Location Based services


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Location-based Services (LBSs) are IT services for providing information that has been created, compiled, selected, or filtered taking into consideration the current locations of the users or those of other persons or mobile objects.

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Location Based services

  1. 1. `
  2. 2.  Car Tracking  Personal Navigation  News  M-Commerce  Emergency  Child Tracking M-commerce: Mobile Commerce
  3. 3. Location Based Services    Maps Routing Assisted Navigation Information Services Tracking Services Maps & Navigation    Friends & Family Finder Traffic Vehicle Tracking   City guides User Generated Content (UGC) Application   Social Networks Context Advertisements
  4. 4. Aim and Objectives Introduction LBS Components Privacy of LBS Positioning Systems Comparison of Positioning Systems Conclusion and Future Work
  5. 5. • To evaluate a Location Based Services (LBS) positioning techniques.  To investigate the characteristic of the LBS.  Gaining an understanding of components of LBS and underlying technologies.  To study the existing LBS systems.  Investigating the challenge of protecting the privacy of LBS users  To comparing between the LBS systems.
  6. 6. Location + Requests LBS Provider Location + Requests Services LBS Application Services LBS User
  7. 7. LBS Middleware Location Tracking GIS Provider GIS Data Location Collection Service (LCS)
  8. 8. Three important standards (OpenLS, GML and KML)  The Open Location Services (OpenLS) standard proposes an overall system architecture for various components :  location collection services .  LBS application providers .  Geography Markup Language (GML): This is an XML-based language for representing various geography data such as points of interest.  Keyhole Markup Language (KML): This complements GML by providing information about annotations and markings on maps (visualization).
  9. 9. • Why privacy is a concern with LBS ? • Identification Requirements of LBS .  Anonymous LBSs.  Identity-driven LBSs.  Pseudonym-driven LBSs. • Privacy Solutions  Anonymization.  Cryptographic Techniques.  Transformation of Location request data.
  10. 10. • Cell of Origin (COO): This technique is used if the positioning system has a cellular structure. • Time of Arrival (TOA): Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA). • Angle of Arrival (AOA): If we use antennas with direction characteristics.
  11. 11.  Triangulation:: needs two fixed positions (p1 and p2). , we measure the angle to the location u.  Trilateration:: also needs two fixed positions, but uses two distances to the unknown location.  Traversing: uses several distance–angle pairs. We start with a known point p1 and measure the bdistance and direction
  12. 12. Positioning Systems Satellite Based e.g. GPS Network Based GSM (Global Positioning System ) (Radio Frequency Identification ) Indoor Positioning Infrared , RFID & WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network (Global System for Mobile)
  13. 13. • Cover huge geographical areas. • Standalone infrastructure and terminal-based Advantages  High accuracy  World-wide coverage Disadvantages  Positioning requires line-of-sight between satellite and receiver  High power consumption at the receiver  High operation costs Examples  GPS (Global Positioning System)  Galileo
  14. 14. Principle of satellite positioning. The user knows the distance of the satellite to him, as well as the position of the satellite r =c*∆t So he can calculate a radius is somewhere on. But he does not know where on the radius he is. By looking at the intersection of the coverage radius of at least 3 satellites, he can discover his exact position
  15. 15. Focuses on positioning services within the coverage area of a cellular network. • Advantages • Good yield (in most cases even indoors). • Some positioning methods require either no or only minor modifications at mobile devices (firmware upgrade).  Disadvantages  High signaling overhead.  Moderate accuracy.  Examples  Cell-Id.  Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD).  Assisted GPS (A-GPS).
  16. 16.  Deployment in buildings, university campuses, and company premises  Stand-alone and integrated infrastructures (e.g., RFID vs. WLAN)  Advantages Low power consumption High accuracy  Disadvantages Proprietary systems, i.e., no standardization  Examples WLAN positioning Ultrasound positioning RFID positioning
  17. 17.  Position can be detected by measuring Signal Strength of all wireless LAN access points. Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity
  18. 18. Infrared (Active Badge) Ultrasound Video RFID
  19. 19. Name Category GPS Satellite GSM Network Tracking/ Positioning Positioning Both E-OTD Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning RFID Indoor Tracking Mechanism TOA Medium Radio Precision 25 m COO, AOA, TOA Radio Depends on Cell Density 40-400 Signal Strength Radio Dependent on WiFi AP density 3 m COO Radio Cell
  20. 20.  Many LBS applications use GPS to determine the current location.  however: It only works outdoors because the receiver must have a direct view to at least four GPS satellites.  no positioning system is accessible everywhere.  If a service wants to have high coverage, it has to rely on several positioning techniques.
  21. 21.  More investigations are required to assess the behavior of the LBS under different positioning techniques.  To explore the limitations of the LBS paradigm .  To develop real LBS systems which are more intelligent and accurate.  More investigations are required to assess user experiences in regard to privacy and security.
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