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Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an
agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such
as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used
to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times
it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals
that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes
day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.
Livestock plays an important role in Indian economy. About 20.5 million
people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed
16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of
14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third
of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the
population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector
contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.
Livestock of India
At the global level, livestock contributes15 per centof total food energy and 25
per cent dietary protein (2009 FAOreport). With only 2.29 per centof the land
area of the world, India is maintaining about10.71 per centof the world’s
The livestock sector contributed 4.11 per centto the nationalGDP during 2012-13.
According to latest livestock census, the total animal population was512.05
in 2012 which means, there is a cattle and a donkey for every second human being
in India. However, thisis a drop of around 3.33 per centover the previous census
done in 2007. Fortunately, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,Assam, Punjab,Bihar, Sikkim,
Meghalaya, and Chhattisgarh have shown an increase in their total livestock
The number of milch animals, cowsand buffaloes, increased from 111.09 million
to 118.59 million, an increase of 6.75 per cent. On the other hand, population of
sheep, goatand pigs registered a decline. The total poultry population saw an
increase of 12.39 per cent.
Source: Livestock Census 2012
Data released by FAO shows that in a sample of 14 countries, 60 per
cent of the rural households keep livestock. There are three kinds of
livestock production systems in the world. Grazing system occupies 26
per cent of the earth's ice-free land surface and involves grazing on
communal or open access areas in a mobile fashion. Mixed farming
system has cropping and livestock rearing complimenting each other. In
this over 10 per cent of the dry matter fed to animals comes from crop
byproducts and residue.
Industrial system, generally described as modern, is characterized by
large scale operations with intensive use of inputs, technology, capital
and increased specialization of production units. These systems are also
described as "landless" because the animals are physically separated
from the land that supports them. In India, the modern industrial system
is gradually replacing the mixed farming system. So the livestock sector
is changing from being multi-functional to commodity specific. There is
a decline in the importance of traditionally important livestock functions
such as provision of draught power and manure.
Livestock ,a Lifeline
for Small Farmers
India has enormous and diverse animal wealth generating livelihood
opportunities for millions. Total livestock population in the country in
2012, as per the All India Livestock Census, was over 512 million — the
largest in the world even as there was a decline of 3.3 per cent over
2007. Add to this poultry birds numbering 729 million and fish to
appreciate the wealth we have.
One interesting trend in the composition of livestock is that indigenous
species of cattle, sheep and pigs declined between 2007 and 2012 while
that of crossbred/exotic population increased, which reflects the market
orientation of producers.
Animal farming in India is largely pursued as a complementary or
supplementary activity. Livestock is integrated in the farming activity.
With major encouragement given to crop production to tide over the
food crisis during the 1960s, the sector grew faster. Of late, several
entrepreneurs have taken up livestock enterprises as a standalone
commercial activity. The sector emerged ahead as a result, accounting
for 28.33 per cent of the GDP originating in agriculture during
2011-12 — higher than the 13.88 per cent in 1980-81 and 20 per cent in
Touching Rural Lives
At the grassrootslevel, animal farming supportsa sizeable chunk of livelihoods both in
ruraland urban areas. An average ruralhousehold earned about12 per centof his net
income from animalfarming.22.9per centof the landless and 9.6 per cent of marginal
and small farmers(up to 2 hectares) depend on livestock as a major income source.
For such farmers, animalfarming integrateswellwith the family’seconomic crusade
againstunemployment, poverty and uncertain income flowsfrom main activity.
Ruralwomen from another categoryof people whose lives have been closely linked to
animalfarming. Successfulhomemakers, itcan be easily discerned, are those who could
leverage their animalstock to take care of the family and farm needs. Women share a
special bonding with animalswho were like their ATMs.
Even today women are employed in this sector on a significant scale. According to 66th
round of NSSOsurvey (2009-10), 1.6 per centof malesand 9.5 per cent of females usually
worked on principalor subsidiary basisin farming of animals.
Additionally, there are 0.3 per cent and 0.6 per centmales and females, respectively,
involved in service activities related to animalhusbandry performedon farm (other than
Periodic NSSOsurveyson assessing participation of women in HH work and specified
activities revealed that sizeable proportion of women in ruralareasare engaged in
livestock related works, including cow dung cake making.
The list here does notspecify cutting grass, preparing feed, feeding animals, milking and
making and marketing value added items like curd, butter and ghee which are performed
In 2009-10, 12.1per centof ruralwomen other than those who are already engaged in
dairy, poultry and other animalhusbandry related works, expressed their willingnessto
Income augmentation for farmers, especially of small holdersand the landless, as seen
above, is the primary contribution of livestock segment towardsfarmers’ economy.
Animals were an integralpartof farming where they helped cope with the risks associated
with crop cultivation besides smoothening the income flow during the year.
Role of Livestock in
The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain
mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one
enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The
distribution patterns of income and employment show that small farm households hold more
opportunities in livestock production.
The livestock serve the farmers in different ways:
1. Income: Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the
resource poor who maintain few heads of animals. Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide
regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk. Animals like sheep and goat serve
as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick
persons, children education, repair of houses etc. The animals also serve as moving banks and
assets which provide economic security to the owners.
2. Employment: A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon
agriculture for their livelihoods. But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide
employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year. The landless and less land people depend
upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
3. Food: The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal
protein to the members of the livestock owners. The per capita availability of milk is around 375
g / day; eggs is 74 / annum during 2017-18.
4. Social security: The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the
society. The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those
who do not. Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different
parts of the country. Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for
various socio religious functions. Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and
chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons; Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various
religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
5. Draft : The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. The farmers especially the
marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and
6. Dung: In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes),
fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).
Contribution of Livestock
The livestock provides food and non-food items to the people.
1. Food: The livestock provides food items such as Milk, Meat and
Eggs for human consumption. India is number one milk producer
in the world. It is producing about 176.34 million tones of milk in a
year (2017-18). Similarly it is producing about 95.22 billions of
eggs, 7.70 million tonnes of meat in a year. The value of output of
livestock sector at current prices was Rs 9,17,910 crores at
current prices during 2016-17 which is about 31.25% of the value
of output from agricultural and allied sector. At constant prices the
value of output from livestock was about 31.11% of the value of
the output from total agriculture and allied
sector. During the financial year 2017-
18, the total fish production in India is estimated at 12.61 Million M
2. Fibre and skins: The livestock also contributes to the
production of wool, hair, hides, and pelts. Leather is the most
important product which has a very high export potential. India is
producing about 41.5 million Kg of wool per annum during 2017-
3. Draft: Bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. Despite
lot of advancements in the use of mechanical power in Indian
agricultural operations, the Indian farmer especially in rural areas
still depend upon bullocks for various agricultural operations. The
bullocks are saving a lot on fuel which is a necessary input for
using mechanical power like tractors, combine harvesters etc.
Pack animals like camels, horses, donkeys, ponies, mules etc are
being extensively used to transport goods in different parts of the
country in addition to bullocks. In situations like hilly terrains
mules and ponies serve as the only alternative to transport goods.
Similarly, the army has to depend upon these animals to transport
various items in high areas of high altitude.
4. Dung and other animal waste materials: Dung and other
animal wastes serve as very good farm yard manure and the
value of it is worth several crores of rupees. In addition it is also
used as fuel (bio gas, dung cakes), and for construction as poor
man’s cement (dung).
5. Storage: Livestock are considered as 'moving banks' because of
their potentiality to dispose off during emergencies. They serve as
capital and in cases of landless agricultural labourers many time it
is the only capital resource they possess. Livestock serve as an
asset and in case of emergencies they serve as guarantee for
availing loans from the local sources such as money lenders in
6. Weed control: Livestock are also used as Biological control of
brush, plants and weeds.
7. Cultural: Livestock offer security to the owners and also add to
their self esteem especially when they are owning prized animals
such as pedigreed bulls, dogs and high yielding cows/ buffaloes
8. Sports / recreation: People also use the animals like cocks,
rams, bulls etc for competition and sports. Despite ban on these
animal competitions the cock fights, ram fights and bull fights (jalli
kattu) are quite common during festive seasons.
9. Companion animals: Dogs are known for their faithfulness and
are being used as companions since time immemorial. When the
nuclear families are increasing in number and the old parents are
forced to lead solitary life the dogs, cats are providing the needed
company to the latter thus making them lead a comfortable life.
Scope for Growth in
• Sustained income and economic growth
• Fast-growing urban population
• Burgeoning middle income class
• Changing lifestyles
• Increasing proportion of women in workforce
• Improvements in transportation and storage practices and rise
• Increase in consumption of animal food products
• Demand for animal food products is responsive to income changes
and is expected to increase in future
• Between 1991-92 and 2008-09, India’s per capita income grew at an
annual rate of 4.8% and urban population at a rate of 2.5%.
• By the end of 12th Plan (2012-2017) demand, for milk is expected to
increase to 141 million tons and for meat, eggs and fish together to15.8
• Global market for animal products is expanding fast and is an
opportunity for India to improve its participation in global market.
Livestock census began in India in 1919. After Independence, each
round was fine-tuned to collect more data. For example, stray cattle
and dogs were counted only since 2012.
How Big is India’s
Production of Milk?
India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world and India
produced 13.1 per cent of the total milk produced in the world. Hence,
India has attained the first rank in milk production in the world. At
present the first five countries in the world producing maximum milk are
India, USA, Russia, Germany and France. At the beginning production of
milk was only 17 million tonnes (MT) in 1950-51 in India. Now it is
increased to 108.5 million tonnes in 2008-09. World milk production is
estimated at 693 million tonnes during 2007-08 and Indian milk
production stands at 104.8 million tonnes. Despite a higher growth rate,
the per capita availability of milk in India is 252 grams per day is lower
than the world average 265 grams per day.
In India, milk and dairy products are predominant culturally acceptable
animal protein source. Although meat consumption is increasing,
especially among younger, more cosmopolitan Indians, millions still
remain vegetarian. According to National Sample Survey Organisation
data, milk and its products rank second to cereals in the consumption of
food items in both rural and urban areas.
India became the world's largest milk producer by increasing production
from cattle and buffalo by four times between 1963 and 2003.
Production was 132.4 million tonnes during 2012-13 as compared to
55.7 million tonnes in 1991-92.
Buffalo, the heftier, darker counter to a cow, has largely been
responsible for the phenomenal growth of country’s dairy sector. They
are well-adapted to tropical climes unlike high-yielding cows. Across the
country, more than half of all milk produced is through buffaloes. Cross
bred cattle numbers are increasing but still account for just 22 per cent
of the total cattle population.
The sector has received significant financial and political support for
over 50 years. Though it was a priority sector in the very first five year
plan, Operation Flood launched in 1970 made the real big contribution
to India’s dairy sector. What spurred Operation Flood was a cooperative
movement that went on to become world's largest milk producer.
CASE STUDY :
Amul and Operation Flood
The Indian dairy industry has changed radically in the last three
decades. Milk production, which was stagnant between 1950 and
1970, has tripled since the early 1970s. Despite the tremendous
growth in population, per capita availability of milk has increased
from 132 gm per day in 1951 to 193 gm in 1994. Operation Flood (OF),
launched in 1970, has played an important role in this transformation.
The Anand Milk Federation Union Limited, popularly known as AMUL,
was formed in 1946, and is jointly owned by 3 million milk producers of
Gujarat. It was response of marginal milk producers against exploitative
trade practices of a big dairy firm and its agents who paid them low
prices. Several cooperatives were set up at village levels which helped
decentralise milk collection. The structure of Amul is such that village-
level cooperatives are affiliated to a milk union at the district level
which in turn is part of a state-level milk federation. Milk collection
done at the village level is procurement and processed by district union
and marketed by the state federation.
Operation Flood of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)
replicated this structure all over the country.
The programme was designed to make use of the dairy aid offered by
the European Economic Community and thus invited strident criticism
initially from several quarters. The main contention was that the liberal
foreign monetary assistance would cause milk prices to crash, dis-
incentivise production and ultimately make India permanently
dependent on other countries for its needs of dairy products.
However, the programme turned out to be a tremendous success. The
market supplies were unaffected, farmers got the right prices, and
necessary infrastructure was established and streamlined to match the
growing urban demand. It was proved that an investment of Rs 20
billion over 20 years can increase milk production by 40 million metric
tonnes. The success of this model also made dairy sector largest self-
sustainable rural employment generator.
PRODUCTION IMPACT OF OPERATION FLOOD(OF)
Efforts to improve dairy production in India began under the First Five
Year Plan (1951- 56). More than half of the expenditures on dairy
development under the First and Second Plans were on crossbreeding
and artificial insemination. Government programs such as the Key
Village Scheme (KVS) and the Intensive Cattle Development Programs
(ICDP) emphasized using improved breeds of cattle to enhance milk
production. But the total public sector outlay on the dairy sector was
not very large – in fact, until the end of the Seventh Five-Year Plan,
funds for the Animal Husbandry and Dairying sector equaled about 1
percent of the total public sector expenditures (J. George, 1988).
Financial investment in the sector received a tremendous boost with
the inauguration of OF in 1970.
Evidence of Increases in Milk Production
On the basis of an econometric analysis of data from nine
projects and three control villages in Madhya Pradesh,
Mergos and Slade (1987, 85) conclude that milk production
over a five-year period was about 17.5 percent higher in
project households than in nonproject households. The
authors also provide descriptive statistics on milk output,
production inputs, and animals in project and control
villages showing that DCS villages had higher output levels
than control villages.
With better economic conditions, the demand for milk has also risen
which is why the entire production is consumed within the country. The
amount of milk produced in the country easily met the demand till
2006-07. A 4 per cent growth rate in milk production, double the growth
rate of the world was good enough because the demand was almost as
much as the supply.
However, now shortage of milk is increasingly being felt as even a
meagre shift of milk to butter and cheese is creating difficulty. One of
the reasons for shortage is large scale export of caesin or milk protein to
US. Used for confectionary products, casein production leads to
wastage of a vast quantity of milk. According to estimates of NDDB, the
demand of milk may go upto 210 million tonne in 2021-22. To meet this
requirement, production needs to increase by 6 million tonne every
National dairy development board
In October 1964, on the occasion of the inauguration of AMUL's cattle feed plant, the
then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, spent the night as the guest of a
village milk cooperative society near Anand. Impressed by the socio-economic
changes brought about by the milk cooperatives, he expressed the desire for a
national-level organization to replicate Anand Model dairy cooperatives throughout
the country and to make available multidisciplinary, professional dairy expertise to
dairies in the public and cooperative sectors. Thus, in 1965, NDDB was registered
under the Societies Registration Act, the Charitable Trust Act and the Public Trust
Act. Consistent with its model and mandate, NDDB headquarters were established at
CONCLUSION OF CASE STUDY
(ALWYNEE U CAN SKIP FEW POINTS FROM THIS CONCLUSION AND
WRITE ONLY MAIN POINTS)
After a long struggle, India has overcome a situation that, at least in some respects,
may be similar to those prevailing in a number of Asian and African countries and has
built a modern dairy sector, responsive to the needs of milk producers. It has had to
deal with a stagnant dairy industry in which cheap, subsidized imports were a
disincentive to the farmers. It has had to overcome the negative effects of consumer-
oriented programmer that managed to keep prices low for the urban élite while
depressing the price of milk in rural milksheds. It has had to deal with the lethargy
and bureaucratic orientation of state enterprise in dairying. While there are still
challenges to be met, the foundation for an even stronger dairy industry is now in
place. Therefore, India's experience may offer lessons, as well as some of the elements
of a model, for other countries. Early in the last decade, NDDB was asked to explore
the possibilities of introducing the Anand Model into a number of countries and has
responded by sending investigative teams into those countries. FAO, EEC and the
World Bank, having recognized the potential of the Anand Model, are considering
financing similar projects in Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Commodity
financing of projects such as Operation Flood by the more advanced countries not
only relieves some of their accumulated surplus, but it also strengthens the economies
of the countries that receive assistance. And, if we truly believe that the proper
objective of aid is to end the need for aid, then this is certainly an important way of
achieving that goal.
Most important, Operation Flood has demonstrated that India's rural population
possesses enormous energy, initiative and wisdom - all that was needed was an
opportunity to control the resources that it had created.
During its initial stages, NDDB was assisted financially by the Government of India,
the Danish Government and by AMUL. It also received aid from the United Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF) in the form of teaching material and equipment.
In 1969, when the Government of India approved the Operation Flood programme
and its financing through the monetization of World Food Programme-gifted
commodities, it was found that the statutes under which NDDB was registered did not
provide for handling of government funds. Therefore, in 1970 the government
established a public-sector company, the Indian Dairy Corporation. The IDC was
given responsibility for receiving the project's donated commodities; testing their
quality; their storage and transfer to user dairies; and receiving the dairies' payments.
Thus, it served as a finance-cum-promotion entity while the entire Operation Flood
technical support was provided by NDDB.
To avoid-any duplication in their activities or overlap of functions, the IDC and
NDDB were eventually merged into a newly constituted NDDB by an Act of
Parliament passed in October 1987. The Act designated the NDDB as an institution of
national importance and accorded it the same autonomy of operation that it had
enjoyed and which had been a major factor in its success.
Benefits of Livestock Sector
Developments in India
Animal Husbandry sector provides large self-employment
opportunities. Presuming that one family member is employed in
looking after the livestock, 25 million people are estimated to be
employed with the livestock rearing activity. This sector is playing very
important role in the rural economy as support sector of the economy.
Especially 70 million rural households primarily, small and marginal
farmers and landless labourers in the country are getting employment
opportunities in dairy. Dairying has become an important secondary
source of income for millions of rural families.
Poultry is also another way of getting food and food security in India.
Apart from food security it has provides employment to about 1.5
million people. Livestock Sector not only provides essential protein and
nutritious human diet through milk, eggs, meat etc but also plays an
important role in utilization of non-edible agricultural by-products.
Livestock also provides raw material/by products such as hides and
skins, blood, bone, fat etc.
This provides subsidiary occupation to a large section of the society
particularly to the people living in the drought prone, hilly, tribal and
other remote areas where crop production on its own may not be
capable of engaging them fully. In the adverse climatic conditions and
national calamities like drought, flood etc., animal husbandry practices
shall be proved to be boon for sustaining the livelihood of the landless
and marginal farmers in the state.
Challenges Faced by
Livestock Sector in India
The major challenges before us in livestock sector are genetic
improvement in bovines, effective control of animal diseases, shortage
of feed and fodder, inadequate infrastructure and inadequate
dissemination of technology, skills and quality services to farmers.
Feed constitutes concentrates (wheat bran, oil-cakes etc), dry fodder
and green fodder. Though we have a big diary sector,the area dedicated
to fodder cultivation has remained constant at 4.7 per cent of the total
cultivable land since independence. Of this area, 10 per cent is in
Punjab, which is also the major producer of dry fodder. However, now
Punjab’s farmers are resorting to post harvest straw burning to save on
labour cost. Farmers are also increasingly moving from cereals to cash
crops which give less fodder resulting in higher fodder prices.
The present shortage of feed and fodder in the country is as much as 40
per cent. According to IGFRI’s estimates, by 2020, India will require 850
million tonne of green fodder, 520 million tonne of dry fodder (edible
crop residue) and 90 million tonne concentrates. Weakening traditional
institutions and increasing land pressure have also threatened the
natural grazing lands. Traditional coping mechanisms tend to fail in
these situations and pastoralists are abandoning livestock production,
voluntarily or involuntarily, in increasing numbers.
Climate variations like increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall
are reducing the yield of pastures leading to overgrazing and
degradation. In addition, climate change appears to be making arid and
semi-arid areas even drier and extreme weather events like drought and
flood more common. Changing land use patterns, especially that of
common and traditionally pasture lands, is diverting a significant
amount of the grazing pressure to forests.
The National Forestry Action Programme (NFAP) estimates that around
60 per cent of the livestock (about 270 million) graze in forests while the
carrying capacity is only 30 million. Not only the allocation for
development of feed and fodder is low, fodder seeds are also given low
priority as compared to food crops. In the 11th five year plan, Rs 4903
crores were allocated for Animal Husbandry Department. Out of this,
only 2.88 per cent was allocated for feed and fodder. Most direct impact
of fodder shortage has been on milk production. With increasing fodder
prices, combined with 4-6 per cent incentive on the export of buffalo
meat, there are speculations of livestock keepers moving from milk to
High prevalence of various animal diseases like Foot & Mouth Disease
(FMD), Pestedes Petits Ruminants (PPR), Brucellosis, Classical Swine
Fever and Avian Influenza is a serious impediment to growth in the
livestock sector. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) alone leads to
economic losses of more than Rs. 20,000 crore per annum (NCAP,
Preliminary Report 2010). Growing international trade in livestock and
livestock products and this increased concentration in close proximity to
large human populations have increased the risk of animal disease
outbreaks and the emergence of new animal related human-health
threats like swine flu and bird flu. Most of these losses can be prevented
through timely immunization. India has a total of 8,732 veterinary
hospitals and polyclinics and 18,830 veterinary dispensaries against the
requirement of about 67,000 institutions. Most of these have poor
infrastructure and equipment.
Livestock production also comes at an environmental cost. Though the
sector contributes less than 2 per cent of global GDP, it produces 18 per
cent of the global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the increasing
geographic concentration of livestock production means that the
manure produced by animals often exceeds the absorption capacity of
the local area resulting in pollution.
The Planning Commission also cites lack of credit for livestock farmers
as a limiting factor for its growth. The main challenges facing the
fisheries sector include shortage of quality fish seeds, lack of resource-
specific fishing vessels, reliable data, inadequate awareness about
nutritional and economic benefits of fish and absence of standardisation
and branding of fish products.
The Way Forward
To address these challenges, the National Livestock Mission was
launched during the 12th Plan with the main objective of achieving
sustainable development and growth of livestock sector by providing
greater flexibility to the states. The Centre has released Rs 45 crore to
five states under the Accelerated Fodder Development Programme
which aims at enhancing availability of green and dry fodder and also
mitigating fodder shortage caused by natural calamities such as
drought and floods.
The forest department can also play a major role in augmenting fodder
production in the country. The degraded forest areas can be used for
assisting growth of indigenous fodder varieties of grasses, legumes, and
trees under the village-level joint forest management committees.
Vast tract of unused lands along roadsides and railway track may be
given on lease for a specified period for fodder production. Forest
fringes are another important source to augment feed basket. Small-
scale farmers typically face higher transaction cost than large-scale
enterprises. It is more difficult and costly for them to access higher
quality inputs (especially feed), credit and technology. This high
transaction cost can be reduced through collective action group like a
cooperative. This way, smallholders can be incorporated into high
value supply chains from which they would otherwise be excluded. The
Central government has now started giving subsidy to entrepreneurs
for fodder block making units to address the problem of transportation
from surplus to deficit areas.
The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries has initiated
National Programmes for prevention and control of FMD, PPR and
Brucellosis. The FMD control programme has been expanded to 221
districts and will be expanded to cover the entire country in a phased
manner. Similar programmes have been initiated to control PPR and
For fisheries, schemes of integrated approach for enhancing production
with forward and backward linkages right from production chain and
input requirements like quality fish seeds and feeds besides value
addition and marketing of fish are required. Cooperative sectors, village
self-help groups and youths can be actively involved in intensive
Indian Livestock industry makes up for a significant amount of world’s
livestockresources.Both the national economy as well as the socio-economic
growth of the country is backed by the livestocksector .Besides,offering
great potential and outstanding contribution in the agricultural sector over
the past years.
The livestocksector is performing well in the manner of production,value
addition and export of dairy,fishery,wool,poultry and other products.Apart
from its performance there are some threats also exist we need to re-correct
it and take the global market oppurtunities.
Policy makers in India are finally acknowledging a structural shift in the
agriculture sector they have been noticing for a decade. Economic
contribution of livestockis today more than that of food grain crops. In fact,
both livestockand fisheries components have been growing faster than the
crops component for a decade. A report for the upcoming 12th Five Year
Plan in December accepted this shift by recognising livestock as the engine of
As livestockis less prone to global warming and climate change, it can be
considered more reliable than rain-fed agriculture, Mostly, marginal farmers
and those who have quit farming are joining the livestockbusiness. About 70
per cent of the livestockmarket in India is owned by 67 per cent of the small
and marginal farmers and by the landless. One way, prosperity is now more
dependent on per capita livestockownership than on farms. This implies that
the growth of the livestock sector would have more effect on poverty
reduction than the growth of the crops sector.