English as a global language


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English as a global language

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Language is the primary medium of human social interaction,and interaction is the means through which social relations areconstructed and maintained. It is a vital commodity in a globalizedworld (Block and Cameron, 2002). It means that every people needs and uses language as a meansto communicate to each other. People need language to express theirneeds in many aspects of life. So, as the community of the world,people need language to be used as a means of globalcommunication. In this sense, our group will present the topic aboutEnglish as an International/ a Global language. This paper will focuses on discussing the following questions:What is international or global language? Why do we needinternational or global language? Why English becomes aninternational or a global language? What are the implications ofEnglish as an International or a Global Language in EnglishLanguage Teaching?
  3. 3. What is International or Global Language? Smith (1976) as cited by Sandra Lee McKay defines aninternational language as the language which is used by people ofdifferent nations to communicate with one another. David Crystal, 2003 in “English as a Global Language”,gives some ideas on what a global language is. He stated that alanguage achieves a genuinely global status when it develops aspecial role that is recognized in every country. Such a role will bemost evident in countries where large numbers of the people speakthe language as a mother tongue. He also stated that to achieve aglobal status, a language has to be taken up by other countriesaround the world. They must decide to give it a special place withintheir communities, even though they may have few (or no) mother-tongue speakers.
  4. 4. There are two main ways in which a language can be made the official language of a country• Firstly, it is used as a medium • Secondly, a language can of communication in such be made a priority in a domains as government, the country’s foreign-language law courts, the media, and the teaching, even though this educational system. To get on in these societies, it is essential language has no official to master the official language status. It becomes the as early in life as possible. language which children Such a language is often are most likely to be described as a “second taught when they arrive in language”, because it is seen school. (Crystal, 2003) as a complement to a person’s mother tongue or first language.
  5. 5. Why do we need an International or a Global Language?There are some reasons such as:• According to Crystal (2003), thousands of years ago, translation played a central role in human interaction. For example, when ambassadors met on the International stage there would be interpreters present. In this way, misunderstanding will appear because of so many languages used in the community.• As global community, people around the world will always keep in contact in international forums for political, economical, educational, and many other international affairs, and even in private businesses.• Another example is that when communities begin to trade with each other, they communicate by adopting a simplified language, known as pidgin, which combines elements of their different languages.
  6. 6. Why do we need an International or a Global Language? (Continued)• United Nation (UN in 1945) and many International bodies such as World bank (1945), UNESCO and UNICEF (1946), WHO (1948), etc. were established. Around 190 countries take part in UN bodies and will be represented in single meeting places. These reasons determine that every people in this world need a language which can be used globally or internationally as medium of communication to enable them to communicate and understand each other easily. The need for a global language is particularly appreciated by the international academic and business communities, and it is here that the adoption of a single lingua franca or common language is most in evidence, both in lecture- rooms and board rooms, as well as in thousands of individual contacts being made daily all over the globe.
  7. 7. Map of English spreadto become an International/ a Global Language
  8. 8. Why English becomesan International/ a Global Language
  9. 9. 1. Old English (450-1100 AD) The invading Germanic tribes spoke similarlanguages, which in Britain developed into what wenow call Old English. Old English did not sound orlook like English today. Native English speakers nowwould have great difficulty understanding OldEnglish. Nevertheless, about half of the mostcommonly used words in Modern English have OldEnglish roots. The words be, strong and water, forexample, derive from Old English. Old English wasspoken until around 1100.
  10. 10. 2. Middle English (1100-1500) In 1066, William the Conqueror the Duke ofNormandy (part of modern France), invaded andconquered England. The new conquerors (called theNormans) brought with them a kind of French, whichbecame the language of the Royal Court, and the rulingand business classes. For a period there was a kind oflinguistic class division, where the lower classes spokeEnglish and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14thcentury English became dominant in Britain again, butwith many French words added. This language is calledMiddle English. It was the language of the great poetChaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult fornative English speakers to understand today.
  11. 11. 3. Modern English Early Modern English (1500-1800) Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden anddistinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift)started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter.From the 16th century the British had contact with manypeoples from around the world.This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant thatmany new words and phrases entered the language. Theinvention of printing also meant that there was now acommon language in print. Books became cheaper andmore people learned to read. Printing also broughtstandardization to English. Spelling and grammar becamefixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishinghouses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first Englishdictionary was published.
  12. 12. 3. Modern English Late Modern English (1800-Present) The main difference between Early ModernEnglish and Late Modern English is vocabulary. LateModern English has many more words, arising fromtwo principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolutionand technology created a need for new words;secondly, the British Empire at its height covered onequarter of the earths surface, and the Englishlanguage adopted foreign words from many countries.
  13. 13. The reason why a language becomes a Global or an InternationalLanguage is not only deals with how many people speak it, but more dealswith who those speakers are. A language has traditionally become anInternational language for one chief reason: “the power of its people” inmany aspects (especially economical, technological, political, and militarypower). From the time the US entered the First World War in 1917 rightthrough to the present, the US has been one of the major military powers inthe world. The economic and military has forced the traders and soldiershad to learn English to do their job properly. Because industry, explorationand military demands needed and contributed to learning, so, a lot ofscientific discourse carried out primarily in English. The combination ofindustry, trade, war, and learning all of which use English has put Englishin its position as the world’s pre-eminent language (Bauer, 2002).
  14. 14. Similarly, Crystal as cited by McKay also concluded theprimary reason for the spread of English becoming an internationallanguage that:“in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries English was the languageof the leading colonial nation – (Britain). In the eighteenth and thenineteenth centuries it was the language of the leader of the industrialrevolution – also in Britain. In the late-nineteenth century and theearly twentieth century it was the language of the leading economicpower – the (USA). As a result, when new technologies brought newlinguistic opportunities, English emerged as a first-rank language inindustries which affected all aspects of society – the press, advertising,broadcasting, motion pictures, sound recording, transport andcommunication (Crystal 1997:110-11 in McKay, 2002:16).
  15. 15. VARIETIES OF ENGLISH AND STANDARD ENGLISHKachru’s concentric circles of English Expanding Outer Inner
  16. 16. Example of English Varieties in Singapore Used for wider communication Standard and official purposes English Standard Used for primary education and Singapore local news English Singlish Used with family and friendsE.g. “She kena sabo by them.” “She was sabotaged by them.”
  17. 17. Standard EnglishLongman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics defines Standard English as: Thevariety of a language which has the highest status in a community ornation and which is usually based on the speech and writing of educatedspeakers of the language. the news media and in literature Standar d English taught in schools described in and taught to dictionaries and non-native grammars speakers
  19. 19. TEFLIN 4 Major SkillsListening Reading Speaking Writing
  20. 20. Language Components in TEFL Lang. Components Pronunciation Vocabulary Grammar
  21. 21. CONCLUSION Language is very important in our life as means of communication. As a global community, we really need a language which can be used as a means of global communication. In this case, English has become an international or a global language. So, every people in this world should be able to communicate in English in order to participate in global affairs. In teaching English as an international language, there are many theories, methodologies, and techniques that can be applied. However, as teachers, we should realize that there is no one best method for all contexts. So, it needs teacher’s sense of plausibility to select the appropriate methods, techniques, and materials that reflect local culture and meet student’s needs to develop language proficiency.
  22. 22. Thank You