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‘’World Englishes and Language Acquisition’’
‘’Acquisition, Creativity, Standards and Testing’’
Theoretical Orientation of SLA:
 Research in pragmatics is based on speaker intentions, research on second or
foreign language pragmatics neglects speaker intentions analyzes SL speaker
utterances solely from the perspective of the hearer, who is presumed to be a
native speaker of the target language.
 According to Gricean corporative principle, speakers and hearers are assumed to
be honest in their interaction, and most data discussed in the literature do not
provide evidence that second language speakers intend to mislead their
interlocutors.
SLA in Multilingual Context:
 World Englishes are entities of functional performance in varied settings across
the world; such as, they provide the most extensive ‘laboratory to date for applied
linguistic and sociolinguistic research’.
 The uses and functions of the additional language are determined by the needs of
the community. i.e. the competence in the target language that a multilingual
person acquires is largely a function of the niche the additional language occupies
in the linguistic repertoire of the community.
SLA and Formal instruction:
 As instruction is important and there are salient divergences of English in its
diasporas across the globe due to historical usually colonial legacy associated
with it.
 SAIE developed as a distinct variety as a result of several factors, including ‘the
teaching of English by a French-speaking missionary to Tamil-speaking children
via the medium of Zulu-based pidgin.
Issues of Proficiency and Communicative Competence:
 The accepted standard, seemingly definitions say that a native speaker is someone, who is
acquired a given language as her/his home language, at mother’s knee, without benefit of formal
instruction.
 The term native speaker has an almost inescapable cachet in the parlance of language teachers and
researchers. Charles Ferguson wrote: ‘Linguists, perhaps especially American linguists, have long
given a special place to the ‘’native speaker’’ as the only truly valid reliable source of language
data.
 A widespread expectations in the UK and US that one’s high school French teacher will be a
native speaker of French from France.
Nativization and Englishization:
 Nativization refers to the adaptation of English in particular social-cultural settings and leads to
qualifying descriptors such as ‘US English’, ‘Indian English’, ‘Singaporean English’ and so on.
 Grosjean (2008, p. 224) ‘’many bilinguals have a tendency to evaluate their language
competencies as inadequate. Some criticize their mastery of language skills, others strive their
hardest to reach monolingual norms, others still hide their knowledge of their ‘’weaker’’
language, and most simply do not perceive themselves as being bilingual even though they use
too (or more) languages regularly’’
 The openness of Language:
Normal language use is proportional to greatly diverse.
 Not only standard
 Not only educated
 Not only middle class
But always indexing who we are always specifically designed for context, purpose, interlocutor, intended
impact, one’s visceral emotions. Plus, there is always a lot going on in language that is context specific. There is
no correspondence between what’s said by language, or even how many languages we know or don’t know, and
the meanings we are able to make.
Normal language use is proportional to trans-languaging.
 Whatever bits of semiotic repertoire
 Always multisensory, multimodal
If someone has more than one language.
 Not one language only
 Not one language at a time
Interlanguage and World Englishes:
An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which
preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and
speaking rules.
Example
A learner who has lived in an English-speaking environment for many years but not attended classes or studied
for some time has problems with reported speech and forming tag questions. His interlanguage has become
fossilized.
Uriel Weinreich is credited with providing the foundational information that was the basis of Selinker's
research. Selinker (1972) noted that in a given situation, the utterances produced by a learner are different from
those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning.
The Ground Realities:
 The growing body of descriptive ELF research that is now becoming available can thus add
substance to work in the field as a whole. It can also offer fresh perspectives on several theoretical
constructs central to WE, such as ‘community’, ‘variety’, ‘lingua franca’, even ‘language’.
 Issues of language contact, variation and change, linguistic norms and their acceptance,
ownership of the language, and expression of social identities are central to both WE and ELF
research.
Acquisition of English in Outer and Expanding Circles:
Kachru (1985) described the spread of English in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle,
the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle.
 Inner Circle Kachru’s model refers to the traditional bases of English, dominated by the mother-
tongue varieties, where English acts as a first language (White, 1997). The countries involved in
the Inner Circle include the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The varieties of
English used here are said to be ‘norm providing’.
 The Outer Circle consists of the earlier phases of the spread of English in non-native settings,
where the language has become part of a country’s chief institutions, and plays an important
‘second language’ role in a multilingual setting (Rajadurai, 2005). Most of the countries included
in the Outer Circle are former colonies of the UK or the USA, such as Malaysia, Singapore, India,
Ghana, Kenya and others (Rajadurai, 2005).
 The English used in the outer circle is considered as ‘norm-developing’. The Expanding Circle
refers to the territories where English is learnt as a foreign language.
Thank You

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Acquisition, creativity, standards and testing

  • 1. ‘’World Englishes and Language Acquisition’’ ‘’Acquisition, Creativity, Standards and Testing’’
  • 2. Theoretical Orientation of SLA:  Research in pragmatics is based on speaker intentions, research on second or foreign language pragmatics neglects speaker intentions analyzes SL speaker utterances solely from the perspective of the hearer, who is presumed to be a native speaker of the target language.  According to Gricean corporative principle, speakers and hearers are assumed to be honest in their interaction, and most data discussed in the literature do not provide evidence that second language speakers intend to mislead their interlocutors.
  • 3. SLA in Multilingual Context:  World Englishes are entities of functional performance in varied settings across the world; such as, they provide the most extensive ‘laboratory to date for applied linguistic and sociolinguistic research’.  The uses and functions of the additional language are determined by the needs of the community. i.e. the competence in the target language that a multilingual person acquires is largely a function of the niche the additional language occupies in the linguistic repertoire of the community.
  • 4. SLA and Formal instruction:  As instruction is important and there are salient divergences of English in its diasporas across the globe due to historical usually colonial legacy associated with it.  SAIE developed as a distinct variety as a result of several factors, including ‘the teaching of English by a French-speaking missionary to Tamil-speaking children via the medium of Zulu-based pidgin.
  • 5. Issues of Proficiency and Communicative Competence:  The accepted standard, seemingly definitions say that a native speaker is someone, who is acquired a given language as her/his home language, at mother’s knee, without benefit of formal instruction.  The term native speaker has an almost inescapable cachet in the parlance of language teachers and researchers. Charles Ferguson wrote: ‘Linguists, perhaps especially American linguists, have long given a special place to the ‘’native speaker’’ as the only truly valid reliable source of language data.  A widespread expectations in the UK and US that one’s high school French teacher will be a native speaker of French from France.
  • 6. Nativization and Englishization:  Nativization refers to the adaptation of English in particular social-cultural settings and leads to qualifying descriptors such as ‘US English’, ‘Indian English’, ‘Singaporean English’ and so on.  Grosjean (2008, p. 224) ‘’many bilinguals have a tendency to evaluate their language competencies as inadequate. Some criticize their mastery of language skills, others strive their hardest to reach monolingual norms, others still hide their knowledge of their ‘’weaker’’ language, and most simply do not perceive themselves as being bilingual even though they use too (or more) languages regularly’’
  • 7.  The openness of Language: Normal language use is proportional to greatly diverse.  Not only standard  Not only educated  Not only middle class But always indexing who we are always specifically designed for context, purpose, interlocutor, intended impact, one’s visceral emotions. Plus, there is always a lot going on in language that is context specific. There is no correspondence between what’s said by language, or even how many languages we know or don’t know, and the meanings we are able to make. Normal language use is proportional to trans-languaging.  Whatever bits of semiotic repertoire  Always multisensory, multimodal If someone has more than one language.  Not one language only  Not one language at a time
  • 8. Interlanguage and World Englishes: An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules. Example A learner who has lived in an English-speaking environment for many years but not attended classes or studied for some time has problems with reported speech and forming tag questions. His interlanguage has become fossilized. Uriel Weinreich is credited with providing the foundational information that was the basis of Selinker's research. Selinker (1972) noted that in a given situation, the utterances produced by a learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning.
  • 9. The Ground Realities:  The growing body of descriptive ELF research that is now becoming available can thus add substance to work in the field as a whole. It can also offer fresh perspectives on several theoretical constructs central to WE, such as ‘community’, ‘variety’, ‘lingua franca’, even ‘language’.  Issues of language contact, variation and change, linguistic norms and their acceptance, ownership of the language, and expression of social identities are central to both WE and ELF research.
  • 10. Acquisition of English in Outer and Expanding Circles: Kachru (1985) described the spread of English in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle.  Inner Circle Kachru’s model refers to the traditional bases of English, dominated by the mother- tongue varieties, where English acts as a first language (White, 1997). The countries involved in the Inner Circle include the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The varieties of English used here are said to be ‘norm providing’.  The Outer Circle consists of the earlier phases of the spread of English in non-native settings, where the language has become part of a country’s chief institutions, and plays an important ‘second language’ role in a multilingual setting (Rajadurai, 2005). Most of the countries included in the Outer Circle are former colonies of the UK or the USA, such as Malaysia, Singapore, India, Ghana, Kenya and others (Rajadurai, 2005).  The English used in the outer circle is considered as ‘norm-developing’. The Expanding Circle refers to the territories where English is learnt as a foreign language.