Basic Gis


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Basic Gis

  1. 1. Principles of Geographic  Information System Emmanuel P. Sambale Environment Planning & Management    
  2. 2. Toolbox-based a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from real the world (Burrough 1986) a system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth (Department of Environment 1988) an information technology which stores, analyses, and displays both spatial and non- spatial data (Parker 1988)
  3. 3. Database a database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database (Smith et al. 1987) any manual or computer based set of procedures used to store and manipulate geographically referenced data (Aronoff 1989)
  4. 4. Organization-based an automated set of functions that provides professionals with advanced capabilities for the storage, retrieval, manipulation and display of geographically located data (Ozemay, Smith, and Sicherman 1981) an institutional entity, reflecting an organizational structure that integrates technology with a database, expertise and continuing support over time (Carter 1989) a decision support system involving the the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment (Cowen 1988)
  5. 5. Definition “GIS is an organized collection of computer, hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information.”
  6. 6. What questions can GIS answer? what is the name of this factory? identification what if a new built-up area is created here? models: will affect traffic intensity what has changed? trends: growth of urban area where is the city hall? location: xy = 1764, 3180 what relation exist between road and river network? pattern: river interrupts road network what is the the shortest route between A & B? optional path: start at A, go left at …
  7. 7. H a r d w a r e S o f t w a r e D a  t  a M  e  t  h  o  d P  e  o  p  l  e
  8. 8. Basic Data Models Vector Data Model Raster Data Model
  9. 9. Current applications Agriculture – monitoring & management from farm to national level Archeology – site description & scenario evaluation Environment – monitoring, modelling & management of land degradation; land evaluation & rural planning; landslides; desertification; water quality & quantity; plagues; air quality; weather & climate modelling & prediction
  10. 10. Current applications Forestry – management, planning, & optimizing extraction & planting Emergency services – optimizing fire, police & ambulance routing; improve understanding of crime & its location Navigation – air, sea & land Marketing – site location & target groups; optimizing goods delivery
  11. 11. Current applications Real estate – legal aspects of the cadastre, property values in relation to location, insurance Regional & local planning – development of plans, costing, maintenance, management Road & rail – planning & management Site evaluation & costing – cut & fill, computing volumes of material
  12. 12. Current applications Social studies – analysis of demographic movements and developments Tourism – location & management of facilities and attractions Utilities – location, management & planning of water, drains, gas, electricity, telephone, cable services.
  13. 13. GIS provides you the  tools to …  present analyze explore information about our world.
  14. 14. References Bernhardsen, Tor. 1999. Geographic Information System, 2nd Edition Burrough, PA. & McDonnel R. A. 1998. Principles of Geographic Information System. New York: Oxford University Press. Davis, Bruce. 2001. GIS: A Visual Approach, 2nd Edition ESRI 2001. GIS for Higher Education – Across the Campus and Around the World IDL Demo 5.5 Kraak, MJ, Ormeling, FJ. 1996. Cartography: Visualization of Spatial Data Rajan, Mohan Sundara. 1991. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System for Natural Resource Management, ADB Various GIS sites
  15. 15. License of this Document This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. License details: Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 You are free: - to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work, - to make derivative works, - to make commercial use of the work, under the following conditions: Attribution. You must give the original author credit. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above. Emmanuel P. Sambale. November, 2006