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English 781 881 we slides


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Most of the WE Course Day 1 slides are located here (Note that the rest of the slides are not in an orderly fashion)

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English 781 881 we slides

  2. 2. AGENDA MONDAY MAY 24 TH <ul><li>Description of the course: Going over the course goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar Participant Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Acronyms in TESOL and WE </li></ul><ul><li>A brief history of English language </li></ul><ul><li>Going over the WE Symposium articles and Kachru chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Hayat’s Presentation on teaching ELT in Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Hayat’s presentation on Book Review (we can move this to another day) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading the syllabus. </li></ul><ul><li>Going over the Portfolio requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Individual Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>WE Reflections: Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Before Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>After Lunch </li></ul>
  3. 3. COURSE OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Prepare in-service and pre-service teachers for the reality of diverse classroom contexts in wide range of teaching settings </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding on research and pedagogy on World Englishes focusing on both written and spoken discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine various complexities revolving around WE scholarship and understand how the hybrid varieties of English are used in various teaching and learning communities around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Create meaningful discussions on the emergence of multiple Literacies and Englishes in the context of globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the teaching of writing and composition with the WE principles and theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Think carefully about ways in which we, as teacher-scholars, can address the language needs of ethnolinguistically diverse student population </li></ul><ul><li>Craft and submit a class and individual conference proposal for a national or international conference and help expand the knowledge base on the theory and pedagogy of world Enlgishes. You can consider submitting your proposal for 2011 AAAL, TESOL, NCTE, AERA or EATWA. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a book review for a recently published book on WE and submit it for a possible publication in one of the refereed journals (for Ph.D students only) </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHO ARE WE IN THE “WE” COURSE? <ul><li>Please take a few minutes to share: </li></ul><ul><li>Who you are… </li></ul><ul><li>What your current (and future) teaching context is like… </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think learning about WE is important in your own teaching context… </li></ul>
  5. 5. COMPLEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL NATURE OF COMPOSITION AND TESOL DO YOU KNOW THESE IMPORTANT ACRONYMS? <ul><li>Please refer to your handouts and take a few minutes to discuss these important notions/acronyms in your groups. These acronyms will emerge in our discussions and readings quite often. </li></ul><ul><li>The group who can complete them all will get a prize  </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMPLEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL NATURE OF COMPOSITION AND TESOL DO YOU KNOW THESE IMPORTANT ACRONYMS? <ul><li>TESOL: Teaching English to speakers of other languages </li></ul><ul><li>ESL: English as a Second Language </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>EFL: English as a Foreign Language </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ELL: English Language learner </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ENL: English as a Native Language </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ELP: English language proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ESP: English for specific purposes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>EAP: English for academic purposes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>NNEST: Nonnative English speaking Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CLT: Communicative Language Teaching  </li></ul>05/25/10 World Englishes & Teacher Education
  7. 7. COMPLEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL NATURE OF COMPOSITION AND TESOL DO YOU KNOW THESE IMPORTANT ACRONYMS? <ul><li>EIL: English as an international language </li></ul><ul><li>SLA: Second Language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>LEP: Limited English Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>TOEFL: Test of English as a Foreign Language </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CELTA: Certificate of English Language Teaching to Adults </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>IELTS: International English Language Testing Service </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>05/25/10 World Englishes & Teacher Education
  8. 8. COMPLEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL NATURE OF COMPOSITION AND TESOL DO YOU KNOW THESE IMPORTANT ACRONYMS? <ul><li>IRE/IRF: Initiation Response Evaluation/follow up. </li></ul><ul><li>L1/L2: Fist language and second language </li></ul><ul><li>NS/NNS: Native speaker/nonnative speaker </li></ul><ul><li>ISE: International Standard English </li></ul><ul><li>ELL: English Language learner </li></ul><ul><li>HLL: Heritage Language Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Gen 1.5: Generation 1.5 (bilingual/bicultural identities w/CALP issues) </li></ul><ul><li>LEP: Limited English Proficient </li></ul>05/25/10 World Englishes & Teacher Education
  9. 9. COMPLEX AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL NATURE OF COMPOSITION AND TESOL DO YOU KNOW THESE IMPORTANT ACRONYMS? <ul><li>WE: World Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>EPD: English Pronunciation Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>IPA: International Phonetic Association </li></ul>
  10. 10. MCARTHUR(2001) WORLD ENGLISH AND WORLD ENGLISHES: TRENDS, TENSIONS, VARIETIES, AND STANDARDS SPREAD OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>Historical Context </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon settlement: 5 th century </li></ul><ul><li>The Scandinavian settlement: 9 th century </li></ul><ul><li>1066 and on: The Middle English Period </li></ul><ul><li>First Diaspora: Colonization of Americas by Europeans: Walter Raleigh’s expedition of 1584 to the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Second Diaspora (1795-on): diffusion of English within diverse groups of speakers </li></ul>
  11. 11. MCARTHUR(2001) WORLD ENGLISH AND WORLD ENGLISHES: TRENDS, TENSIONS, VARIETIES, AND STANDARDS SPREAD OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>In 1900s-Queen’s or King’s English: “good, proper English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1930s-British Standard English (BrSE) and American Standard English (AmSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the late 20 th century- Emergence of traditional standard English. Coexistence of BrSE and AmSE with world English or range of world Englishes…Standard Englishes </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. MCARTHUR(2001) WORLD ENGLISH AND WORLD ENGLISHES: TRENDS, TENSIONS, VARIETIES, AND STANDARDS SPREAD OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>Supranatural standards: Standard English to which both US and UK varieties contribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of English led to notions such as World English/World Standard English/International Standard English (see handout for definitions) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think such a monolith exist in practical terms (ELT industry)? </li></ul>
  15. 15. SOME OF THE PRIME ISSUES FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING: MCARTHUR(2001) WORLD ENGLISH AND WORLD ENGLISHES: TRENDS, TENSIONS, VARIETIES, AND STANDARDS <ul><li>UK and US usage as dual standard in world media. </li></ul><ul><li>The influential model of WE: ESL/EFL/ENL. However, remember that such notions are also being problemitized and challenged in today’s fluid circumstances such as the Internet, migration, mass travel etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We see tensions among the various linguistic standards. There is a need for some kind of standard international variety 9for practical manifestations) </li></ul><ul><li>There is more certainty on what users of English will be able to read and write in order to be understood worldwide. One the other hand, there is less assurance about how they speak in order to be understood worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a wish or need among self-confident L2 users to know where they stand within the framework of complex WE. Do they have a full voice? Does NS respect their investment to this language? Can they talk back as equals? </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION: COLONIALISM AS THE CENTRAL REASON FOR THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH (AS A RESULT OF SECOND DIASPORA) <ul><li>ELT was always a significant part of colonial policy. Where the empire spread so did English” (Pennycook, 1998 p.20) </li></ul><ul><li>English=Power (e.g. material, symbolic and cultural capital) Colonizers vs colonized </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic Imperialism (Phillipson, 1992): the spread of English within British and American colonies. Leads to structural and cultural inequalities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. PHILLIPS (1996) TENENS THAT DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF COLONIAL HISTORY <ul><li>English is best taught monolingually </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal of English teacher is a native speaker </li></ul><ul><li>The earlier english is taught the better the results are. </li></ul><ul><li>If other languages are used much, standars of english will drop. </li></ul><ul><li>Core English speaking countries vs periphery countries (Nigeria, India, Singapore) </li></ul>
  18. 18. PHILIPHSON’S DIVIDE OF THE ENLIGH-USING WORLD <ul><li>Periphery: </li></ul><ul><li>1) “countries that require English as an international link”—Japan, Korea, Italy, Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>2) “and those who use it intranational purposes”—India, Singapore (former colonial countries </li></ul><ul><li>Center: </li></ul><ul><li>Countries in the Inner circle (USA, UK, New Zealand, Australia) </li></ul>
  19. 19. OPPOSING VIEWS ON LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM <ul><li>Brutt-Griffler (2002) is one of the strong oponents of Linguistic imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>“ When agency in spread is taken one-sidedly, it contributes to the writing of an imperial narrative of English spread…The conceptual lens of linguisitic imperialism obscured the role of Africans, Asians, and other peoples of the world as active agents in the process of creation of world Englishes” (p.107) </li></ul>
  20. 20. A REPRESENTATIVE EXAMPLE FROM A COLONIZED COUNTRY: CANAGARAJAH’S WORK IN A TAMIL COMMUNITY <ul><li>Northern Sri Lanka. His study reported that noth teachers and students pursue and reject learning of English. </li></ul><ul><li>“ History is replate with examples of colonized subjects who have betrayed the claims of the vernecular for the adventages of english, and who now feel they are in some sense outsiders in both Western and local communities” (p.1) </li></ul>
  21. 21. KACHRU (1986) THE ALCHEMY OF ENGLISH <ul><li>The 19 th century promoted this belief: “ Knowing Enlighs is like possessing the fabeled alladdin’s lamp, which permits one to open, as it were, the linguisitc gates to international business, technology, service, science and travel”(p.1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ English is used official of semi-official language in 60 courtiers, and had a prominent place in a further 20…Over two-thirds of the world’s scientists write in English. The quarters of the world’s mail is written in English” Crystal (1987) </li></ul>
  22. 22. PENNYCOOK’S ( 1994, 2001)CULTURAL POLITICS OF ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE AND CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS <ul><li>Pennycook endorses Phillipson’s view and also thinks that Anglophone countries (Britain and America) have promoted English because of economic and political reasons. </li></ul>
  23. 23. INCENTIVES FOR LEARNING ENGLISH <ul><li>Economic Incentives (e.g. outsourcing, international corporations) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Incentives (e.g. dominated by NS model and SE) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media Incentives (e.g. US controls 75 percent of the world film market) </li></ul>
  24. 24. YOUR VOICES <ul><li>Do you agree that the spread of English creates social and cultural inequalities in the world and in the ELT profession? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think ELT profession can help eradicate/fight linguicism ? </li></ul>
  25. 25. WORLD ENGLISHES TODAY(PART 1) HASAN’S (2003) GLOBALIZATION, LITERACY AND IDEOLOGY <ul><li>Halliday </li></ul><ul><li>Aya Matsuda </li></ul><ul><li>Hassan </li></ul>
  26. 26. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART 1) HALLIDAY’S (2003) WRITTEN, STANDARD, AND GLOBAL LANGUAGE <ul><li>Takes a sociohistorical perspective and discusses the new identities English language is gaining as a global language. </li></ul><ul><li>A standard language was just another dialect, but one that happen to wear a fancy uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>New meanings ands new ways of meanings are created in the colonial period. </li></ul><ul><li>Global English is a new phenomenon: Systemic processes that goes on as the language moves into new sociopolitical contexts. </li></ul>
  27. 27. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART 1) HALLIDAY’S (2003) WRITTEN, STANDARD, AND GLOBAL LANGUAGE <ul><ul><li>The process of becoming a standard language is something that can be examined historically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in a language is a systemic process. See the description of word-Borrowing on page 410. Latin as language of prestige. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are various historical conditions under which some dialectical varieties of a language nay emerge as dominant : In England Standard English= the birth of nation-state. In China, Mandarin as the language of feudal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if a language is not standardized, nationalized ?--Hope for a “functional dimension of a language… Indianization of English (Kachru, 1983)” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the inevitability of “retaining some features of the native forms of expression…” for the language to be “global-moving from one nation to the other as a second …” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART 1) HALLIDAY’S (2003) WRITTEN, STANDARD, AND GLOBAL LANGUAGE <ul><li>Examples of historical influences taking on New Meaning, Its Access: Resulting in Limitations due to Inequalities in the Social Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower Bed (English) to “Marriage Bed” (Indian English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zougou (Chinese) to “Lackey, running dogs” (English translation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What other examples from your own and from your students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As language educators, what happens when your students don’t perceive a need for what they are learning? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART 1) HALLIDAY’S (2003) WRITTEN, STANDARD, AND GLOBAL LANGUAGE <ul><li>Global versus International English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International English—world Englishes: the process of evolution as a way to adapt to the meanings of other cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global English—by taking over, or being taken over by, the new information technology, email, internet, mass media ads., news reports … forms of political and commercial propaganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two seem NOT to have mixed “Infotechnology seems to be dominated by the English of the Inner Circle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If English of the outer circle had more impact on the global scene, those who monopolize the media would not longer automatically monopolize the meanings…” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART 1) HALLIDAY’S (2003) WRITTEN, STANDARD, AND GLOBAL LANGUAGE <ul><li>Meanings get shaped not by decree but through ongoing interaction in the semiotic contexts of daily life….World Englishes are used in global contexts, even if those who participates in them are still only a fraction of the total population of the globe </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rather than trying to fight off global English, which at present seems to be rather a quixotic venture, those who seek to resist its baleful impact might do better to concentrate on transforming it, reshaping its meanings” (p.417) </li></ul>
  31. 31. YOUR VOICES ON HALLIDAY’S ARTICLE <ul><li>Given the two quotes you just read, in what ways do you think we can help our students create new meanings? What pedagogical tasks can you construct? </li></ul><ul><li>On pp. 416-417, the author states, “If African and Asian varieties of English are not simply vehicles for their regional cultures but also their communities’ means of access to a culture that is already in effect global, those who speak and write these varieties are not constrained to be only consumers of the meanings of others; they can be creators of meanings, contributors to a global English which is also at the same time international.” What pedagogical tasks can you have your students produce as a long-term project? </li></ul>
  32. 32. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART I) HASSAN (2006) GLOBALIZATION, LITERACY AND IDEOLOGY. <ul><li>To understand how globalization might affect our lives, we need a form of literacy : Literacy must enable one to decide whose meanings are voiced in which acts of semiosis and for whose basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Much has been written on Globalization: </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a form of exploitation from early colonization to today’s free market. </li></ul><ul><li>It brings wealth and power through interconnectedness of nations and states “Today anything and everything is globalized.” </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide promulgation of principles and practices governed by an ideology of capitalism. </li></ul>
  33. 33. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART I) HASSAN (2006) GLOBALIZATION, LITERACY AND IDEOLOGY. <ul><li>“ Globalization is not the product of a single action, like switching on a light or starting a car engine. It is a historical process that has speeded up enormously in the last ten years (beginning of 1989 free market fundamentalism” </li></ul><ul><li>Know the ideology specific connection of language(P.437-447). Linguistic notions such as hymponym, antonym, connotation, denotation of a word, inherent evaluation (positive/negative/neutral) </li></ul>
  34. 34. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART I) HASSAN (2006) GLOBALIZATION, LITERACY AND IDEOLOGY. <ul><li>The role of literacy education in the context of globalization: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition literacy: Reading and writing as skills. “collection code”(Berstein, 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Action literacy: “Language across the curriculum”. Enables students to “write to mean” (e.g. writing for self-expression) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection literacy: Reading and writing as an instrument of social formation. Moves from simple interpretation of a text and comprehension into enquiry: What is the socil significance of a text; what do the words and texts achieve, to whose loaa and to nwhose benefit? (ideological literacy vs autonomous literacy) </li></ul>
  35. 35. YOUR VOICES <ul><li>The author states on page 447 “…we talk of English as a killer language, we put the blame where it does not belong. It is not English that is the killer, it is the ideology of the dominant speakers of English, their ways of being, thinking, doing, and saying that knowingly or unknowingly kill” (p. 447)—What do you make out of this powerful statement which says “the use of language is always ideological”? How do you think this ideology manifests itself in your schooling contexts? (e.g. think about textbook production, dominant ELT pedagogies, standard English debate ) </li></ul>
  36. 36. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART I): MATSUDA’S (2003) THE OWNERSHIP OF ENGLISH IN JAPANESE SECONDARY SCHOOLS <ul><li>The purpose of Matsuda’s research is…. </li></ul><ul><li>The study took place at…. </li></ul><ul><li>The participants are…. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection was achieved through… </li></ul><ul><li>The results of this study are… </li></ul>
  37. 37. MATSUDA’S (2003) THE OWNERSHIP OF ENGLISH IN JAPANESE SECONDARY SCHOOLS <ul><li>The purpose of this study is </li></ul><ul><li>To examine how students in EC perceived English as an international language (EIL) </li></ul><ul><li>To promote a pluralistic view of EIL. In other words, to raise awareness that it also belongs to people of various nations who use varieties of the language for their own purposes, which play crucial roles in defining English in today’s globalized world. </li></ul><ul><li>To raise awareness of the existence of other varieties and the increased power as EIL users </li></ul>
  38. 38. MATSUDA’S (2003) THE OWNERSHIP OF ENGLISH IN JAPANESE SECONDARY SCHOOLS <ul><li>After studying a group of Japanese high school students on the topic of EIL and the ownership of English, Matsuda found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EIL ---international and intercultural understanding & communication, economic prestige of ELF, access a wide range of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Speakers- --Western countries (i.e., America and England) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Circle Varieties —not sure what they were even though they knew of their existence, lack of interests, and saw them as marginal to IC varieties, which became the measuring stick for other varieties </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. MATSUDA’S (2003) THE OWNERSHIP OF ENGLISH IN JAPANESE SECONDARY SCHOOLS <ul><li>Discussion and Implication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise awareness about how English does belong to the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the exposure to multiple varieties of English in classroom, and that American English is one of many varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more personal contact with people from other cultures such as a virtual exchange program, engaging in an immigrant community project, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design assessment and evaluation criteria based on comprehensibility and communicative competence as opposed to grammatical accuracy as a way to negotiate “teaching to the test” </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. YOUR VOICES <ul><li>This study showed us one of the dominant discourses and ideologies pervasive in this Japanese secondary class context, as one example of an Expanding Circle country--- how can teacher education programs (i.e., MATESOL, graduate programs) prepare all teachers to bring about this change in their future teaching contexts? What are some practical (i.e., practicality, particularity, and possibility-Kumaravadivelu’s post-method pedagogies) ways to weave Matsuda’s implications into your curricula? </li></ul>
  41. 41. WORLD ENGLISHES TODAY (PART II) BALTON (2005) WHERE “WE” STANDS… <ul><li>Approaches to WE: </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic Approaches (Fishman, 1977) Kachru, 1982)pg. 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Approaches in WE: </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipson’s linguistic imperialism work </li></ul><ul><li>Pennycook’s critical applied linguistics and politics of English language spread </li></ul><ul><li>Graddol’s Future of English language (in the pre-9/11 era) </li></ul>
  43. 43. KACHRU: HISTORICALLY SITUATED- CATEGORIZATION OF ENGLISHES <ul><ul><li>Inner Circle: As a result of First Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Circle: As a result of Second Diaspora, Colonization of Asia & Africa-EAL; institutionalization of English due to the official recognition & acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding Circle: As a result of political & economic influence of GB & US in Middle East, East Asia, Latin America, etc.; Performance varieties (no official sanction except in education) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. WORLD ENGLISHES TODAY (PART II) BALTON (2005) WHERE “WE” STANDS… <ul><li>The Critical Turn and World Englishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennycook (2001, 2003) outlines the deficiencies of the WEs paradigm, “…far too exclusionary to be able to account for many uses of English around the world” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The debate between WEs (i.e., Bolton, Kachru) and CAL (i.e., Pennycook) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical examination of a call for a “deeper political commitment” when the current economy shapes the higher education institutions with increase in funding cuts, privilege banking-education approach to designing curricula for both undergraduate and graduate education, decrease in the level of commitment, human and material resources for preparation of English teachers in OC and EC countries (where the vast majority is NNESTs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently and persistently promote the strength of the World Englishes paradigm: “…pluralism and inclusivity” </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE TO WE: PENNYCOOK <ul><li>See page 74-75 of Bolton The object of study is not the language data and linguistic analysis BUT ACTIVIST PEDAGOGICAL POLITICS </li></ul><ul><li>Pennycook takes an issue with the three circles, and say that WE paradigm becomes too exclusionary and a native political perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolton adds… Kachruvian models has not been intended to be monolithic </li></ul>
  46. 46. BERNS (2005) EXPENDING ON THE EXPENDING CIRCLE <ul><li>Identifying the characteristics of Kahcruvian Circles: By sources of norms, status of enlgish, second or foreign language, functional and history of colonization </li></ul>
  47. 47. WORLD ENGLISHES (PART II) BERNS (2005) ENGLISH IN EXPANDING CIRCLE <ul><li>Myths and Fallacies about English language industry in the expanding circle countries: </li></ul><ul><li>English is learned through the interactions with a native speaker (learning the native-like mastery) </li></ul><ul><li>English language is inextricably linked to the Inner circle language and culture (more specifically (US and Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>English: British English Literature: Shakespeare Cultural monuments: Big Ben, Central Park, Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you relate any of these myths? Are these ideologies pervasive in your teaching contexts? </li></ul>
  48. 48. MARGIE BERNS’S OBSERVATION ON WE RESEARCH <ul><li>Western and Northern Europe has the most attention in WE and English Form </li></ul><ul><li>Japan and China are also well represented (Japan: 10 articles, special issue. China: 8 articles and a special issue) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The forgotten continents”: Less attention has been given to Southern and Eastern Europe, North Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador and Peru </li></ul>
  49. 49. BERNS (2005) EXPANDING ON THE EC <ul><li>What is the Future of WE in EC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please refer to the research agenda on pages 91-92, How would you re-conceptualize and implement some of these research ideas to use with your teahcing context, withy our students or as a class project to raise awareness about the issues in EC countries? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those of you teaching in and/or planning to teach in one of the EC countries, what might be some pressing issues in the teaching context(s)? </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. AN ACTIVITY: <ul><li>Please create a chart in your groups and write down the characteristics of each Kachruvian circles. Here are some of the guiding questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How do you identify the circles(linguistically, and socioculturally)? </li></ul><ul><li>What areas of the world are identified with Inner circle, Expending and Outer circle? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think research on WE in the “forgotten continents” can reach to the “center”? </li></ul>
  51. 51. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 1: WORLD ENGLISHES TODAY <ul><li>In your groups, define the following terms as described in Kahcru et. al (2006): </li></ul><ul><li>World Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect variation </li></ul><ul><li>Standard English </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual English users </li></ul>
  52. 52. YOUR VOICES (KACHRU ET. AL. P.22) <ul><li>1. How important is it for users and teachers of English and researchers in your field to become aware of all variation in the region and across the regions? </li></ul><ul><li>2. A great deal of importance is attached to standard language, and dialects—whether geographical, or based on factors such as ethnicity, gender, age etc—are either totally neglected or less valued in”high culture” context of academia, government, legal system etc. What are the consequences of this sociolinguisitic practice? What is your reaction to Bolton’s plea for creating “space” for not only the more standard-like variety but also playful varieties in your own region? </li></ul>
  53. 53. C WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORKS (CHAPTER 2) <ul><li>Native vs nonnative Debate </li></ul><ul><li>“ The fundamental opposition (between NS and NNS) is one of power and that in the event membership is determined by the non-native speaker’s assumption of confidence and of identity”—This is the debate of marginilization and privilege in language education field. </li></ul><ul><li>ESL vs EFL: The prevailing view </li></ul><ul><li>EFL—learners who learnt english from a distance and for limited utility </li></ul><ul><li>ESL—learners who studied the language intensly and intimately. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech community and speech fellowship </li></ul><ul><li>“ a wide ranging association of varieties “--The definition play an exclusion game by not allowing speakers from certain regions into the club of the speech community </li></ul>
  54. 54. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) <ul><li>Range and Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Range: all functions English is given in community contexts( education, business, legal system) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth: the uses of English that are available to people with varying degrees of education, SES, jobs and professions. </li></ul><ul><li>Norm Providing and norm accepting </li></ul><ul><li>IC: perceived as norm-providing (teaching models, linguistics, cultural etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>EC: perceived to be norm-accepting </li></ul><ul><li>OC: More complicated (norm-developing) </li></ul>
  55. 55. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) <ul><li>Multilingualism and models </li></ul><ul><li>--greater funds of resources </li></ul><ul><li>--deficiency vs recourse argument: The variation in multilingual speech is not lack of proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing and code-switching languages. </li></ul>
  56. 56. YOUR VOICES: DISCUSSION (P.34) <ul><li>Andreasson (1994) Speaking English is simply not related to cultural identity. It is rather an exponent of one’s academic and language-learning abilities. It would therefore , be far from a compliment to tell a spanish person that his or her variety is spanish english. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it true that using a second or additional language in the EC is not related to one’s cultural identity? </li></ul>
  57. 57. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 4: CONTEXTS AND IDENTITIES <ul><li>The focus of this chapter is pragmatics and sociocultural knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence: Knowledge of language that the speakers have (e.g. grammar and vocab.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic competence: how to use the language to express one’s intents and purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge of who to interact with, what to say why, when and how; how to negotiate, and also when to be a non-participant </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 4: CONTEXTS AND IDENTITIES <ul><li>Conventions of Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative principle (Grice, 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech acts (Austin, 1962; Searle, 1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness (Brown and Levinson, 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation analysis (Sacks et al, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Gricean Maxims (cooperative principles on Pg 53)- How would you respond as Professor B in your WEs contexts? </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness (examples on pg. 54 about “looking older” & the epigraph btw Takashi and Susan)- How would different WE varieties respond in this situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Acts (ex. On pg.55)- appropriateness of diverse linguistic expressions for a variety of speech acts is culturally specific </li></ul>
  59. 59. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 4: CONTEXTS AND IDENTITIES <ul><li>Conversational Analysis (Sacks, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>--based on ethnomethodology </li></ul><ul><li>--aims at understanding the co-construction of sociocultural meaning as people interact </li></ul><ul><li>--looks at intearactions across ethnic and gender groups. </li></ul><ul><li>--E.G. Japanese participants’ use of back channeling (yeah, really, uhmm) </li></ul>
  60. 60. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 4: CONTEXTS AND IDENTITIES <ul><ul><li>SPEECH ACTS IN WORLD ENGLISHES: Do speakers perform the same speech acts in the same contexts using the same linguistic tools? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies of Request in Indian English (7 situations on p. 57) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less frequent use of indirect requests and more frequent use of direct commands & straightforward questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the importance of speakers of mother tongue, class, region, and age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consideration of the “social meaning” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degrees of westernization & stratification within OC countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partial linguistic/communicative competence due to English not being a vehicle of daily communication </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 4: CONTEXTS AND IDENTITIES <ul><li>CONVENTIONS OF WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>Different rhetorical structures, genres and styles while writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural Rhetoric (contrastive rhetoric)—Kaplan, 1966, Atkinson, Connor, Matsuda. Etc. in second language writing field. </li></ul><ul><li>Your voices: If time allows, see page 61 activity # 1. </li></ul>
  62. 62. WORLD ENGLISHES IN ASIAN CONTEXTS KACHRU, YAMUNA,NELSON &CECIL (2006) CHAPTER 9: TEACHING AND TESTING WE <ul><li>Myths about English: Normative restrictions concerning production, function, authentication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealization of native speakers-myth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer circle and Expanding Circle speakers as being “interlanguage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primacy and norm-providing capacity of Inner Circle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second class status of OC & EC Englishes and their users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disregard for the development and innovation of OC-EC Englishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discourses of Marginality (pg. 122-144) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decontextualization of texts, reference books, and other teaching materials as a result of the spread of English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depowering discourse strategies (US vs. THEM): derationalizing, normalizing, and negation </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>World Englishes in Teacher Education Profession. How to develop strategies to counteract the myths that guide ELT practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. “theories and models the students are exposed to should explore how English is learned and taught around the world” (Brown, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. “…since many of the students in IC teacher education programs are from OC/EC countries, it would be doing a disserive to them if they were left with the erroneous idea that ‘the truth’ about their eventual professional situations resided in the West, with no input from their own situations…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. the needs of the teacher education students should be the focus in designing and restructuring the programs as a way to promote authentic teaching applications in their future teaching contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Move away from insisting on an IC model of teaching for all contexts—problematize linguistic imperialism </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Curricular Changes in Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate world Englishes awareness in an ‘internationalization’ of curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand journals and other reading materials that include other varieties of Englishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit international student volunteers as models and examplars in the class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to watch and discuss the movies where other varieties of Englishes are used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observe linguistic and sociolinguistic parameters of Englishes around the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation of Curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Procedures for using newspapers as teaching materials in OC/EC countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on specific reading skills and strategies to meet their goals and purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote language focused, context-specific activities such as correcting and translating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do rewriting exercises such as rewriting Pakistani text for IC readers, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 65. YOUR VOICES <ul><li>Design a context specific task similar to what was explained in this chapter. See the following links to access newspapers of various countries and to get tips in including language varieties in your classrooms: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  67. 67. PRESENTATIONS/DISCUSSION FACILITATION (30 POINTS) <ul><li>Groups # 1: Paule, Secil, Chia-Chen </li></ul><ul><li>Group #2: Leslie, Sherry </li></ul><ul><li>Group # 3: Kim, Molly, Robin </li></ul><ul><li>Group # 4: Nawwaf, Bandar, Shadi </li></ul>
  68. 68. DISCUSSION FACILITATIONS (NO MORE THAN 90 MINUTES) <ul><li>Summarize the main arguments of the author (In the case of an empirical article, explain the research context, methodology, data analysis and the research findings) </li></ul><ul><li>Use visuals, and provide a handout if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the arguments in students’ own teaching contexts. Design activities or discussion questions that will lead the class into an interactive session. </li></ul><ul><li>Raising questions or counter-arguments to develop or problematize the arguments made by the author(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, all members of the class will reflect on the content of the presentation in their individual blogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Please also refer to your rubrics! </li></ul>
  69. 69. GROUP/INDIVIDUAL PROPOSALS FOR 2011 ACADEMIC CONFERENCES <ul><li>TESOL Convention (New Orleans, Deadline 6/1) </li></ul><ul><li>AERA (New Orleans, Deadline 7/15) </li></ul><ul><li>AAAL (Chicago, Deadline 8/15) </li></ul><ul><li>SSLW (Taiwan, Deadline-TBA) </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the individual proposals, let’s also put together a class proposal for the WE/TESOL/COMP/SLA Strands for these conferences. </li></ul>
  70. 70. PRAXIS/DESIGNING A PEDAGOGICAL CLASSROOM TASK (30 POINTS): <ul><li>Based on the articles you have read in this class, design a set of literacy activities for your students. Select at least 2-3 articles of your choice from the reading list. Use these articles to provide a rationale for your class design. In your praxis paper, please address the following components: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching context: Where is this class being taught? What are the language standards like? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of the class: Spoken or Written English </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Who are your students? (level, age, needs) </li></ul><ul><li>WE task: What tasks are you using to incorporate the WE principles you learnt from the readings? What materials (textbooks, visuals etc.) are you using? </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a reading list to be used in the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection: What complexities and resistance would you anticipate encountering? </li></ul>
  71. 71. BOOK REVIEW (FOR PHD STUDENTS ONLY) <ul><li>Information regarding this component will be provided by the course assistant. She will also share with you samples of actual reviews. </li></ul>
  72. 72. BLOG CREATION <ul><li>Go to </li></ul><ul><li>Register online </li></ul><ul><li>Open an individual blog account. </li></ul><ul><li>Send your blog address to [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Write the first entry of the day on an article (s) you selected. </li></ul>
  74. 74. SOME FACTS BEFORE WE BEGIN… <ul><li>20 percent of those 5 and older speak a language other than English (one out of five!) </li></ul><ul><li>This figure has increased by 6 percent since 90s. </li></ul><ul><li>62 percent of all speakers of other languages and 12 percent of US population speaks Spanish (Spanish is the most common language in the US-followed by Chinese, Tagalog, French and Vietnamese) </li></ul><ul><li>See the figure 1.1. and 1.2. in Farr et. al. 2010. </li></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>Bilingual education results in lower drop-out rates (twenty percent of Hispanics are classified as drop-outs!) </li></ul><ul><li>No single program fits all students. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a bilingual education? </li></ul>BILINGUAL EDUCATION IS NOT A LUXURY, IT IS A HUMAN RIGHT
  76. 76. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF BEING BILINGUAL IN THE UNITED STATES?” <ul><li>A. Improves self esteem, personal satisfaction 0.6% </li></ul><ul><li>b. Broadens cross-cultural understanding generally 2.9% </li></ul><ul><li>c. Increases communication skills 26.4% </li></ul><ul><li>d. Improves one’s image 1.0% </li></ul><ul><li>e. Home/family advantages 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>f. Societal/community benefits 10.4% </li></ul><ul><li>g. Improves employment opportunities 45.1% </li></ul><ul><li>h. Improves education opportunities or success 5.8% (Wiley, 1988) </li></ul>
  77. 77. ENGLISH-ONLY MOVEMENT <ul><li>There are persistent misconceptions about teaching only Standard English only to ethnolinguistically diverse student population. </li></ul><ul><li>It is certainly NOT the most effective way to teach language minority students. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is full of studies on the negative impact of English-only movement. Teachers must use students cultural and linguistic backgrounds to prevent many social and educatioal problems. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of this, U.S. Latino students experience more remedial instruction, greater probability of assignment to lower curriculum tracks, higher dropout rates, poorer graduation rates, and over-referral to special education classes (Artiles & Ortiz, 2002; Cummins, 1984; De Cohen, Deterding, & Chu Clewell, 2005). </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Interference concern </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of time concern </li></ul><ul><li>No benefit hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccurate media reports </li></ul>ANTI-BILINGUAL EDUCATION MOVEMENT– (BASED ON MYTHS NOT ON THEORIES)
  79. 79. <ul><li>Students who speak their mother tongue fluently do better in English than students who studies only English and forced to leave their heritage language (see Raimes, 1992 Harklau, Cummins, Wolfram among many others) </li></ul><ul><li>Students who read in dialect/first language first and then standard had higher scores in reading speed and comprehension of the Standard English </li></ul>EMPIRICAL STUDIES ON THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION
  80. 80. <ul><li>Two-way bilingual education </li></ul><ul><li>Structured immersion </li></ul><ul><li>ESL programs </li></ul><ul><li>Sheltered English, Content Based ESOL </li></ul><ul><li>Submersion Programs </li></ul>DIFFERENT TYPES FOR LANGUAGE MINORITY STUDENTS IN K-12
  81. 81. <ul><li>Both language minority and language majority students work together to learn the content. </li></ul><ul><li>It aims to lessen the social distance and unequal social status often found between NS and NNS students in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Every bilingual program includes target language and the home language. </li></ul>TWO-WAY BILINGUAL PROGRAMS
  82. 82. SHELTERED INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Content classes that are Designed specifically for ESL students (SIOP MODEL) </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at development of both language and content. </li></ul><ul><li>Courses may be team-taught </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are not necessarily bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Students speak variety of languages </li></ul>
  83. 83. STRUCTURED IMMERSION PROGRAMS <ul><li>English-only programs </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers might be bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>They “accept” students native languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, these programs would not be considered bilingual programs </li></ul>
  84. 84. SUBMERSION PROGRAMS <ul><li>Sink or swim programs </li></ul><ul><li>ESL students are directly placed in mainstream classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>They receive only some support from ESL pull-out classrooms or one-on-one tutorials </li></ul>
  88. 88. AGENDA FRIDAY, MAY 28 TH