hormones have general and specific
effects on growth.
 Increase in thyroxine secretion accelerates
the growth of the body, especially in growing
children.
 Thyroxine is more important to promote
growth and development of brain during fetal
life and first few years of postnatal life
 Deficiency of thyroid hormones during this
period leads to mental retardation.
 7. ACTION ON BODY WEIGHT
 Thyroxine is essential for maintaining the
body weight.
 Increase in thyroxine secretion decreases the
body weight and fat storage.
 Decrease in thyroxine secretion increases the
body weight because of fat deposition
 8. ACTION ON BLOOD
 Thyroxine accelerates erythropoietic activity
and increases blood volume.
 It is one of the important general factors
necessary for erythropoiesis
 9. ACTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
 Thyroxine increases the overall activity of
cardiovascular system.
 i. On Heart Rate
 Thyroxine acts directly on heart and increases
the heart rate.
 ii. On the Force of Contraction of the Heart
 iii. On Blood Vessels
 Thyroxine causes vasodilatation by increasing
the metabolic activities.
 iv. On Arterial Blood Pressure
 Because of increase in rate and force of
contraction of the heart, increase in blood
volume and blood flow by the influence of
thyroxine, cardiac output increases.
 This in turn, increases the blood pressure.
 10. ACTION ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
 Thyroxine is very essential for the
development and maintenance of normal
 11. ACTION ON RESPIRATION
 Thyroxine increases the rate and force of
respiration indirectly.
 12. ACTION ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
 Generally, thyroxine increases the appetite
and food intake.
 It also increases the secretions and
movements of GI tract.
 13. ACTION ON SKELETAL MUSCLE
 Thyroxine is essential for the normal activity
of skeletal muscles.
 Slight increase in thyroxine level makes the
 15. ACTION ON SEXUAL FUNCTION
 Normal thyroxine level is essential for normal
sexual function.
 In men, hypothyroidism leads to complete
loss of libido (sexual drive) and
hyperthyroidism leads to impotence.
 Hyperthyroidism
 Due to increased
secretions of
thyroid hormones
 Causes:
 Grave’s Disease
 Thyroid Tumors
 Hypothyroidism
 Due to decreased
secretion of thyroid
hormones
 Causes:
 Decrease
iodine(required for
thyroid hormone
synthesis
 Destruction of
thyroid galnd which
 Symptoms:
 Increase metabolic rate
 Weight loss
 Increased heat
production(sweating)
 Increase cardiac output
 Dyspnea(difficulty in
breathing)
 Mental alertness
 Tremors
 exophthlamos (outward
bulging of eyeballs)
 Diarrhea (hypermotility of
GIT)
 Increased menstruation
 Symptoms
 decrease metabolic rate
 Weight gain
 Decreased heat production
 Decreased cardiac output
 Hypoventilation
 Lethargy, mental slowness
 Drooping of eyelids
 Growth and mental
retardation
 constipation (hypomotility
of GIT
 Scanty too little
menstruation
 TSH levels :
 Decreased because
of negative feedback
inhibition by high
thyroid hormone
levels
 Treatment:
 Propylthiouracil(anti-
thyroid drugs)
inhibits the synthesis
of thyroid hormone
 Thyroidectomy
 TSH levels:
 Increased because of
decreased negative
feedback inhibition
by low thyroid
hormone levels
 Treatment:
 Thyroid hormone
replacement
 Cretinism is the hypothyroidism in children,
characterized by stunted growth.
 Causes for cretinism
 Cretinism occurs due to congenital absence of
thyroid gland, genetic disorder or lack of iodine in
the diet.
 Signs and symptoms:
 a few weeks after birth, the baby starts developing
the signs like
 sluggish movements
 croaking sound while crying.
 Unless treated immediately, the baby will be mentally
retarded permanently
 Skeletal growth is more affected than the soft
tissues. So, there is stunted growth with
bloated body.
 The tongue becomes so big that it hangs
down with dripping of saliva.
 The big tongue obstructs swallowing and
breathing.
 The tongue produces characteristic guttural
breathing that may sometimes choke the
baby.
 Cretin Vs dwarf
 A cretin is different from pituitary dwarf. In
cretinism, there is mental retardation and the
different parts of the body are
disproportionate.
 Whereas, in dwarfism, the development of
nervous system is normal and the parts of the
body are proportionate
 The reproductive function is affected in
cretinism but it may be normal in dwarfism.
 Myxedema is the hypothyroidism in adults,
characterized by generalized edematous
appearance.
 Causes for myxedema
 Myxedema occurs due to
 Diseases of thyroid gland,
 Genetic disorder
 Iodine deficiency.
 It is also caused by deficiency of thyroid-
stimulating hormone or thyrotropin-releasing
hormone.
 Signs and symptoms of myxedema
 Typical feature of this disorder is an edematous
appearance throughout the body. It is associated with
the following symptoms:
 1. Swelling of the face
 2. Bagginess under the eyes
 3. Non-pitting type of edema, i.e. when pressed, it
does not make pits and the edema is hard.
 4. Atherosclerosis: It is the hardening of the walls of
arteries because of accumulation of fat deposits and
other substances. In myxedema, it occurs because of
increased plasma level of cholesterol which leads to
deposition of cholesterol on the walls of the arteries
leading to hypertension
 Human beings have four parathyroid glands,
which are situated on the posterior surface of
upper and lower poles of thyroid gland
 Parathyroid glands are very small in size,
measuring about 6 mm long, 3 mm wide and
2 mm thick, with dark brown color.
 PARATHORMONE
 Parathormone secreted by parathyroid gland
is essential for the maintenance of blood
calcium level.
 Maintenance of blood calcium level is
necessary because calcium is an important
inorganic ion for many physiological
functions
 Actions of Parathormone:
 Increases serum calcium levels and decreases
serum phosphate levels.
 Increases bone resorption so that calcium
and phosphate are transported from bone
mineral into extracellular fluid.
 Increases calcium reabsorption in kidneys so
that serum calcium levels are increased
 Decreases phosphate reabsorption in kidneys
so that phosphate is excreted and serum
phosphate levels are decreased
 Hyperparathyroidism:
 It is most commonly caused by tumor
 Hypercalcemia
 Hypophosphatemia
 Increase bone resorption and weakening of
bones
 Hypoparathyroidism
 It is most commonly caused by thyroid surgery or
it is congenital
 Hypocalcemia resulting in tetany
 Hyperphosphatemia
lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm

More Related Content

Similar to lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxAditibarman2
 
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxPITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxFatimaSundus1
 
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxMsSapnaSapna
 
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptx
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptxENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptx
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptxthabassumparakkal
 
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxpituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxfatimakhan2112
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland cutiepie39
 
Hormones Released by Pituitary Gland
Hormones Released by Pituitary GlandHormones Released by Pituitary Gland
Hormones Released by Pituitary GlandHashim Ali
 
Chemical coordination and integration
Chemical coordination and integrationChemical coordination and integration
Chemical coordination and integrationBhavya Vashisht
 
Endocrine System.pdf
Endocrine System.pdfEndocrine System.pdf
Endocrine System.pdfSaqibShaik2
 
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptx
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptxEndocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptx
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptxNwaOsman
 
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptx
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptxH6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptx
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptxRCGaur1
 
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........kkean6089
 
Endocrine system pituitary gland
Endocrine system  pituitary glandEndocrine system  pituitary gland
Endocrine system pituitary glandSuprabha Panda
 

Similar to lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm (20)

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
 
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptxPITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
PITUITARY HORMONES.pptx
 
Pituitary hormones and their
Pituitary hormones and theirPituitary hormones and their
Pituitary hormones and their
 
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptxENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.pptx
 
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptx
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptxENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptx
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS BY TABZ.pptx
 
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptxpituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
pituitaryhormonesandtheir-150813193150-lva1-app6892.pptx
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary glandPitutary gland
Pitutary gland
 
Endocrine system
Endocrine systemEndocrine system
Endocrine system
 
Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland Pitutary gland
Pitutary gland
 
Hormones Released by Pituitary Gland
Hormones Released by Pituitary GlandHormones Released by Pituitary Gland
Hormones Released by Pituitary Gland
 
Chemical coordination and integration
Chemical coordination and integrationChemical coordination and integration
Chemical coordination and integration
 
pituitary Gland
pituitary Glandpituitary Gland
pituitary Gland
 
Endocrine System.pdf
Endocrine System.pdfEndocrine System.pdf
Endocrine System.pdf
 
Endocrine ppt
Endocrine pptEndocrine ppt
Endocrine ppt
 
pitutiary gland.pptx
pitutiary gland.pptxpitutiary gland.pptx
pitutiary gland.pptx
 
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary GlandPituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland
 
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptx
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptxEndocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptx
Endocrine system-L2,2023-2024_fb1bfd996440c2f5d64b10963ba500eb.pptx
 
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptx
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptxH6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptx
H6fTPfjkWhP66de354.pptx
 
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........
ENDOCRINOLOGY NOTES BY KELVIN KEAN.........
 
Endocrine system pituitary gland
Endocrine system  pituitary glandEndocrine system  pituitary gland
Endocrine system pituitary gland
 

More from RawalRafiqLeghari

sleep pattern (1).pdf....................
sleep pattern (1).pdf....................sleep pattern (1).pdf....................
sleep pattern (1).pdf....................RawalRafiqLeghari
 
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkk
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkkchn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkk
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeok
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeokSpinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeok
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeokRawalRafiqLeghari
 
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkj
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkjEnglish 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkj
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkjRawalRafiqLeghari
 
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllllRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkii
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkiiUrinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkii
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkiiRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkReproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkk
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkkUnit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkk
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptx
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptxunit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptx
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptxRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777RawalRafiqLeghari
 
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkw
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkwLoss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkw
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkwRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjj
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjjSelf Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjj
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjjRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkk
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkkAssessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkk
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999RawalRafiqLeghari
 
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkk
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkkConcept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkk
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkk
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkkBlood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkk
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkkRawalRafiqLeghari
 
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdf
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdfINTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdf
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdfRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptx
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptxUnit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptx
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptxRawalRafiqLeghari
 
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkf
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkfDiabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkf
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkfRawalRafiqLeghari
 

More from RawalRafiqLeghari (20)

sleep pattern (1).pdf....................
sleep pattern (1).pdf....................sleep pattern (1).pdf....................
sleep pattern (1).pdf....................
 
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkk
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkkchn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkk
chn portfolio by alam khan.pptnjjjkkkkkkkkk
 
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeok
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeokSpinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeok
Spinal cord inj ppt copy copy.pptxkokekeok
 
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
20160813_ANLS_王孝為.pptxnkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
 
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkj
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkjEnglish 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkj
English 1 p.mcqs.pdfnnnnnnnnjnnjjjjjjjjkj
 
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll
3.Cell _ Tissues.pptxmmmmmmkkkkllllllllll
 
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkii
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkiiUrinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkii
Urinary elimination.pptxmmmmmmkmkkkkkkkii
 
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkReproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
Reproductive disorders.pptxkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk
 
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkk
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkkUnit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkk
Unit_11._hospitalization.pptxnnkkkkkkkkkk
 
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptx
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptxunit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptx
unit. 07 Care of child & family during hospitalization.pptx
 
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777
Arrhythmias copy.pptxyyyy677777777777777777
 
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkw
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkwLoss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkw
Loss, grief, aand death (1).pptxsjjsnskwkskwwkwkwkwkwkw
 
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjj
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjjSelf Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjj
Self Concept Self Perception.pptxjjjjjjjj
 
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkk
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkkAssessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkk
Assessment of Elderly client.pptxjjjjkkkkk
 
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999
Unit.5 d. food_sanitation.pptuuúiii888999999
 
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkk
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkkConcept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkk
Concept of Nutrition & Dietary.pdfkkkkkkk
 
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkk
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkkBlood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkk
Blood Sugar Presentation.pptxjjkkkkkkkkkkk
 
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdf
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdfINTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdf
INTRODUCTION-TO-COMMUNITY-B.SC-II-YR-CHN (3).pdf
 
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptx
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptxUnit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptx
Unit #03 Pre school child(2-5 years).pptx
 
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkf
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkfDiabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkf
Diabetes_mellitus-16-12-14 copy.pdmkkkkkkkf
 

Recently uploaded

日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作
日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作
日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作aecnsnzk
 
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
what is the importance of work immersion
what is the importance of work immersionwhat is the importance of work immersion
what is the importance of work immersionIssaMuana
 
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting 10 Perak Magnumtogel
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting  10 Perak MagnumtogelPrediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting  10 Perak Magnumtogel
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting 10 Perak Magnumtogeltok dalang
 
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作7tz4rjpd
 
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptx
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptxFood vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptx
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptxAndreaMarcelaMendezS
 
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdf
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdfHACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdf
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdfHananZayed4
 
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culture
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culturepitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culture
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland CultureChloeMeadows1
 
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THAT
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THATFUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THAT
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THATBHIKHUKUMAR KUNWARADIYA
 
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdf
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdfCustom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdf
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdfGreen Refrigeration LLC
 
pathology questions for studying and notes
pathology questions for studying and notespathology questions for studying and notes
pathology questions for studying and notesAnaAbuladze7
 
Planning your Restaurant's Path to Profitability
Planning your Restaurant's Path to ProfitabilityPlanning your Restaurant's Path to Profitability
Planning your Restaurant's Path to ProfitabilityAggregage
 
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFV
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFVnutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFV
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFVFarhanaNoor12
 
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultryInsect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultryHarshRahan
 
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummiesGum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummiesSriSiri11
 
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?Ang Chong Yi Singapore
 
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experience
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experienceDubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experience
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experiencecouponzguruuae
 
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetables
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetablesHydroponic nutrient solution for vegetables
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetablesZareenRijwanaMOULY
 
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdf
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdfFuture Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdf
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdfSKUASTKashmir
 
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girls
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call GirlsAbu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girls
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girlstiril72860
 

Recently uploaded (20)

日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作
日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作
日本学位记,筑波大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...
NO1 WorldWide kala jadu Love Marriage Black Magic Punjab Powerful Black Magic...
 
what is the importance of work immersion
what is the importance of work immersionwhat is the importance of work immersion
what is the importance of work immersion
 
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting 10 Perak Magnumtogel
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting  10 Perak MagnumtogelPrediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting  10 Perak Magnumtogel
Prediksi Angka BBFS 10 Digit Betting 10 Perak Magnumtogel
 
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作
韩国学位证,全北大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptx
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptxFood vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptx
Food vocabulary, countable and uncountable nouns; quantifiers.pptx
 
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdf
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdfHACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdf
HACCP Check list for practicing HACCP.pdf
 
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culture
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culturepitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culture
pitch presentation B2.pptx Sunderland Culture
 
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THAT
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THATFUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THAT
FUTURISTIC FOOD PRODUCTS OFTEN INVOLVE INNOVATIONS THAT
 
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdf
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdfCustom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdf
Custom Wine Cellars by Green Refrigeration LLC.pdf
 
pathology questions for studying and notes
pathology questions for studying and notespathology questions for studying and notes
pathology questions for studying and notes
 
Planning your Restaurant's Path to Profitability
Planning your Restaurant's Path to ProfitabilityPlanning your Restaurant's Path to Profitability
Planning your Restaurant's Path to Profitability
 
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFV
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFVnutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFV
nutrient-management-of-corn.pptxSfklavFV
 
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultryInsect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry
Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry
 
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummiesGum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies
Gum-jellie zds.pdf slide presentation gummies
 
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?
How Ang Chong Yi Singapore is serving up sustainable future-ready foods?
 
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experience
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experienceDubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experience
Dubai's Food and Discount Deals - A culinary experience
 
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetables
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetablesHydroponic nutrient solution for vegetables
Hydroponic nutrient solution for vegetables
 
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdf
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdfFuture Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdf
Future Ready Agriculture- 01-10-2023.pdf
 
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girls
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call GirlsAbu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girls
Abu Dhabi Housewife Call Girls +971509530047 Abu Dhabi Call Girls
 

lec 1 endonmkkkldkdlswfjfjkdkekdmdmdmdmm

  • 1.
  • 2.  Study of hormones secreted by ductless glands( endocrine glands) is called endocrinology.  The functions of the body are regulated by two systems;  1: the nervous system  2: the endocrine system  These two systems have interrelationship with each other, for instance nervous system stimulates hormonal secretions by endocrine glands
  • 3.  A hormone is a chemical substance that is secreted into the body fluids by one cell or a group of cells and has a physiological control effect on other cells of the body.  It is purified and identified as a distinct chemical compound.  Factor;  A substance that has actions of a hormone but that has not been identified as a distinct chemical compound and is not purified is called a Factor
  • 4.
  • 5.  Hormone does not act on the target cell directly.  It combines with receptor to form hormone- receptor complex.  This complex executes the hormonal action by any one of the following mechanisms:  1. By altering permeability of cell membrane  2. By activating intracellular enzyme  3. By acting on genes
  • 6.  There are 10 endocrine glands in the body.  1: Pituitary gland  2: Thyroid gland  3: Parathyroid glands  4: Adrenal gland  5: Pancreas (islets of Langerhan cells)  6: Ovaries  7: Testes  8: Placenta  9: Thymus (if present) gland  10: Pineal gland
  • 7.
  • 8.  Pituitary gland or hypophysis is a small endocrine gland with a diameter of 1 cm and weight of 0.5 to 1 g.  It is situated in a depression called ‘sella turcica’, present in the sphenoid bone at the base of skull.  It is connected with the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk or hypophyseal stalk.
  • 9.  Pituitary gland is divided into two divisions:  1. Anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis  2. Posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis.  Both the divisions are situated close to each other.  Still both are entirely different in their development, structure and function.
  • 10.  Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Relationship  The relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland is called Hypothalamo- hypophyseal relationship.  Hormones secreted by hypothalamus are transported to anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary.  Hormones from hypothalamus are transported to anterior pituitary through Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood vessels  The hormones from hypothalamus to
  • 11.  Hypothalamus controls anterior pituitary by secreting the releasing and inhibitory hormones/factors, which are called neurohormones.  These hormones from hypothalamus are transported to anterior pituitary through Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract blood vessels.  There are 6 releasing and inhibitory hormones or factors from hypothalamus that control the secretions of anterior pituitary;
  • 12.  Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), causes release of GH.  Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH), causes inhibition of GH.  Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), causes secretion of TSH which causes the secretion of thyroid hormones  Prolactin inhibitory hormone (PIH), controls secretion of prolactin  Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), controls secretion of ACTH  Leutinizing hormone releasing hormone
  • 14.
  • 15.  It is also called somatotropic hormone  ACTIONS OF GH:  GH acts via somatomedins which are insulin like growth factors (IGF I) formed by liver.  Direct actions:  1. decrease glucose uptake by tissues. Hence GH is diabetogenic because it increases glucose levels in blood  2. increase lipolysis  3. increase protein synthesis in muscle and increase lean body mass  4. increase production of IGF-I by liver
  • 16.  Indirect actions via IGF-I:  Increase protein synthesis in chondrocytes and increase in linear (pubertal growth)  Increase protein synthesis in muscle and increase lean body mass  Increase protein synthesis in most organs and increase organ size.
  • 17.  Secretion of GH is controlled by GHRH and GHIH from hypothalamus via negative feedback mechanism  Hypothalamus and feedback mechanism play an important role in the regulation of GH secretion  GH secretion is stimulated by:  1. Hypoglycemia  2. Fasting  3. Starvation  4. Exercise  5. Stress and trauma  6. Initial stages of sleep.  GH secretion is inhibited by:  1. Hyperglycemia  2. Increase in free fatty acids in blood  3. Later stages of sleep.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.  1. Gigantism  Gigantism is the pituitary disorder characterized by excess growth of the body  The subjects look like the giants with average height of about 7 to 8 feet.  Causes  Gigantism is due to hypersecretion of GH in childhood or in pre-adult life before the fusion of epiphysis of bone with shaft.  Hypersecretion of GH is because of tumor of  acidophil cells in the anterior pituitary.
  • 21.  Signs and symptoms  i. General overgrowth of the person leads to the development of a huge stature, with a height of more than 7 or 8 feet. The limbs are disproportionately long  ii. Giants are hyperglycemic  iii. Tumor of the pituitary gland itself causes constant headache  iv. Pituitary tumor also causes visual disturbances. It compresses the lateral fibers of optic chiasma.
  • 22.  2. Acromegaly  Acromegaly is the disorder characterized by the enlargement, thickening and broadening of bones, particularly in the extremities of the body.  Causes  Acromegaly is due to hypersecretion of GH in adults after the fusion of epiphysis with shaft of the bone.  Hypersecretion of GH is because of tumor of acidophil cells in the anterior pituitary
  • 23.  Signs and symptoms  i. Acromegalic or gorilla face: Face with rough features such as protrusion of supraorbital ridges, broadening of nose, thickening of lips, thickening and wrinkles formation on forehead and prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw)  ii. Enlargement of hands and feet  iii. Kyphosis (extreme curvature of upper back – thoracic spine)  iv. Thickening of scalp. Scalp is also thrown into folds or wrinkles like bulldog scalp  v. Overgrowth of body hair  vi. Enlargement of tongue and visceral organs such as lungs, thymus, heart, liver and spleen  vii. Hyperactivity of thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands  viii. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria, resulting in diabetes mellitus  ix. Hypertension  x. Headache  xi. Visual disturbance
  • 24.  Treatment:  Surgical Removal of the tumor  But difficult to treat.
  • 25.
  • 26.  1. Dwarfism  Dwarfism is a pituitary disorder in children, characterized by the stunted growth.  Causes  Reduction in GH secretion in infancy or early childhood causes dwarfism.  Causes:  Congenital  Inflammation of anterior pituitary gland  Trauma to anterior pituitary gland
  • 27.  Signs and symptoms:  Body growth is proportionate but rate of growth is slow  Primary symptom of hypopituitarism in children is the stunted skeletal growth.  The maximum height of anterior pituitary dwarf at the adult age is only about 3 feet  ii. But the proportions of different parts of the body are almost normal. Only the head becomes slightly larger in relation to the body  iii. Pituitary dwarfs do not show any deformity
  • 28.  Treatment:  human growth hormone by recombinant DNA technology
  • 29.
  • 30.  Posterior pituitary hormones are:  1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin  2. Oxytocin.  Actually, the posterior pituitary does not secrete any hormone.  ADH and oxytocin are synthesized in the hypothalamus.  From hypothalamus, these two hormones are transported to the posterior pituitary through the nerve fibers of hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
  • 31.  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted mainly by supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus.  From here, this hormone is transported to posterior pituitary through the nerve fibers of hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, by means of axonic flow.  Actions:  Increase water permeability of the late distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney and increase water reabsorption from kidneys back into blood hence increases
  • 32.  Diabetes Insipidus (DI):  It is a disease characterized by passage of excess water in urine due to deficiency of ADH.  Causes:  Destruction of supraoptic nucleus  Tumor of hypothalamus  Types:  Central DI:  There is absolute deficiency of ADH  Nephrogenic DI:  Quantity of ADH is normal but kidneys are
  • 33.  Signs and symptoms:  Polyuria: increase urination  Polydipsia: increase water intake  Treatment:  By injecting ADH suspended in oil
  • 34.  Oxytocin is secreted mainly by paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus  It is transported from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary through the nerve fibers of hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.  Actions:  1: Contraction of myoepithelial cells in the breast causes milk ejection in lactating breasts  2: Causes powerful uterine contractions towards the end of gestation and helps in parturition(delivery)
  • 35.
  • 36.  Thyroid is an endocrine gland situated at the root of the neck on either side of the trachea. It has two lobes, which are connected in the middle by an isthmus  It weighs about 20 to 40 g in adults.  Thyroid is larger in females than in males.
  • 37.
  • 38.  HORMONES OF THYROID GLAND  Thyroid gland (follicles) secretes three hormones:  1. Tetraiodothyronine or T4 (thyroxine)  2. Tri-iodothyronine or T3  3. Calcitonin. Secreted by para follicular cells of thyroid gland  T4 is otherwise known as thyroxine and it forms about 90% of the total secretion, whereas T3 is only 9% to 10%.
  • 39.  Both T4 and T3 are iodine-containing derivatives of amino acid tyrosine.  REGULATION OF SECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES  Secretion of thyroid hormones is controlled by anterior pituitary and hypothalamus through feedback mechanism via TSH.
  • 40.
  • 41.  Thyroid hormones have two major effects on the body:  I. To increase basal metabolic rate  II. To stimulate growth in children.  1. ACTION ON BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)  It increases BMR by increasing the oxygen consumption of the tissues.  The action that increases the BMR is called calorigenic action
  • 42.  2. ACTION ON PROTEIN METABOLISM  Thyroid hormone increases the synthesis of proteins in the cells.  The protein synthesis is accelerated by the following ways:  i. By Increasing the Translation of RNA  ii. By Increasing the Transcription of DNA to RNA  iii. By Increasing the Activity of Mitochondria  iv. By Increasing the Activity of Cellular Enzymes
  • 43.  3. ACTION ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM  Thyroxine stimulates almost all processes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate.  Thyroxine:  i. Increases the absorption of glucose from GI  tract  ii. Enhances the glucose uptake by the cells, by accelerating the transport of glucose through the cell membrane  iii. Increases the breakdown of glycogen into glucose  iv. Accelerates gluconeogenesis.
  • 44.  5. ACTION ON BODY TEMPERATURE  Thyroid hormone increases the heat production in the body, by accelerating various cellular metabolic processes. and increasing BMR. It is called thyroid hormone induced thermogenesis.  6. ACTION ON GROWTH  Thyroid hormones have general and specific effects on growth.  Increase in thyroxine secretion accelerates the growth of the body, especially in growing children.
  • 45.  Thyroxine is more important to promote growth and development of brain during fetal life and first few years of postnatal life  Deficiency of thyroid hormones during this period leads to mental retardation.  7. ACTION ON BODY WEIGHT  Thyroxine is essential for maintaining the body weight.  Increase in thyroxine secretion decreases the body weight and fat storage.  Decrease in thyroxine secretion increases the body weight because of fat deposition
  • 46.  8. ACTION ON BLOOD  Thyroxine accelerates erythropoietic activity and increases blood volume.  It is one of the important general factors necessary for erythropoiesis  9. ACTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  Thyroxine increases the overall activity of cardiovascular system.  i. On Heart Rate  Thyroxine acts directly on heart and increases the heart rate.  ii. On the Force of Contraction of the Heart
  • 47.  iii. On Blood Vessels  Thyroxine causes vasodilatation by increasing the metabolic activities.  iv. On Arterial Blood Pressure  Because of increase in rate and force of contraction of the heart, increase in blood volume and blood flow by the influence of thyroxine, cardiac output increases.  This in turn, increases the blood pressure.  10. ACTION ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  Thyroxine is very essential for the development and maintenance of normal
  • 48.  11. ACTION ON RESPIRATION  Thyroxine increases the rate and force of respiration indirectly.  12. ACTION ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT  Generally, thyroxine increases the appetite and food intake.  It also increases the secretions and movements of GI tract.  13. ACTION ON SKELETAL MUSCLE  Thyroxine is essential for the normal activity of skeletal muscles.  Slight increase in thyroxine level makes the
  • 49.  15. ACTION ON SEXUAL FUNCTION  Normal thyroxine level is essential for normal sexual function.  In men, hypothyroidism leads to complete loss of libido (sexual drive) and hyperthyroidism leads to impotence.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52.  Hyperthyroidism  Due to increased secretions of thyroid hormones  Causes:  Grave’s Disease  Thyroid Tumors  Hypothyroidism  Due to decreased secretion of thyroid hormones  Causes:  Decrease iodine(required for thyroid hormone synthesis  Destruction of thyroid galnd which
  • 53.  Symptoms:  Increase metabolic rate  Weight loss  Increased heat production(sweating)  Increase cardiac output  Dyspnea(difficulty in breathing)  Mental alertness  Tremors  exophthlamos (outward bulging of eyeballs)  Diarrhea (hypermotility of GIT)  Increased menstruation  Symptoms  decrease metabolic rate  Weight gain  Decreased heat production  Decreased cardiac output  Hypoventilation  Lethargy, mental slowness  Drooping of eyelids  Growth and mental retardation  constipation (hypomotility of GIT  Scanty too little menstruation
  • 54.  TSH levels :  Decreased because of negative feedback inhibition by high thyroid hormone levels  Treatment:  Propylthiouracil(anti- thyroid drugs) inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone  Thyroidectomy  TSH levels:  Increased because of decreased negative feedback inhibition by low thyroid hormone levels  Treatment:  Thyroid hormone replacement
  • 55.
  • 56.  Cretinism is the hypothyroidism in children, characterized by stunted growth.  Causes for cretinism  Cretinism occurs due to congenital absence of thyroid gland, genetic disorder or lack of iodine in the diet.  Signs and symptoms:  a few weeks after birth, the baby starts developing the signs like  sluggish movements  croaking sound while crying.  Unless treated immediately, the baby will be mentally retarded permanently
  • 57.  Skeletal growth is more affected than the soft tissues. So, there is stunted growth with bloated body.  The tongue becomes so big that it hangs down with dripping of saliva.  The big tongue obstructs swallowing and breathing.  The tongue produces characteristic guttural breathing that may sometimes choke the baby.
  • 58.  Cretin Vs dwarf  A cretin is different from pituitary dwarf. In cretinism, there is mental retardation and the different parts of the body are disproportionate.  Whereas, in dwarfism, the development of nervous system is normal and the parts of the body are proportionate  The reproductive function is affected in cretinism but it may be normal in dwarfism.
  • 59.  Myxedema is the hypothyroidism in adults, characterized by generalized edematous appearance.  Causes for myxedema  Myxedema occurs due to  Diseases of thyroid gland,  Genetic disorder  Iodine deficiency.  It is also caused by deficiency of thyroid- stimulating hormone or thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
  • 60.  Signs and symptoms of myxedema  Typical feature of this disorder is an edematous appearance throughout the body. It is associated with the following symptoms:  1. Swelling of the face  2. Bagginess under the eyes  3. Non-pitting type of edema, i.e. when pressed, it does not make pits and the edema is hard.  4. Atherosclerosis: It is the hardening of the walls of arteries because of accumulation of fat deposits and other substances. In myxedema, it occurs because of increased plasma level of cholesterol which leads to deposition of cholesterol on the walls of the arteries leading to hypertension
  • 61.
  • 62.  Human beings have four parathyroid glands, which are situated on the posterior surface of upper and lower poles of thyroid gland  Parathyroid glands are very small in size, measuring about 6 mm long, 3 mm wide and 2 mm thick, with dark brown color.
  • 63.  PARATHORMONE  Parathormone secreted by parathyroid gland is essential for the maintenance of blood calcium level.  Maintenance of blood calcium level is necessary because calcium is an important inorganic ion for many physiological functions
  • 64.  Actions of Parathormone:  Increases serum calcium levels and decreases serum phosphate levels.  Increases bone resorption so that calcium and phosphate are transported from bone mineral into extracellular fluid.  Increases calcium reabsorption in kidneys so that serum calcium levels are increased  Decreases phosphate reabsorption in kidneys so that phosphate is excreted and serum phosphate levels are decreased
  • 65.  Hyperparathyroidism:  It is most commonly caused by tumor  Hypercalcemia  Hypophosphatemia  Increase bone resorption and weakening of bones  Hypoparathyroidism  It is most commonly caused by thyroid surgery or it is congenital  Hypocalcemia resulting in tetany  Hyperphosphatemia