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Travel broadens the mind
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  1. 1.  Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. Columbus led his three ships - the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria - out of the Spanish port. His objective was to sail west until he reached Asia (the Indies) where the riches of gold, pearls and spice awaited. They placed a Spanish flag in the ground and declared the island a Spanish territory. It was America – Central America -“ The New World” .  They were greeted by friendly people. Columbus thought he had landed on an island in the Indies so he called these natives Indians.
  2. 2. European colonization of the Americas
  3. 3. As the sponsor of Christopher Columbus's voyages, Spain was the first European power to settle and colonize the largest areas, from North America and the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America. The Colonizers considered themselves superior in many things which included their fashion ,food, culture, religion , etiquette and many other things.
  4. 4. 1 British and (before 1707) English 2 Courland (indirectly part of Polish– Lithuanian Commonwealth) 3 Danish 4 Dutch 5 French 6 Knights of Malta 7 Norwegian 8 Portuguese 9 Russian 10 Scottish 11 Spanish 12 Swedish
  5. 5. The Declaration of INDEPENDENCE
  6. 6. On July 4, 1776, the 13 colonies claimed their independence from England, an event which eventually led to the formation of the United States. Each year on the fourth of July, also known as Independence Day, Americans celebrate this historic event.
  7. 7. Native Americans • Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States • They are called as Indians as Columbus thought he had discovered India and hence called them Indians. • The land of USA rightfully belongs to the Native Americans and everyone else is just a migrant.
  8. 8. MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD The Cutting of My Long Hair -Zitkala Sa
  9. 9. Gertrude Simmons Bonnin [Pen Name- Zitkala Sa] She was an extraordinarily talented and educated Native American Women who struggled and triumphed in a time when severe prejudice prevailed towards Native American culture and women .She began publishing articles criticizing the Carlisle Indian School.Her works criticised dogma,and her life as a Native American woman was dedicated against the evils of oppression.
  10. 10. THEME This story highlights the despise,racial discrimination and unhealthy treatment towards the humanity in general and women in particular.
  11. 11. READING TASK Read the first two paragraphs of the lesson. (Page 94-95. From “The first day….I rebelled”)
  12. 12. Questions 1. How were the Indian girls dressed? 2. How did Zitkala Sa compare her dress with that of other girls? 3. “I felt like sinking to the floor”, When did she feel so and why? 4. What were the indignities the new girls were subjected to? 5. Explain “eating by formula”.
  13. 13. Write True or False for the following statements: 1. The first day of the school began when a large bell rang for the breakfast. (True/False) 2. The narrator finds her new place to be interesting. (True/False) 3. She noticed the Indian girls dressed uncomfortably in the school. (True/False) 4. She felt uncomfortable in the dining room because of the food. (True/False) 5. The paleface woman helped her in sitting on the chair. (True/False)