Context Awareness in Mobile Computing

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How is the role of context awareness in mobile computing

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  • 27/06/12
  • Context Awareness in Mobile Computing

    1. 1. Context Awareness in Mobile ComputingThe Revolutionary Impact of Pervasive Mobile ComputingBob Hardianhardian@cs.ui.ac.idFakultas Ilmu Komputer, Universitas IndonesiaSRITI 2011Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 1
    2. 2. Pervasive – Ubiquitous – Mobile Computing Level of embeddedness High Pervasive Ubiquitous Computing Computing Low High Level of mobility Traditional Business Mobile Computing Computing Low[1]SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 2
    3. 3. Mobile Computing: the Next Decade  Scenario 1: Lost ChildSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 3
    4. 4. Mobile Computing: the Next Decade  Scenario 2: Disaster ReliefSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 4
    5. 5. Mobile Computing: the Next Decade  Scenario 3: Cognitive AssistanceSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 5
    6. 6. Mobile Computing: the Next Decade  Scenario 4: Medical ConsultationSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 6
    7. 7. Reflecting on these Scenarios [3]  Embody a number of themes  Rich sensors  Crowd sourcing  Near-real-time data consistency  Opportunism  Transient use of infrastructure  User interactionSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 7
    8. 8. Reducing Distraction  User attention is a precious resource The most successful mobile computing systems of the next decade will be those that are able to reduce or eliminate user interactionsSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 8
    9. 9. User Interaction with Mobile Device  Mobile application autonomy can reduce user interaction.  Mobile application should place greater dependence on contextual informationSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 9
    10. 10. Context Definitions  Context defined variously as:  An application/user’s environment or situation  A combination of computing, user and physical features  Definition from Dey & Abowd [2]: “Context is any information that can be used to characterise the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and the application themselves.”SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 10
    11. 11. Context Awareness  Context of computation may change  Context of computation may be (partially) captured by context information  Context information can be used to  provide seamless computing  provide relevant services to users Needed: Information about requirements and current status of computations and their environmentsSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 11
    12. 12. Context Information - Example  user location, devices, applications  user preferences and QoS requirements  application QoS requirements and status  device and network capabilities and their current status  relationships between context informationSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 12
    13. 13. Context Awareness & Mobile Apps  Context-aware applications tend to be enhanced mobile applications for the following reasons:  User context changes frequently subject to the user’s mobility behavior  The need for context-aware behavior is greater in a mobile environment (user location, network resources, and device capabilities)SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 13
    14. 14. Context-Aware Logic Space [4]SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 14
    15. 15. Proximity selection  Proximity selection is primarily based on the user location context  Such context can be:  resources and devices in the vicinity of the user  places of interests closest to the user current position  computational objects with which the mobile user is currently interactingSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 15
    16. 16. Context Modeling  Modeling context is a technique focuses on how to find and relate contextual information that better captures the observation of certain worlds of interestSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 16
    17. 17. Context Modeling - Example has device Person Device Conceptual model (CML) (name) (id) located at Location (name) Maps to HasDevice(Person, Device) Logical model (relational model) LocatedAt(Person, Location)SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 17
    18. 18. Disruption Level has disruption level (name) has allow status Allow Status (nr) Profile (code) has divert status Divert Status (name) has profile has location type Location Type (Name) has divert type has nearest base station Device Base Station (id) (nr) has network strength Network Strength Number Type (nr) (name) has device has phone number has number type Person Phone Number (name) (nr)SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 18
    19. 19. Context-Aware Application A Context-aware application should have a set of characteristics related to context modeling, handling, adaptation:  Context acquisition  Context adaptation  Context aggregation  Context reasoning  Context consistency  Context quality indicators  Context discovery  Context integration  Context querySRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 19
    20. 20. Typical Architecture Context-Aware Applications Programming Toolkit Context Manager Preference Middleware Manager Context Model Context Gathering & Processing Layer Sensor Sensor SensorSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 20
    21. 21. User Control of Context-Aware Mobile Apps  Context-aware mobile application may not always behave in the way users expected, due to  Imperfect context information  Incorrect user preferences  Incorrect adaptation rules  Users may feel loss of control over their application.  The system must provide mechanisms to strike a suitable balance of controlSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 21
    22. 22. Balance of User Control  A continuum of user control versus application autonomy A B C Application autonomy User controlSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 22
    23. 23. Providing Suitable Balance of Control  Make users aware of reasons for application adaptation  User may be able to correct undesirable actions  Users may have varying levels of expertiseSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 23
    24. 24. Exposing the System’s view  Exposing system’s view of the context and its corresponding actions provides a sufficient understanding to correct inappropriate action (increases user control)  An appropriate modelling of context and preference is needed for revealing the information to the users Context-aware System Context Information Interactions Adaptation Users Logic User PreferencesSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 24
    25. 25. Example Approach Exposed Context and application preference state change Information Filter information & Explanation Generator Programming Toolkit Information Context & request Preference (scrutinize) USER Context Manager Traces Database Database Semantic Manager User Context Graph Preference Descriptions User Model User Preference Database User feedbackSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 25
    26. 26. User Outside World context User interaction changes Context-Aware Application Context Context Web Windows Interface Client preferences context context and profile changes changes information Context and Preference Proxy inquiry revealed context information (scrutinizing) information and preference context and evaluation scores preference changes Context and Semantic Manager Preference ManagerSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 26
    27. 27. Summary  User attention is a precious resource in mobile environment  Mobile application should reduce user interaction  Mobile application should place greater dependence on context  Need balance of user control due to imperfect context informationSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 27
    28. 28. References [1] K. Lyytinen, Y. Yoo, Issues and Challenges in Ubiquitous Computing, CACM, Vol.4, No.12, 2002 [2] A. K. Dey and G. D. Abowd, Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In CHI 2000 Workshop on the What, Who, Where,vWhen and How of Context-Awareness. The Hague, April 2000. [3] M. Satyanarayanan, Mobile computing: the next decade, in MCS 10 Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing & Services: Social Networks and Beyond, 2010 [4] Christos B. Anagnostopoulos , Athanasios Tsounis , Stathes Hadjiefthymiades, Context Awareness in Mobile Computing Environments, Wireless Personal Communications: An International Journal, v.42 n.3, p.445-464, August 2007SRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 28
    29. 29. TERIMA KASIHSRITI 2011 - Seminar Riset Tenologi Informasi 29

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