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IBM Cloud Object Storage System (powered by Cleversafe) and its Applications

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IBM Cloud Object Storage System (powered by Cleversafe) and its Applications

  1. 1. #ibmedge© 2016 IBM Corporation 1367 IBM Cloud Object Storage System (powered by Cleversafe) and its Applications Tony Pearson, IBM Master Inventor and Senior Engineer
  2. 2. #ibmedge Abstract This session will cover private and public cloud storage options, including Flash, Disk and Tape to address the different types of cloud storage requirements The difference between with block, file and object stores, and where they are best used for different workloads will be explained. 1
  3. 3. #ibmedge This week with Tony Pearson Day Time Topic Monday 2:30pm All Flash is Not Created Equal: Tony Pearson Contrasts IBM FlashSystem and SSD Grand Garden Arena, Lower Level, MGM Grand - Studio A Wednesday 11:00am All Flash is Not Created Equal: Tony Pearson Contrasts IBM FlashSystem and SSD Grand Garden Arena, Lower Level, MGM Grand - Studio 2 1:15pm Tony Pearson Presents IBM Cloud Object Storage System and Its Applications MGM Grand - Room 114 2:30pm The Pendulum Swings Back: Tony Pearson Explains Converged and Hyperconverged Environments MGM Grand - Room 113 Thursday 09:00am Tony Pearson Presents IBM's Cloud Storage Options MGM Grand - Room 116 2
  4. 4. What is Object Store? IBM Cloud Object Storage System Applications and Use Cases Agenda
  5. 5. #ibmedge Clients are facing explosive growth in Unstructured Data, which is exactly why Object Storage is so critical*Exabytes 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Unstructured Data Structured Data Source: IDC Unstructured data growth of 60–80% per year creates Web-scale storage needs *1 exabyte = 1,000 petabytes =1 million terabytes = 1 billion gigabytes Problem - Traditional and Legacy Storage Designed for Transactional, Not Unstructured Data 4
  6. 6. #ibmedge How is Object Storage Different? Block and File Storage • Decide where to put it – For block, which array/volume/LUN – For file, which filer/subdirectory • Remember where it is to get it back • Read/Write records, append data • Limits on LUN size, number of files Object Storage • Provide data over to the Object storage – Get “claim stub” reference locator • Use or share “claim stub” to access data HTTP, Openstack Swift, S3 • Get/Put/Delete object in its entirety • Effectively “unlimited” scalability 5
  7. 7. #ibmedge Object Store for Unstructured data Hot Data High-IOPS and Low-Latency All-Flash and Hybrid Flash/Disk Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) Structured data / Random-Access Active logs and traces Virtual Machines and VDI Single-Tenancy Static and Stable data Backups, Files, Archives Seismic, Research, Telemetry, HPC Video, Animation, Body Cams Photos, Images, CAD/CAM, GIS Music, Audio Genomic, Medical Images Multi-tenancy Object Store provides a • Secure • Reliable • Scalable • Cost Effective Platform For Unstructured data Object Store is not designed for • High IOPS workflows • Transaction Processing • Inherent ILM 6
  8. 8. #ibmedge Volume vs. File vs. Object level access POSIX Read record Write record Volume Read block Write block SAN or LAN LAN File Read record Write record LAN or WAN Object Get, Put, Delete NFS, SMB Read record Write record REST Get, Put Delete SAN Zoning, LUN Masking •Device •LUN / Volser •Block ID Access Control List (ACL) Access Control List (ACL) •Mount point or Drive Letter •Path (subdirs) •File name •Account •Container •Object SCSI Reserve File Locking Eventual Consistency 7
  9. 9. #ibmedge Object Store Hierarchy – Account, Container and Object Account 1 Account 3Account 2 A1 D4 C3 B2 Photo123 Video789Doc456 Account • Object store can have one or more accounts • Each account could have separate administrators to manage ACLs • Provides Multi-tenancy, Secure isolation Container (aka “Bucket”) • Container can have one or more objects • Unique Container name within the account Object • A string of bits, similar to a file • Unique identifier within the container • No sub-containers, “flat namespace”, but can mimic subdirs with slashes a/b/c • Unique URI based on account, container and object id: Server-URL/Account2/C3/Doc456 8
  10. 10. #ibmedge Object Storage is Simpler for Application Development POSIX – over 60 commands NFS – over 30 commands HEAD • Read metadata GET • Read content and metadata PUT • Write content and metadata DELETE • Remove object or empty container POST • Update metadata Object – 5 commands SMB – over 80 commands 9
  11. 11. #ibmedge Where Objects can be Stored Proprietary, specialized Storage systems Software Defined, Commodity, Industry-standard SAN/LAN LAN/WAN Photo123 Video789 Doc456 Object-on-Database Relational and NoSQL Key/value stores Block or File devices RAID protection Object-on-File Account = File System Container = Fileset Object = File Metadata = Attributes Storage-rich Servers Multiple copies or Erasure Coding Eventually Consistent OpenStack Swift Amazon S3 Basic HTTP 10
  12. 12. #ibmedge Data Protection Schemes Tolerate 1 drive failure Tolerate 2 drive failures Tolerate “M” failures RAID-1 / RAID-10 K pieces 2 x K slices RAID-5 K pieces K + 1 slices 2.0X 1.2X 3.0X 1.5X 1.7XTriplication K pieces 3 x K slices RAID-6 K pieces K + 2 slices Erasure Coding K pieces K+M = N slices 11
  13. 13. What is Object Store? IBM Cloud Object Storage System Applications and Use Cases Agenda
  14. 14. #ibmedge Storage Positioning – Filling a Gap Unified file and object storage. Optimized for high performance, across flash and disk Flash 15K Unified file and object storage on tape Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) across tiers HighestPerformance Lowest cost Tape IBM was looking to offer easy to manage, scalable disk-based object storage for unstructured data • Moderate performance • Moderate cost 10K 7200 rpm 13
  15. 15. #ibmedge IBM acquires Cleversafe, Inc. IBM Cloud Object Storage System Object Store Over 350 Patents Awarded Object Storage Leader 2 years in a row Multiple Exabytes in Production Notable Milestones Acquired by IBM 2015 Software Company • Founded in 2004 in Chicago • Shipping product since 2008 Software Defined Object Storage • Over 100 people dedicated to software development Runs on Industry Standard x86 servers • Certified platforms to provide enterprise grade experience, predictable performance and support Product Renamed • IBM Cloud Object Storage System 14
  16. 16. #ibmedge Data Growth at Petabyte (PB) Scale PB of data 3 to 5x Data Protection RAID, Mirrors, Replication, Tape Data Protection High Availability & Disaster Recovery Geo-Distribution & Erasure Coding Infrastructure Proprietary, specialized hardware, multiple systems Operations More than 1 FTE per PB Maintenance outages Infrastructure Software Defined, Commodity Hardware, Single System Operations Less than 1 FTE per 6 PB Single system, Secure Self-healing 1.7 x 60% Less Hardware & Rack space Traditional Approach IBM Cloud Object Storage Approach 70% Lower TCO 15
  17. 17. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System economics beat legacy NAS storage and Amazon Web Services (AWS) $8,400 $4,210 $1,613 $1,053 Legacy NAS DR protected Legacy NAS single copy IBM Cloud Object + NAS gateway dsNet object protected IBM Cloud Object IBM Cloud Object vs NAS Cost: 80% lower $0 $2,000,000 $4,000,000 $6,000,000 $8,000,000 $10,000,000 480 TB 960 TB 1920 TB 3840 TB S3 Cost: 30 to 60% lower IBM Cloud Object vs AWS S3 IBM Cloud Object Amazon S3 16 IBM Cloud Object Storage Dedicated 1.7x faster “read” and 9.9x faster “write” performance than Amazon S3. --- Frost & Sullivan
  18. 18. #ibmedge dsNet® Manager • Fault management • Performance monitoring • Storage configuration • Reporting • Provisioning Accesser® • Slices data • Disperses data • Retrieves data • Use Load Balancer across accesser pools • Stateless • No cache • No metadata Slicestor® • Storage for slices • Single or multi-site • Capacity based pricing • Rebuilds slices Supported on Certified industry standard platforms Software Defined & Hardware Aware Qualified for predictable performance Faster time to production Choice of drive technology Single Pane Management of HW & SW IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Components 17
  19. 19. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Terminology HTTP Application Server dsNet Manger Accesser Slicestor Storage Pool Accesser PoolVault Load Balancer Site A Site B Site C End user Global Namespace Object Store organized in Accounts, Containers and Objects IBM Cloud Object Storage System uses “Vaults”. Vault = Account / Container Multiple vaults can share storage pools OpenStack Swift Amazon S3 18
  20. 20. #ibmedge Encryption Data-in-Flight HTTP dsNet protocol Application Server All data-in-flight secured by TLS/SSL dsNet Manger Accesser Slicestor In all cases, monitoring and event management secured by AES in SNMP v3 Rogue devices cannot become part of the system End user 19
  21. 21. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Single vs. Multi-Site Single Site Better performance, when site-tolerance not a factor, better than traditional RAID-5 / RAID-6 Two Site / Vault Mirroring Allows customers to leverage existing two-site infrastructure. Provides concurrent reads and writes despite communication disruption between locations. Local data better than traditional RAID-5 / RAID-6 Geographically Dispersed Three to Nine Sites Consider adding IBM SoftLayer or leverage existing datacenter locations to provide a broader distribution of data for higher availability, site- tolerance and scalability 20
  22. 22. #ibmedge CONTENT TRANSFORMATION IBM Cloud software encrypts, slices and applies Information Dispersal Algorithms otherwise known as erasure coding policies to the data. Data Ingest Accesser Software Storage Nodes Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Physical Distribution Slices are distributed to separate disks and industry standard x86 hardware across geographic locations. Data Retrieval Storage Nodes Reliable Retrieval An operator defined subset of slices is needed to retrieve data bit perfectly in real time. Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 BENEFITS The level of resiliency is fully customizable resulting in a massively reliable and efficient way to store data at scale as opposed to RAID and replication techniques. Accesser Software Slicestor Software How the IBM Cloud Object Storage System Works 21
  23. 23. #ibmedge Original Data Encrypted, Erasure Coded Slices 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 2 Slicestor® Appliances Accesser® Appliance, Application, VM, Docker Container or Embedded Accesser® $ 7 6 5 4 3 1 2Original object is encrypted then cut into pieces Each slice is written to a separate storage node. In this example, the storage nodes are geographically dispersed across 3 sites. Information Dispersal Algorithm (IDA) Erasure coding is used to transform the data into a customizable number of slices (7/12 in this example) Writing Data to IBM Cloud Object Storage System Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 22
  24. 24. #ibmedge “Zero Touch” Encryption Data-at-Rest Introducing the All-or-Nothing (AONT) package 23
  25. 25. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – SmartRead 24
  26. 26. #ibmedge Scalability Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 S3 Compatible API Openstack Swift Compatible API Simple Object API Slicestor Software Accesser Software Scalability – Scale performance and/or capacity at any time with no downtime to operations Need more Performance? Add more Accesser nodes Need more Capacity? Add more disks to existing Slicestor nodes, or add more storage pools – All pools must have the same number of nodes – Difference storage pools can have different amounts of storage – All nodes in each storage pool must have same amount of storage Storage Pool 1 Storage Pool 2 Storage Pool 3 25
  27. 27. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Software, Pre-Built Systems or Cloud Services Software • ClevOS – IBM Cloud Object Storage System software packaged with Debian Linux OS • Software-defined, hardware- aware model for flexibility of x86 platform choice • Can be deployed on qualified vendor hardware Pre-built Systems • Fully integrated appliance models for easy deployment and support • On-premises object storage solution Cloud Services • IBM SoftLayer hardware infrastructure running IBM Cloud Object Storage System software • Off-premise offering for customers that want security and controlled performance 26
  28. 28. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Deployment Options Infrastructure Dedicated (Private) Public Local (Private) On-premises Off-premises Cloud Infrastructure Off-premises (IBM SoftLayer) Public • Standard regional • Nearline regional • Nearline geo- dispersed Consumed pricing Dedicated • IBM Managed • Client managed • Hybrid / Mixed Allocated pricing Client infrastructure On-premises (Recommend: 500TB or more) Locally managed • Software • Pre-built systems 27
  29. 29. #ibmedge Pre-Built Systems for IBM Cloud Object Storage System dsNet Manager 2105 / 3105 Accesser 2100 / 3105 / 4105 Slicestor 2212 Slicestor 2448 Health and performance monitoring GUI and API access Configuration and security Zero downtime upgrades 12 drives @ 4, 6 or 8 TB 48 to 96 TB Nearline HDD in 2U rack space 16, 32 or 48 drives @ 4, 6 or 8 TB 64 to 384 TB Nearline HDD in 4U rack space Slices, Disperses and Retrieves data 28
  30. 30. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage – SmartWrite and Rebuild Once write threshold is met, returns success response to client • Example: 7/9/12 (7 pieces 12 slices) • Minimum 7 slices required to read back • Once 9 slices are written, write is considered complete for application • Best effort to write remaining slices • If time-out occurs, unwritten slices dropped Entire namespace scanned on ongoing basis • Slice integrity check • Missing slice check • Slicestors work together to rebuild missing or corrupted slice(s) • Rebuilder is “always on” at moderate rate for I/O rate predictability Optimistically attempts to write all slices in parallel X ? 29
  31. 31. #ibmedge 7 6 5 4 3 1 2 $ With erasure coding “k” pieces are turned into “n” slices: Reads can be performed using any k of the n slices • This example is a “7 of 12” Information Dispersal Algorithm (IDA) means only 7 slices are needed to reconstruct the original object With this IDA, a read can still be executed with any five storage nodes being unavailable out of 12. With 3 sites, even an entire site outage (plus one additional storage node outage) can be tolerated. Reading Data from IBM Cloud Object Storage System Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 30
  32. 32. #ibmedge The Math Behind Reed-Solomon Erasure Coding “K” variable of input data: a, b, c, d, e Here we create “K+M” equations, adding and subtracting by different co-factors Results in “K+M” slices that can be geographically dispersed We can tolerate losing up to “M” slices of data, and still solve for the original “K” pieces of data. 31
  33. 33. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Access Methods Data Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 S3 Compatible API Openstack Swift Compatible API Simple Object API Slicestor Software Accesser Software DIRECT API ACCESS The Accesser Software exposes three REST APIs for ingest and retrieval. Applications with knowledge of these APIs can leverage IBM Cloud Object Storage directly. Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 S3 Compatible API Openstack Swift Compatible API Simple Object API Slicestor Software Accesser Software NAS (NFS/SMB) Backup/Archive General Applications PARTNER BASED A variety of Certified technology partners can leverage IBM’s multi tenancy support to satisfy concurrent use cases on a single IBM Cloud Object Storage instance. Hadoop 32
  34. 34. What is Object Store? IBM Cloud Object Storage System Applications and Use Cases Agenda
  35. 35. #ibmedge Market Verticals Secure customer trust and business compliance. Consistently create engaging experiences. Manage the data essential to serving the good of the public. Scale your market offering without worry. Have reliable storage for your on demand content. Active Archive Content Repository STaaS Genomics Collaboration Enterprise Storage as a Service (STaaS) Backup Financial Services & Insurance Media & Entertainmen t Production GovernmentService Providers Media & Entertainment Distribution Heath Care & Life Sciences Put medical progress before everything else. Content Collaboration Enterprise Collaboration 34
  36. 36. #ibmedge Client Reference– Web Based Photo Sharing Users upload photo and video content via web based application Photo and video objects are sent to Cleversafe via REST based protocols Metadata is captured and stored • Scale – 130 petabytes and growing: more than 50 Billion images stored • Manageability – 3 Administrators manage entire environment • Security – 50,000+ uploads per minute with zero touch security • Always-on availability – SLA of 100% download on demand – even during California to Nevada datacenter move • Economics – Operating costs reduced by more than 70% • Key decision makers – Technical team backed by financial cost cutting mandates 35
  37. 37. #ibmedge IBM Cloud Object Storage System – Partner Comparison Vendor Product Protocols Features Use Cases Avere FXT series • NFS • SMB Global namespace Encryption, Compression, Snapshots, Clustering • Analytics • Media rendering Ctera Networks CX0 series • NFS, SMB • AFP, FTP • WebDAV • iSCSI Encryption, Snapshots, Replication, Enterprise File Sync and Share (EFSS) • Backup • RO/BO storage IBM Spectrum Scale • NFS, SMB • OpenStack • Amazon S3 • Hadoop • POSIX Global namespace & file locking, Encryption, Snapshots, Compression, Replication • Analytics / HPC • Media rendering • VMs and Databases • Collaboration • NAS Consolidation • Backup / Archiving Nasuni NF series • NFS, SMB • FTP, SFTP • HTTPS • iSCSI Global namespace & file locking, Encryption, Snapshots, Compression, Dedupe, EFSS • Collaboration • File sharing • Archiving Panzura Global File System • NFS • SMB Global namespace & file locking, Encryption, Compression, Dedupe • Collaboration • NAS consolidation 36
  38. 38. #ibmedge IBM Spectrum Protect supports Cloud Object Storage! Client nodes • IBM Cloud Object Storage System (using S3-compatible API) Off-premises: • IBM SoftLayer On-premises IBM Spectrum Protect Server 37
  39. 39. #ibmedge IBM Spectrum Storage and IBM Cloud Object Storage Unified file and object storage. Optimized for high performance, across flash, disk and object store Flash Object Store 15K IBM Cloud Object Storage System ( File, backup and archive interfaces available through variety of options ) IBM SoftLayer OpenStack Swift Amazon Web Services S3 Swift S3 emulation Unified file and object storage on tape Transparent Cloud Tiering Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) across tiers HighestPerformance Lowest cost Tape10K 7200 rpm 38
  40. 40. #ibmedge No need for 3rd party encryption solution or key management Not a post process. Data is fully protected upon write commit No need to install and manage a separate OS Base price includes all interfaces Predict drive failures and take appropriate action No need to repurchase licenses when refreshing hardware ENCRYPTION IS INHERENT ERASURE CODING IS INLINE SOFTWARE PACKAGED WITH OS ALL FEATURES INCLUDED DISK LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT PERPETUAL LICENSING MODE Competitive Differentiators 39
  41. 41. © 2016 IBM Corporation #ibmedge Thank You
  42. 42. #ibmedge IBM Redbooks on IBM Spectrum Scale 41 IBM Spectrum Scale (formerly GPFS) Implementing IBM Spectrum Scale IBM Spectrum Scale in an OpenStack Environment IBM Spectrum Scale – Big Data and Analytics Solution IBM Spectrum Scale and ECM FileNet Content Manager www.redbooks.ibm.com
  43. 43. #ibmedge IBM Tucson Executive Briefing Center • Tucson, Arizona is home for storage hardware and software design and development • IBM Tucson Executive Briefing Center offers: • Technology briefings • Product demonstrations • Solution workshops • Take a video tour! • http://youtu.be/CXrpoCZAazg 42
  44. 44. #ibmedge About the Speaker Tony Pearson is a Master Inventor and Senior Software Engineer for the IBM Storage product line. Tony joined IBM Corporation in 1986 in Tucson, Arizona, USA, and has lived there ever since. In his current role, Tony presents briefings on storage topics covering the entire IBM Storage product line, IBM Spectrum Storage software products, and topics related to Cloud Computing, Analytics and Cognitive Solutions. He interacts with clients, speaks at conferences and events, and leads client workshops to help clients with strategic planning for IBM’s integrated set of storage management software, hardware, and virtualization products. Tony writes the “Inside System Storage” blog, which is read by hundreds of clients, IBM sales reps and IBM Business Partners every week. This blog was rated one of the top 10 blogs for the IT storage industry by “Networking World” magazine, and #1 most read IBM blog on IBM’s developerWorks. The blog has been published in series of books, Inside System Storage: Volume I through V. Over the past years, Tony has worked in development, marketing and customer care positions for various storage hardware and software products. Tony has a Bachelor of Science degree in Software Engineering, and a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering, both from the University of Arizona. Tony holds 19 patents for inventions on storage hardware and software products. 9000 S. Rita Road Bldg 9032 Floor 1 Tucson, AZ 85744 +1 520-799-4309 (Office) tpearson@us.ibm.com Tony Pearson Master Inventor Senior Software Engineer IBM Storage 43
  45. 45. #ibmedge Email: tpearson@us.ibm.com Twitter: twitter.com/az990tony Blog: ibm.co/Pearson Books: www.lulu.com/spotlight/990_tony IBM Expert Network on Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/az990tony Facebook: www.facebook.com/tony.pearson.16121 Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/az990tony Additional Resources from Tony Pearson 44
  46. 46. #ibmedge Please Note: Edge 2016 Disclaimers • IBM’s statements regarding its plans, directions, and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice and at IBM’s sole discretion. • Information regarding potential future products is intended to outline our general product direction and it should not be relied on in making a purchasing decision. • The information mentioned regarding potential future products is not a commitment, promise, or legal obligation to deliver any material, code or functionality. Information about potential future products may not be incorporated into any contract. • The development, release, and timing of any future features or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion. • Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon many factors, including considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user’s job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve results similar to those stated here. 45
  47. 47. #ibmedge Trademarks and Other Disclaimers 46 Adobe, the Adobe logo, PostScript, and the PostScript logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States, and/or other countries. IT Infrastructure Library is a registered trademark of the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency which is now part of the Office of Government Commerce. Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Centrino, Intel Centrino logo, Celeron, Intel Xeon, Intel SpeedStep, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. ITIL is a registered trademark, and a registered community trademark of the Office of Government Commerce, and is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both and is used under license therefrom. Linear Tape-Open, LTO, the LTO Logo, Ultrium, and the Ultrium logo are trademarks of HP, IBM Corp. and Quantum in the U.S. and other countries. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. Information is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind The customer examples described are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics may vary by customer. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from a supplier of these products, published announcement material, or other publicly available sources and does not constitute an endorsement of such products by IBM. Sources for non-IBM list prices and performance numbers are taken from publicly available information, including vendor announcements and vendor worldwide homepages. IBM has not tested these products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, capability, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capability of non-IBM products should be addressed to the supplier of those products. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. Some information addresses anticipated future capabilities. Such information is not intended as a definitive statement of a commitment to specific levels of performance, function or delivery schedules with respect to any future products. Such commitments are only made in IBM product announcements. The information is presented here to communicate IBM's current investment and development activities as a good faith effort to help with our customers' future planning. Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput or performance improvements equivalent to the ratios stated here. Prices are suggested U.S. list prices and are subject to change without notice. Starting price may not include a hard drive, operating system or other features. Contact your IBM representative or Business Partner for the most current pricing in your geography. Photographs shown may be engineering prototypes. Changes may be incorporated in production models. © IBM Corporation 2016. All rights reserved. References in this document to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in every country. Trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml. ZSP03490-USEN-00

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