Cr training


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  1. 1. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING Exercise Physiology PEP 3510
  2. 2. I. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS Α Training for a particular sport or • performance goal must be based on its energy components. The amount of time spent in practice in order to meet the energy requirements varies according to sport demands.
  3. 3. Bobsledding Rock climbing Sailing Throwing Body building Alpine skiing Gymnastics Wrestling Boxing Track cycling Rowing Sprinting Archery Auto racing Diving Figure skating Football Rugby Basketball Ice hockey Soccer Swimming Billiards Bowling Curling Golf Baseball Softball Tennis-dubs Volleyball Nordic skiing Running Field hockey Tennis-singles •Low •Moderate •High Dynamic Nature Anaerobic ATP-PCr Glycolysis Aerobic Krebs Cycle ET Chain
  4. 4. Energy Requirements B C D E The three energy systems often operate simultaneously during physical activity. Relative contribution of each system to total energy requirement differs markedly depending on exercise intensity & duration. Magnitude of energy from anaerobic sources depends on person’s capacity and tolerance for lactic acid accumulation. As exercise intensity diminishes and duration extends beyond 4 minutes, energy more dependent on aerobic metabolism.
  5. 5. Three Systems of Energy
  6. 6. II. TRAINING PRINCIPLES Major objective in exercise training is to cause biological adaptations. S pecificity P rogression O verload R eversibility T rait
  7. 7. 1. Specificity of Training In order for a training program to be beneficial, it must develop the specific physiological capabilities required to perform a given sport or activity. SAID: specific adaptation to imposed demand.
  8. 8. Types of Specificity a Metabolic b Mode of Exercise c Muscle Group d Movement Pattern
  9. 9. The predominant energy source depends upon (1) duration, and (2) intensity of exercise. M e ta b o lic S p e c ific ity A n a e r o b ic P ow er ( A la c ta c id O x y g e n D e b t) A n a e r o b ic E n d u ra n c e ( L a c ta c id O x y g e n D e b t) A e r o b ic P ow er ( O x id a tiv e M a x im u m ) A e r o b ic E n d u ra n c e ( O x id a tiv e S te a d y -s ta te )
  10. 10. Metabolic Specificity
  11. 11. 2. Progressive Overload Overload must be progressive to continue to prompt training adaptations.
  12. 12. 3. Overload Exercising at a level above normal brings biological adaptations that improve functional efficiency. In order to overload aerobic or anaerobic systems, training must be quantified. Quantity of Training: intensity & volume (frequency and duration).
  13. 13. Quantification of Training Quantity of Training Volume Quality of Training Intensity
  14. 14. Intensity of Training Training intensity relates to how hard one exercises. Exercise intensity represents the most critical factor for successful training.
  15. 15. Volume of Training Training adaptations are best achieved when optimal amount of work in training sessions Optimal amount of work varies individually Training volume can be increased by either duration or frequency Improvement depends in part on kcals per session and work/week
  16. 16. 4. Reversibility Most metabolic and cardiorespiratory benefits gained through exercise training are lost within relatively short period of time after training is stopped. In one experiment, VO2 max, maximal stroke volume and cardiac output decreased roughly 1% per day during 20 days bed rest.
  17. 17. Detraining
  18. 18. Detraining
  19. 19. 5. Individual Traits Relative fitness level at beginning of training. Trainees respond differently to given exercise stimulus.
  20. 20. III. Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Training Training Effect: the chronic anatomic, morphologic, physiologic, and psychologic changes that result from repeated exposure to exercise.
  21. 21. A. Anaerobic Training Effect 1. Increased intramuscular levels of anaerobic substrates: ATP, CP, and Glycogen 2. Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glycolysis 3. Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate (and pain tolerance) o No research for improved buffering capacity.
  22. 22. Anaerobic Training Effect Heart Changes due to pressure overload. 1. Thickened septum 2. Thickening of posterior wall 3. Increased left ventricular mass with no change in left ventricular end diastolic volume (concentric hypertrophy)
  23. 23. B. Adaptations in the Aerobic System Metabolic Adaptations Cardiovascular Adaptations Pulmonary Adaptations Body Composition Adaptations Body Heat Transfer
  24. 24. Metabolic Adaptations Metabolic Machinery: mitochondrial size and number Enzymes: aerobic system enzymes Fat Metabolism: increased lipolysis Carbohydrate Metabolism: increased capacity to oxidize carbohydrate Muscle Fiber Type and Size: selective hypertrophy muscle fiber type.
  25. 25. Cardiovascular Adaptations Heart Size – eccentric hypertrophy Plasma Volume – Up to 20% Stroke Volume – Increases 50-60% Heart Rate Cardiac Output Oxygen extraction Blood flow and distribution – Increased capillarization Blood Pressure – Decrease 6 to 10 mm Hg with regular aerobic ex.
  26. 26. Pulmonary Adaptations Increased maximal exercise minute ventilation Increased ventilatory equivalent: V E/VO2 In general, tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases
  27. 27. Other Aerobic Changes Blood Lactate Concentration: extending level of exercise intensity before OBLA Body Composition: reduces body mass and body fat Body Heat Transfer: larger plasma volume and more responsive thermoregulatory mechanism.
  28. 28. VI. ANAEROBIC TRAINING Α Goals of Anaerobic Training B Training Methods C Prescription Content D Frequency and Duration
  29. 29. A. Goals of Anaerobic Training A n a e r o b ic T r a in in g G o a ls To E nhance M u s c le L a c ta te R em oval and L a c ta te U t i li z a ti o n To E nhance A n a e r o b ic C a p a c ity o f M u s c le s
  30. 30. Anaerobic Training ATP-PCr System: All-out bursts for 5 to 10 sec. Recovery progresses rapidly (30 to 60 sec). Glycolytic System: Bouts of up to 1 min of intense, rhythmic repeated several times interspersed with 3-5 min recovery (“lactate stacking”).
  31. 31. B. Training Methods Acceleration Sprints: gradual increases from slow to moderate to full sprinting in 50-100 m segments followed by 50 m light activity. Sprint Training: Repeated sprints at maximal speed with complete recovery (5 minutes or more) between repeats. Only 3 to 6 bouts in a session. Interval Training: Repeated periods of work alternated with periods of relief.
  32. 32. C. Prescription Content Training Time: rate of work during the work interval (e.g. 200-m in 28 seconds) Repetitions: number of work intervals per set (e.g. six 200-m runs) Sets: a grouping of work and relief intervals (e.g. a set is six 200-m runs @ 28 sec, 1:24 rest interval) Work-relief Ratio: time ratio of work and relief (e.g., 1:2 means relief is twice work) Type of Relief: rest or light to mild exercise
  33. 33. Interval Training Relief Interval 1:3 (work: relief) for training immediate energy systems 1:2 for training glycolytic energy systems 1:1 or 1:1½ for training aerobic energy systems
  34. 34. D. Frequency and Duration of Training The energy demands of high-intensity training on the glycolytic system rapidly depletes muscle glycogen Muscles can become chronically depleted of energy reserves
  35. 35. V. AEROBIC TRAINING A. Goals of Aerobic Training B. Factors Influencing Aerobic Response C. Guidelines D. Training Methods E. Determining Intensity F. Exercise During Pregnancy
  36. 36. A. Goals of Aerobic Training Goals of Aerobic Training Enhance Capacity Blood (VO2 Max) to Deliver Enhance Maximal Oxidative Capacity (QO2) Muscle's
  37. 37. B. Four Factors that Influence Aerobic Training Response Which is most critical for successful aerobic training? Initial fitness level Frequency of training Intensity of training Duration of training – About 60 minutes of daily physical activity provides optimal health benefits.
  38. 38. C. Guidelines Start slowly: severe muscle discomfort & excessive cardiovascular strain offer no benefit Warm up: adjusts coronary blood flow & hemoglobin unloading Cool-down period: allow metabolism to regress to resting
  39. 39. D. Aerobic Training Methods Continuous, slow: Long-distance at a slow, steady pace Continuous, fast: Long-distance at a fast, steady pace Interval sprinting: Repeated periods of work interspersed with periods of relief Speed play (Fartlek): Alternating fast and slow running over varying, natural terrain
  40. 40. E. Determining Training Intensity 1 Train at a percentage of max VO2 2 Train at a percentage of max HR (adjust for swimming) 3 4 Train at a perceived exertion level Train at given work rate (speed) for each exercise interval
  41. 41. Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Studies reveal that if exercise intensity is maintained, the frequency and duration of training can be reduced considerably without decrements in aerobic performance
  42. 42. Aerobic Ex Rx for Fitness Mode: Rhythmic, Aerobic involving Large Muscle Groups Frequency: 3-5 x/week Intensity: 50 – 85% VO2 max, HRR; 6090% HR max (college age 50-55 % HRR or 70% HR max minimum and 85-90% HRR 90% HR max upper limit) Duration: 20 – 60 minutes
  43. 43. F. Exercise during Pregnancy During vigorous exercise, some blood diverted from uterus & could pose hazard to fetus Elevation in maternal core temperature could hinder heat dissipation from fetus
  44. 44. VI. TRAINING PHASES T r a in in g P h a se s o r S e asons O ff S eason P re S eason In S eason
  45. 45. Illustrations McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.