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Livestock -Backbone of Rural India

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Livestock -Backbone of Rural India

  1. 1. BACKBONE OF RURAL INDIA LLIIVVEESSTTOOCCKK
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Livestock plays an important role in Indian economy. About 20.5 million people depend upon livestock for their livelihood. Livestock contributed 16% to the income of small farm households as against an average of 14% for all rural households. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of rural community. It also provides employment to about 8.8 % of the population in India. India has vast livestock resources. Livestock sector contributes 4.11% GDP and 25.6% of total Agriculture GDP.
  3. 3. Livestock of India At the global level, livestock contributes15 per centof total food energy and 25 per cent dietary protein (2009 FAOreport). With only 2.29 per centof the land area of the world, India is maintaining about10.71 per centof the world’s livestock. The livestock sector contributed 4.11 per centto the nationalGDP during 2012-13. According to latest livestock census, the total animal population was512.05 million numbers in 2012 which means, there is a cattle and a donkey for every second human being in India. However, thisis a drop of around 3.33 per centover the previous census done in 2007. Fortunately, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,Assam, Punjab,Bihar, Sikkim, Meghalaya, and Chhattisgarh have shown an increase in their total livestock population. The number of milch animals, cowsand buffaloes, increased from 111.09 million to 118.59 million, an increase of 6.75 per cent. On the other hand, population of sheep, goatand pigs registered a decline. The total poultry population saw an increase of 12.39 per cent. Source: Livestock Census 2012
  4. 4. Livestock Production Model Data released by FAO shows that in a sample of 14 countries, 60 per cent of the rural households keep livestock. There are three kinds of livestock production systems in the world. Grazing system occupies 26 per cent of the earth's ice-free land surface and involves grazing on communal or open access areas in a mobile fashion. Mixed farming system has cropping and livestock rearing complimenting each other. In this over 10 per cent of the dry matter fed to animals comes from crop byproducts and residue. Industrial system, generally described as modern, is characterized by large scale operations with intensive use of inputs, technology, capital and increased specialization of production units. These systems are also described as "landless" because the animals are physically separated from the land that supports them. In India, the modern industrial system is gradually replacing the mixed farming system. So the livestock sector is changing from being multi-functional to commodity specific. There is a decline in the importance of traditionally important livestock functions such as provision of draught power and manure.
  5. 5. Livestock ,a Lifeline for Small Farmers India has enormous and diverse animal wealth generating livelihood opportunities for millions. Total livestock population in the country in 2012, as per the All India Livestock Census, was over 512 million — the largest in the world even as there was a decline of 3.3 per cent over 2007. Add to this poultry birds numbering 729 million and fish to appreciate the wealth we have. One interesting trend in the composition of livestock is that indigenous species of cattle, sheep and pigs declined between 2007 and 2012 while that of crossbred/exotic population increased, which reflects the market orientation of producers. Animal farming in India is largely pursued as a complementary or supplementary activity. Livestock is integrated in the farming activity. With major encouragement given to crop production to tide over the food crisis during the 1960s, the sector grew faster. Of late, several entrepreneurs have taken up livestock enterprises as a standalone commercial activity. The sector emerged ahead as a result, accounting for 28.33 per cent of the GDP originating in agriculture during 2011-12 — higher than the 13.88 per cent in 1980-81 and 20 per cent in 1990-91.
  6. 6. Touching Rural Lives At the grassrootslevel, animal farming supportsa sizeable chunk of livelihoods both in ruraland urban areas. An average ruralhousehold earned about12 per centof his net income from animalfarming.22.9per centof the landless and 9.6 per cent of marginal and small farmers(up to 2 hectares) depend on livestock as a major income source. For such farmers, animalfarming integrateswellwith the family’seconomic crusade againstunemployment, poverty and uncertain income flowsfrom main activity. Ruralwomen from another categoryof people whose lives have been closely linked to animalfarming. Successfulhomemakers, itcan be easily discerned, are those who could leverage their animalstock to take care of the family and farm needs. Women share a special bonding with animalswho were like their ATMs. Even today women are employed in this sector on a significant scale. According to 66th round of NSSOsurvey (2009-10), 1.6 per centof malesand 9.5 per cent of females usually worked on principalor subsidiary basisin farming of animals. Additionally, there are 0.3 per cent and 0.6 per centmales and females, respectively, involved in service activities related to animalhusbandry performedon farm (other than veterinary activities). Periodic NSSOsurveyson assessing participation of women in HH work and specified activities revealed that sizeable proportion of women in ruralareasare engaged in livestock related works, including cow dung cake making. The list here does notspecify cutting grass, preparing feed, feeding animals, milking and making and marketing value added items like curd, butter and ghee which are performed by women. In 2009-10, 12.1per centof ruralwomen other than those who are already engaged in dairy, poultry and other animalhusbandry related works, expressed their willingnessto acceptthose works. Income augmentation for farmers, especially of small holdersand the landless, as seen above, is the primary contribution of livestock segment towardsfarmers’ economy.
  7. 7. Animals were an integralpartof farming where they helped cope with the risks associated with crop cultivation besides smoothening the income flow during the year. Role of Livestock in Farmer’s Economy The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The distribution patterns of income and employment show that small farm households hold more opportunities in livestock production. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways: 1. Income: Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals. Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk. Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc. The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners. 2. Employment: A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods. But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year. The landless and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season. 3. Food: The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners. The per capita availability of milk is around 375 g / day; eggs is 74 / annum during 2017-18. 4. Social security: The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society. The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not. Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country. Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions. Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons; Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
  8. 8. 5. Draft : The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs. 6. Dung: In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement). Contribution of Livestock to People The livestock provides food and non-food items to the people. 1. Food: The livestock provides food items such as Milk, Meat and Eggs for human consumption. India is number one milk producer in the world. It is producing about 176.34 million tones of milk in a year (2017-18). Similarly it is producing about 95.22 billions of eggs, 7.70 million tonnes of meat in a year. The value of output of livestock sector at current prices was Rs 9,17,910 crores at current prices during 2016-17 which is about 31.25% of the value of output from agricultural and allied sector. At constant prices the value of output from livestock was about 31.11% of the value of the output from total agriculture and allied sector. During the financial year 2017- 18, the total fish production in India is estimated at 12.61 Million M etric tonnes. 2. Fibre and skins: The livestock also contributes to the production of wool, hair, hides, and pelts. Leather is the most important product which has a very high export potential. India is producing about 41.5 million Kg of wool per annum during 2017- 18. 3. Draft: Bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. Despite lot of advancements in the use of mechanical power in Indian agricultural operations, the Indian farmer especially in rural areas
  9. 9. still depend upon bullocks for various agricultural operations. The bullocks are saving a lot on fuel which is a necessary input for using mechanical power like tractors, combine harvesters etc. Pack animals like camels, horses, donkeys, ponies, mules etc are being extensively used to transport goods in different parts of the country in addition to bullocks. In situations like hilly terrains mules and ponies serve as the only alternative to transport goods. Similarly, the army has to depend upon these animals to transport various items in high areas of high altitude. 4. Dung and other animal waste materials: Dung and other animal wastes serve as very good farm yard manure and the value of it is worth several crores of rupees. In addition it is also used as fuel (bio gas, dung cakes), and for construction as poor man’s cement (dung). 5. Storage: Livestock are considered as 'moving banks' because of their potentiality to dispose off during emergencies. They serve as capital and in cases of landless agricultural labourers many time it is the only capital resource they possess. Livestock serve as an asset and in case of emergencies they serve as guarantee for availing loans from the local sources such as money lenders in the villages. 6. Weed control: Livestock are also used as Biological control of brush, plants and weeds. 7. Cultural: Livestock offer security to the owners and also add to their self esteem especially when they are owning prized animals such as pedigreed bulls, dogs and high yielding cows/ buffaloes etc. 8. Sports / recreation: People also use the animals like cocks, rams, bulls etc for competition and sports. Despite ban on these animal competitions the cock fights, ram fights and bull fights (jalli kattu) are quite common during festive seasons.
  10. 10. 9. Companion animals: Dogs are known for their faithfulness and are being used as companions since time immemorial. When the nuclear families are increasing in number and the old parents are forced to lead solitary life the dogs, cats are providing the needed company to the latter thus making them lead a comfortable life. Scope for Growth in Livestock Sectors • Sustained income and economic growth • Fast-growing urban population • Burgeoning middle income class • Changing lifestyles • Increasing proportion of women in workforce • Improvements in transportation and storage practices and rise of supermarkets • Increase in consumption of animal food products • Demand for animal food products is responsive to income changes and is expected to increase in future • Between 1991-92 and 2008-09, India’s per capita income grew at an annual rate of 4.8% and urban population at a rate of 2.5%. • By the end of 12th Plan (2012-2017) demand, for milk is expected to increase to 141 million tons and for meat, eggs and fish together to15.8 million tons.
  11. 11. • Global market for animal products is expanding fast and is an opportunity for India to improve its participation in global market.
  12. 12. Livestock census began in India in 1919. After Independence, each round was fine-tuned to collect more data. For example, stray cattle and dogs were counted only since 2012. How Big is India’s Production of Milk? India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world and India produced 13.1 per cent of the total milk produced in the world. Hence, India has attained the first rank in milk production in the world. At present the first five countries in the world producing maximum milk are India, USA, Russia, Germany and France. At the beginning production of milk was only 17 million tonnes (MT) in 1950-51 in India. Now it is increased to 108.5 million tonnes in 2008-09. World milk production is estimated at 693 million tonnes during 2007-08 and Indian milk production stands at 104.8 million tonnes. Despite a higher growth rate, the per capita availability of milk in India is 252 grams per day is lower than the world average 265 grams per day. In India, milk and dairy products are predominant culturally acceptable animal protein source. Although meat consumption is increasing, especially among younger, more cosmopolitan Indians, millions still remain vegetarian. According to National Sample Survey Organisation data, milk and its products rank second to cereals in the consumption of food items in both rural and urban areas. India became the world's largest milk producer by increasing production from cattle and buffalo by four times between 1963 and 2003.
  13. 13. Production was 132.4 million tonnes during 2012-13 as compared to 55.7 million tonnes in 1991-92. Buffalo, the heftier, darker counter to a cow, has largely been responsible for the phenomenal growth of country’s dairy sector. They are well-adapted to tropical climes unlike high-yielding cows. Across the country, more than half of all milk produced is through buffaloes. Cross bred cattle numbers are increasing but still account for just 22 per cent of the total cattle population. The sector has received significant financial and political support for over 50 years. Though it was a priority sector in the very first five year plan, Operation Flood launched in 1970 made the real big contribution to India’s dairy sector. What spurred Operation Flood was a cooperative movement that went on to become world's largest milk producer.
  14. 14. CASE STUDY : Amul and Operation Flood The Indian dairy industry has changed radically in the last three decades. Milk production, which was stagnant between 1950 and 1970, has tripled since the early 1970s. Despite the tremendous growth in population, per capita availability of milk has increased from 132 gm per day in 1951 to 193 gm in 1994. Operation Flood (OF), launched in 1970, has played an important role in this transformation. The Anand Milk Federation Union Limited, popularly known as AMUL, was formed in 1946, and is jointly owned by 3 million milk producers of Gujarat. It was response of marginal milk producers against exploitative trade practices of a big dairy firm and its agents who paid them low prices. Several cooperatives were set up at village levels which helped decentralise milk collection. The structure of Amul is such that village- level cooperatives are affiliated to a milk union at the district level which in turn is part of a state-level milk federation. Milk collection done at the village level is procurement and processed by district union and marketed by the state federation.
  15. 15. Operation Flood of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) replicated this structure all over the country. The programme was designed to make use of the dairy aid offered by the European Economic Community and thus invited strident criticism initially from several quarters. The main contention was that the liberal foreign monetary assistance would cause milk prices to crash, dis- incentivise production and ultimately make India permanently dependent on other countries for its needs of dairy products. However, the programme turned out to be a tremendous success. The market supplies were unaffected, farmers got the right prices, and necessary infrastructure was established and streamlined to match the growing urban demand. It was proved that an investment of Rs 20 billion over 20 years can increase milk production by 40 million metric tonnes. The success of this model also made dairy sector largest self- sustainable rural employment generator. PRODUCTION IMPACT OF OPERATION FLOOD(OF) Background Efforts to improve dairy production in India began under the First Five Year Plan (1951- 56). More than half of the expenditures on dairy development under the First and Second Plans were on crossbreeding and artificial insemination. Government programs such as the Key Village Scheme (KVS) and the Intensive Cattle Development Programs
  16. 16. (ICDP) emphasized using improved breeds of cattle to enhance milk production. But the total public sector outlay on the dairy sector was not very large – in fact, until the end of the Seventh Five-Year Plan, funds for the Animal Husbandry and Dairying sector equaled about 1 percent of the total public sector expenditures (J. George, 1988). Financial investment in the sector received a tremendous boost with the inauguration of OF in 1970. Evidence of Increases in Milk Production On the basis of an econometric analysis of data from nine projects and three control villages in Madhya Pradesh, Mergos and Slade (1987, 85) conclude that milk production over a five-year period was about 17.5 percent higher in project households than in nonproject households. The authors also provide descriptive statistics on milk output, production inputs, and animals in project and control villages showing that DCS villages had higher output levels than control villages.
  17. 17. With better economic conditions, the demand for milk has also risen which is why the entire production is consumed within the country. The amount of milk produced in the country easily met the demand till 2006-07. A 4 per cent growth rate in milk production, double the growth rate of the world was good enough because the demand was almost as much as the supply. However, now shortage of milk is increasingly being felt as even a meagre shift of milk to butter and cheese is creating difficulty. One of the reasons for shortage is large scale export of caesin or milk protein to US. Used for confectionary products, casein production leads to wastage of a vast quantity of milk. According to estimates of NDDB, the demand of milk may go upto 210 million tonne in 2021-22. To meet this requirement, production needs to increase by 6 million tonne every year.
  18. 18. National dairy development board In October 1964, on the occasion of the inauguration of AMUL's cattle feed plant, the then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, spent the night as the guest of a village milk cooperative society near Anand. Impressed by the socio-economic changes brought about by the milk cooperatives, he expressed the desire for a national-level organization to replicate Anand Model dairy cooperatives throughout the country and to make available multidisciplinary, professional dairy expertise to dairies in the public and cooperative sectors. Thus, in 1965, NDDB was registered under the Societies Registration Act, the Charitable Trust Act and the Public Trust Act. Consistent with its model and mandate, NDDB headquarters were established at Anand. CONCLUSION OF CASE STUDY (ALWYNEE U CAN SKIP FEW POINTS FROM THIS CONCLUSION AND WRITE ONLY MAIN POINTS) After a long struggle, India has overcome a situation that, at least in some respects, may be similar to those prevailing in a number of Asian and African countries and has built a modern dairy sector, responsive to the needs of milk producers. It has had to deal with a stagnant dairy industry in which cheap, subsidized imports were a disincentive to the farmers. It has had to overcome the negative effects of consumer- oriented programmer that managed to keep prices low for the urban élite while depressing the price of milk in rural milksheds. It has had to deal with the lethargy and bureaucratic orientation of state enterprise in dairying. While there are still challenges to be met, the foundation for an even stronger dairy industry is now in place. Therefore, India's experience may offer lessons, as well as some of the elements of a model, for other countries. Early in the last decade, NDDB was asked to explore the possibilities of introducing the Anand Model into a number of countries and has responded by sending investigative teams into those countries. FAO, EEC and the World Bank, having recognized the potential of the Anand Model, are considering financing similar projects in Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Commodity financing of projects such as Operation Flood by the more advanced countries not only relieves some of their accumulated surplus, but it also strengthens the economies of the countries that receive assistance. And, if we truly believe that the proper objective of aid is to end the need for aid, then this is certainly an important way of achieving that goal. Most important, Operation Flood has demonstrated that India's rural population possesses enormous energy, initiative and wisdom - all that was needed was an opportunity to control the resources that it had created.
  19. 19. During its initial stages, NDDB was assisted financially by the Government of India, the Danish Government and by AMUL. It also received aid from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in the form of teaching material and equipment. In 1969, when the Government of India approved the Operation Flood programme and its financing through the monetization of World Food Programme-gifted commodities, it was found that the statutes under which NDDB was registered did not provide for handling of government funds. Therefore, in 1970 the government established a public-sector company, the Indian Dairy Corporation. The IDC was given responsibility for receiving the project's donated commodities; testing their quality; their storage and transfer to user dairies; and receiving the dairies' payments. Thus, it served as a finance-cum-promotion entity while the entire Operation Flood technical support was provided by NDDB. To avoid-any duplication in their activities or overlap of functions, the IDC and NDDB were eventually merged into a newly constituted NDDB by an Act of Parliament passed in October 1987. The Act designated the NDDB as an institution of national importance and accorded it the same autonomy of operation that it had enjoyed and which had been a major factor in its success. Benefits of Livestock Sector Developments in India Animal Husbandry sector provides large self-employment opportunities. Presuming that one family member is employed in looking after the livestock, 25 million people are estimated to be employed with the livestock rearing activity. This sector is playing very important role in the rural economy as support sector of the economy. Especially 70 million rural households primarily, small and marginal farmers and landless labourers in the country are getting employment opportunities in dairy. Dairying has become an important secondary source of income for millions of rural families.
  20. 20. Poultry is also another way of getting food and food security in India. Apart from food security it has provides employment to about 1.5 million people. Livestock Sector not only provides essential protein and nutritious human diet through milk, eggs, meat etc but also plays an important role in utilization of non-edible agricultural by-products. Livestock also provides raw material/by products such as hides and skins, blood, bone, fat etc. This provides subsidiary occupation to a large section of the society particularly to the people living in the drought prone, hilly, tribal and other remote areas where crop production on its own may not be capable of engaging them fully. In the adverse climatic conditions and national calamities like drought, flood etc., animal husbandry practices shall be proved to be boon for sustaining the livelihood of the landless and marginal farmers in the state. Challenges Faced by Livestock Sector in India The major challenges before us in livestock sector are genetic improvement in bovines, effective control of animal diseases, shortage of feed and fodder, inadequate infrastructure and inadequate dissemination of technology, skills and quality services to farmers. Feed constitutes concentrates (wheat bran, oil-cakes etc), dry fodder and green fodder. Though we have a big diary sector,the area dedicated to fodder cultivation has remained constant at 4.7 per cent of the total cultivable land since independence. Of this area, 10 per cent is in Punjab, which is also the major producer of dry fodder. However, now Punjab’s farmers are resorting to post harvest straw burning to save on
  21. 21. labour cost. Farmers are also increasingly moving from cereals to cash crops which give less fodder resulting in higher fodder prices. The present shortage of feed and fodder in the country is as much as 40 per cent. According to IGFRI’s estimates, by 2020, India will require 850 million tonne of green fodder, 520 million tonne of dry fodder (edible crop residue) and 90 million tonne concentrates. Weakening traditional institutions and increasing land pressure have also threatened the natural grazing lands. Traditional coping mechanisms tend to fail in these situations and pastoralists are abandoning livestock production, voluntarily or involuntarily, in increasing numbers. Climate variations like increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall are reducing the yield of pastures leading to overgrazing and degradation. In addition, climate change appears to be making arid and semi-arid areas even drier and extreme weather events like drought and flood more common. Changing land use patterns, especially that of common and traditionally pasture lands, is diverting a significant amount of the grazing pressure to forests. The National Forestry Action Programme (NFAP) estimates that around 60 per cent of the livestock (about 270 million) graze in forests while the carrying capacity is only 30 million. Not only the allocation for development of feed and fodder is low, fodder seeds are also given low priority as compared to food crops. In the 11th five year plan, Rs 4903 crores were allocated for Animal Husbandry Department. Out of this, only 2.88 per cent was allocated for feed and fodder. Most direct impact of fodder shortage has been on milk production. With increasing fodder prices, combined with 4-6 per cent incentive on the export of buffalo meat, there are speculations of livestock keepers moving from milk to meat. High prevalence of various animal diseases like Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD), Pestedes Petits Ruminants (PPR), Brucellosis, Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza is a serious impediment to growth in the livestock sector. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) alone leads to economic losses of more than Rs. 20,000 crore per annum (NCAP,
  22. 22. Preliminary Report 2010). Growing international trade in livestock and livestock products and this increased concentration in close proximity to large human populations have increased the risk of animal disease outbreaks and the emergence of new animal related human-health threats like swine flu and bird flu. Most of these losses can be prevented through timely immunization. India has a total of 8,732 veterinary hospitals and polyclinics and 18,830 veterinary dispensaries against the requirement of about 67,000 institutions. Most of these have poor infrastructure and equipment. Livestock production also comes at an environmental cost. Though the sector contributes less than 2 per cent of global GDP, it produces 18 per cent of the global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the increasing geographic concentration of livestock production means that the manure produced by animals often exceeds the absorption capacity of the local area resulting in pollution. The Planning Commission also cites lack of credit for livestock farmers as a limiting factor for its growth. The main challenges facing the fisheries sector include shortage of quality fish seeds, lack of resource- specific fishing vessels, reliable data, inadequate awareness about nutritional and economic benefits of fish and absence of standardisation and branding of fish products. The Way Forward To address these challenges, the National Livestock Mission was launched during the 12th Plan with the main objective of achieving sustainable development and growth of livestock sector by providing greater flexibility to the states. The Centre has released Rs 45 crore to five states under the Accelerated Fodder Development Programme which aims at enhancing availability of green and dry fodder and also
  23. 23. mitigating fodder shortage caused by natural calamities such as drought and floods. The forest department can also play a major role in augmenting fodder production in the country. The degraded forest areas can be used for assisting growth of indigenous fodder varieties of grasses, legumes, and trees under the village-level joint forest management committees. Vast tract of unused lands along roadsides and railway track may be given on lease for a specified period for fodder production. Forest fringes are another important source to augment feed basket. Small- scale farmers typically face higher transaction cost than large-scale enterprises. It is more difficult and costly for them to access higher quality inputs (especially feed), credit and technology. This high transaction cost can be reduced through collective action group like a cooperative. This way, smallholders can be incorporated into high value supply chains from which they would otherwise be excluded. The Central government has now started giving subsidy to entrepreneurs for fodder block making units to address the problem of transportation from surplus to deficit areas. The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries has initiated National Programmes for prevention and control of FMD, PPR and Brucellosis. The FMD control programme has been expanded to 221 districts and will be expanded to cover the entire country in a phased manner. Similar programmes have been initiated to control PPR and Brucellosis. For fisheries, schemes of integrated approach for enhancing production with forward and backward linkages right from production chain and input requirements like quality fish seeds and feeds besides value addition and marketing of fish are required. Cooperative sectors, village self-help groups and youths can be actively involved in intensive aquaculture activities.
  24. 24. Conclusion Indian Livestock industry makes up for a significant amount of world’s livestockresources.Both the national economy as well as the socio-economic growth of the country is backed by the livestocksector .Besides,offering great potential and outstanding contribution in the agricultural sector over the past years. The livestocksector is performing well in the manner of production,value addition and export of dairy,fishery,wool,poultry and other products.Apart from its performance there are some threats also exist we need to re-correct it and take the global market oppurtunities. Policy makers in India are finally acknowledging a structural shift in the agriculture sector they have been noticing for a decade. Economic contribution of livestockis today more than that of food grain crops. In fact,
  25. 25. both livestockand fisheries components have been growing faster than the crops component for a decade. A report for the upcoming 12th Five Year Plan in December accepted this shift by recognising livestock as the engine of agriculture growth. As livestockis less prone to global warming and climate change, it can be considered more reliable than rain-fed agriculture, Mostly, marginal farmers and those who have quit farming are joining the livestockbusiness. About 70 per cent of the livestockmarket in India is owned by 67 per cent of the small and marginal farmers and by the landless. One way, prosperity is now more dependent on per capita livestockownership than on farms. This implies that the growth of the livestock sector would have more effect on poverty reduction than the growth of the crops sector. Bibliography https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/livestock-a-lifeline-for- small-farmers/article21328347.ece1# http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/livestock/role-of-livestock-in-indian- economy https://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/rise-of-livestock-35670
  26. 26. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://agrop edia.iitk.ac.in/content/livestock-sector-india https://www.indiawaterportal.org/topics/livestock https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935116/ https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/how- a-team-of-experts-are-conducting-indias-first-tech-aided-livestock- census/articleshow/67704952.cms https://www.slideshare.net/balarajbl/role-of-livestock-in-indian- economy

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