International English VS“What in the world is the World of “World or International or GlobalLanguage?” English- and what is it anyway?” Roger Bowers Tom McArthur
What is English as anInternational Language?• EIL does not refer to a particular variety of English• EIL emphasizes that English, with its many varieties, is a language of international and therefore intercultural communication• EIL – Recognition of World Englishes, regardless of which ‗circles‘ they belong to (Sharifian 2)
What in the world is theworld of Language?Bowers ‗ article describes & introduces :• Some questions about language• Public Awareness /Understanding of Language• The World of Language Project
•Some questions about language-How did I learn to talk -How did human beingand write and what -What other languages learn to speak & write?happens? will I hear in other -Where did my language-How did I learn to use countries? come from?words and grammar? -How many languages -How did people sound in-Which regional are there? olden days?accent/dialect do I -Why will I hear so -Where has my languagespeak? much English around travelled in the world?-Which varieties of the world? -Why cant’s come peoplelanguage do I know? -Why are some speak or write?-How can I use languages dying and -How can we teach andlanguage in exciting and how can I help? learn languge?enjoyable ways? Language Language Language in me in my society in the world
Public Awareness /Understanding ofLanguageWhy do we have to be aware?• Negative attitudes toward foreign and minority languages• Language curriculum in school does not encourage the language learning environment• Speakers of minority languages get no credit for it• The neglect of language and language issues in publicity and mass media
The World of Language Project• It was immerged in 1996• The notion of a ―museum of language‖• It aims to promote PUL internationally and within UK through a curriculum and workshops• The communication means is the website
World or International or Global English—and what is it anyway? Timeline of Term Coinage Before WW II 1980 1990
World English ―A variety of, or the fundamental features of, regarded as standard or acceptable wherever English spoken..‖ (New Shorter Oxford Dictionary, 1993) ―The English language including all of its regional varieties, such as North American, Australian, New Zealand and South African English..‖ (New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998)
International English ―The English language, usually in its standard form, either when used, taught, and studied as a lingua franca throughout the world..‖ ―It is used to contrast with American English, British English, South African English, etc...‖ (McArthur 398)
Global English―The public international English used by globetrottingprofessionals, the only kind of English which isbeginning to be truly globally dispersed.‖ • The term is related to globalization •Globalization = a new borderless economic world order (McArthur 399)
The Use of Terms• The general, the familiar, the established and the comprehensive World English• The equality of races, good social intentions, a suggestion of standardness International English• Economic borderless, universal village, avoid global dominance by English speaking countries Global English
The Concerned Points of 3 Terms• The terms still reflect the subset of standard Englishes• Standard Englishes are still spreading through global technology• They contrasts the emergence of hybrid Englishes such as Spanglish, Gerlish and Japlish• Non-native English speakers out number its native users and claim for the ownership• Are non-native speakers more suitable for developing EIL than native speakers?
The Comparison of Bowers & McArthur Discussed Points Bowers McArthur The importance of PUL concerns minority The emergence of hybrid other languages languages languages The standardization The World of Language The Terms: WE, IE and GE reflect of a particular Project tends to be an a particular English which is English variety institution of standard distinguish between English and setting = World Language other languages/ Standard – Non Standard The influence of It can be used to Technology is used to spread out technology internationally spread the standard English such as political correctness, PUL Microsoft Programs and Google
Sources:Bower, Roger. (1999). What in the world is the World of Language? In James E. Alatisand Ai-Hui Tan. (eds.). Georgetown University round table on Languages andLinguistics. Language in Our Time: Bilingual Education and Official English, Ebonicsand Standard English, Immigration and the Unz Initiative. Georgetown UniversityPress: Washington, D.C., pp. 389-396.McArthur, Tom (1999). World or International or Global English—and what is itanyway? In James E. Alatis and Ai-Hui Tan. (eds.). Georgetown University roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Language in Our Time: Bilingual Education andOfficial English, Ebonics and Standard English, Immigration and the Unz Initiative.Georgetown University Press: Washington, D.C., pp. 397-403.Sharifian, Farzad . (2009).English as an International Language: AnOverview.English as an International Language: Perspective and PedagogicalIssues.Multilingual Matters: New York, pp. 1-20.