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Child labour

  1. 1. 1 BUSINESSSTUDIES PROJECT Topic:Child Labour in India Sudmittedto: Sudmittedby:
  3. 3. 3 CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA INTRODUCTION The problem child labour has got deep social and Economical implication .Although ,child isthe father of the man but we do little for our children ,for whom ostensibly all the great modern shrines are put. Industries we have millions of sad faces mainly because child labour isprevalent.Child labours refers to the employmentof children at regular or sustained labour. These child works present a sad picture of our modern industrialism. Children arethe greatest assets of nation and they should be brought up with almost care and he or she should grow in environment conductive to leaving with affectionate and understanding to his/her needs. But the situation in India is something different. What we see at present is nothing much compatible with what is aforesaid. The problem of child labour has attracted attention of many of us since the problemof child labour has been acute in India.
  4. 4. 4 MEANING OF CHILDREN LABOUR Child labour means a person below 14years who is working for wage. According , to the labour investigation committee, “one black spot of labour condition in India in this illegal employment of children in certain industries.” The national sample survey defined child worker as person below the age of 14, who is wage earner.
  5. 5. 5 SITUATION ANALYSIS OF CHILD LABOUR Magnitude of Child Labour According to an ILO survey in 1995, after Africa (with 26.3%) Asia has the highestpercentage (13%) of child labours in the age group of 10-14years in the world. Nearly 25% of the children are child labouresin India .The number of employed children below 14years of age in various economic activities according to the statement of union labour ministry in 1995 was 17 million(9.5 million malesand 7.5 million females) in the country is worker. One estimate puts the number of working children in our country at 44million-5.2% of the total population . The child labour in India was10753985 in 1971 , 13640870 in 1981 ,11285349 in 1991,12666377 in 2001. In Delhi alone it is estimated that the more affluent citizens employ about25,000 children asdomestics. Their life is usually one of more monotonous routine. They often work right throughout the month and throughout the year. The census figure reveals that greater Bombay has the largest number of working children among the metropolitan cities. This is because Mumbai is highly industrialized and offers large number of job opportunities to children in the tertiary sectors.
  6. 6. 6 PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR Child labour is more a rural phenomena than an urban phenomena. Due to acute poverty poor families residing in rural areassend their children to urban areasfor bread and butte. In urban areas to survive a competition, manufactures have lowered the real wagesfor adultworkers in order to employ. Child workers on low wages. The problem is very much vast in its dimension. Children are forced to work in the most hazardous, unhygine conditions , where they are vulnerable to many several health problems.In small tradeindustries , trades and crafts. Using little or no machinery and power but employing a large number of workers. In these factories, child workers are extensively employed Children workin industries in which child labour is prevented are wood and cork, furniture and fixtures, printing and publishing and alied activities , lather products , rubber products, transportequipmentand personal services like laundries dying and cleaning . countless children are employed as domestic servants , workers in hotels, wayside shops and establishments, hawkers and news papers, sellers, ice cream and sweet venders ,shop polishing , helpers in services stations and repair shops . They are often hired
  7. 7. 7 along with their parents in construction works and take part in loading, un loading and breaking stones. Among the working children many are the main or major wage earners in the family who always remain workers about feeding their dependents . The migrant children labours whose parents live in some far including nights, when the factories are fully functional are paid not more than Rs. 500 per month. They hand over all their to their guardian whodo not give them a rupee a day for tea during the night shifts. There are times when bodies ache, minds far, hearts cry but one order of the employer. A visit to several factories in Delhi, Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh, Maharastrra reveals that a large number of child workershave sunken chest and thin borne frames, which give them a fragil look. They looks like rock dolls, unwashed and scarggly , they wear coarse and tailored cloths. Must of these children come from extremely poor households. They are either school dropouts or have not seen any school at all. The earn a very meager wage and work in most unsafe conditions.
  8. 8. 8 CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR Chronic poverty has been identified as the most important factor for the prevalence and perpetuation of child labour in India. Poor parents believe that children can provide them the best economic assets. Further, children can raise no voice when they are employed in factories and therefore they can be best exploited. The other reason for the ever increasing child labour is said to be, the accelerated pace of mechanization of agriculture which pushes the surplusfarm labour to the cities in search of livelihood. A survey conducted by the commission of child labour in Calcutta revealed that socio economic conditions of the families compelled children to come in search of employmentin urban sectors. Thus,child labour is the result of poverty and unemployment.The problem of child labour is complex one. There are many causes of child labour. These causes are discussed as under: 1. ECONOMIC CAUSE- In a country like India, 40% of the population is living in the condition of extreme Poverty. Children work out of necessity and withouttheir earning,the standard of living of their family would decline .Low incomes of the family ,economic insecurity ,chronicdiseases, ancestral ineptnessare the inevitable factors. The children either supplementtheir parents’ income. With the collapse of the rural economy and the disintegration of joint family system, large scale industrialization and the consequent
  9. 9. 9 erosion of agriculture economy compel the rural families and the children to find monetary resource to maintain the family. Unregulated industries take advantage of the situation and employ large number of children at very low wage. 2-INTERST FOR CHEAP LABOUR- Another important of child labour is that they are deliberately created to get cheap labour. The owners of the industries want to get more profit by engaging children as labourers. Because the owners give wage to child labours. Child labour is beneficial to industries. 3-EMPLOYERS JUSTIFICATION- Employers of child labour give certain justifications for employing children to support their guilt feelings. They say that the works keeps children away from starvation. They are also prevented from committing crime which they would have indulged in if they had no jobs. It is also a fact that poor parents are not able to give education to their children. Hence , they do not send their children to schools. The children who do not go to school move here and there with bad companies. In order to keep them away from bad and anti- social activities the parents engage their children in certain work. 4-FAILURE OF GOVERNMENT MACHINERY- Another cause of child labour is the failure of governmentmachinery.There is a nexus between the personal
  10. 10. 10 of labour department and the owners. Government has not been able to provide alternative to child labour who do not have any family income or support. 5-FAMILY CONDITION- Family condition is also responsible for child labour. Faulty socialization, violence in family and lack of care etc. are the causes of child labour .
  11. 11. 11 CONSEQUENCE OF CHILD LABOUR- Child labour is the result of poverty and unemployment. This spoils the adulthood life of the children and their potentialities are not harnessed in the night manner. C. B. MEMORIAhas discussed the followingconsequence of child labour. Child labour is directly related to child’s health and exerts a negative effect upon it. It tends to interfere with the moral family life and to encourage the break down of the social control that is largely dependent upon it to preserve the existing social order. It seriously interferes with education and thus precludes the most productive participation, in the privileges and obligation of citizenship. It is the economic backwardness, which pushes the child to the world of social and familiar problems which result in child begging, juvenile delinquency, vagrancy, truancy etc.. The various problems that arise because of employment of children as follows: 1-The emotional ties between children and their parents are disturbed.
  12. 12. 12 2-As a result of such international distortion, the children slip off from the family bondage and step into the world of disorganization. The emotional affectionate relation between parents and child turns into commercial interaction. The parents who live below poverty line are compelled to sell the labour of their children, which results in exploitation of child, through demand of maximum turnover at minimum wages, thereby causing economic loss to society. Child workers are necessarily handicapped by limitation of physical strength and experiences so that they are not so productive as the adults. Totally “The child labour is economically unsound, psychologically disastrous and physically as well as morally dangerous and harmful.” 3-The hazardous working conditions adversely affect the health of child workers. Data reveals that a large number of child workers have sunken chests and thin bone frames which give them a fragile look. They look like rag dolls, limp, unwashed and scraggly. They wear coarse and badly tailored clothes. Many of them have scabies on hands, arms and legs. The heads of a few are tonsured probably because the skin on their skull has developed severe infections. A large number of the child workers are virtually confined in small rooms under inhuman conditions and in the most unhygienic surroundings. Most of these children come from extremely poor households. They earn a very meager wage and work in mostunsafe conditions.The hazardousconditions take their tool. Children suffer from lung diseases, tuberculosis, eye diseases, asthma, bronchitis and backaches. Some are injured in fire accidents. Many become unemployable even at the age of 20.If injured or incapacited, they are discarded mercilessly by their employers.
  13. 13. 13 Work in childhood isa social good and national gain, but the circumstances under which child labour is prevalent, is a social evil and national waste.The social problem arising out of child labour implies the fact that: the child labour is directly related to child health and exerts a negative effect upon it. It tends to interfere with the normal family life and to encourage the breakdown of the social control that is largely dependent upon it to preserve the existing social order. It seriously interferes with education and thus preludes the most productive participation in the privileges and obligations ofcitizenships.
  14. 14. 14 GOVRENMENT MEASURES FOR TACKLING THE PROBLEM OF CHILD LABOUR In India, attempts were made from time to time to provide legal protection to child labour. The following acts were passed in India before independence to provide protection child workers. -The Factory Act, 1881 -The Indian Merchant Shipping of Labour Act, 1923 -The Children Pledging Of Labour Act, 1933 -The Employment of Children Act, 1338 -The Act Passed after independence are discussed as under: -The Indian Factories Act of 1948. -The plantation labour act of 1951.
  15. 15. 15 -The mines act of 1952. The child labour (prohibition and regulation)act, 1986. THE INDIAN FACTORIES ACT OF 1948- This act has limited hours of work for children, prohibited night work and provided for weekly holiday. ‘No person who has not completed his 14 year may be require or allowed to work in any factories. THE PLANTATION LABOUR ACT OF 1951- This act appliesto all tea, coffee and rubber plantation, child under the age of 12 shall not work in any plantation, no child shall be employed except between the hours 6 am and 7pm, except with permission of the state government. Employer must possess a certificate of fitness of the workers given by surgeon. THE MINES ACT OF 1952- Under this act number of child under 15 years of age may be employed in any mine, number of child may be allowed to be presentundergroundor in any excavation.where mining operations are carried on. No of adolescent may work below ground in any time unless he is certified to be medically fit to work as an adult by a certifying surgeon. THE CHILD LABOUR (PROHIBITION AND REGULATION) ACT 1986- This acts provides for ban on the employment of children and regulate the condition of work .It says down penalties for employment of children in violation of the provision of this act.
  16. 16. 16 “No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the occupation or in any workshop”. This includes a shop, commercial establishments,workshops,farm, residential, hotel and restaurants, eating houses, theatre or other place of public amusement or entertainment. On 23rd July 1998 included the following occupation viz, handing of toxic substances , inflammable or explosives , carpet weaving, cloth printing, dying and weaving including preparatory and incident at process, plastic units, fiber glass and molding, processingauto mobile workshop, sericulture units, manufacture of lime stone, breaking, crushing, cotton ginning, pressing, pottery and ceramic industry, production of hosiery goods, manufacture of cement ceramic industry, manufacture of cement pipes and other related work, gem cutting and polishing, process of agriculture where tractors, threshing and harvesting machines are used, glass manufactures,bricks, roof tile, polishing,mould cutting, welding and manufacturing of brass goods, paper making, manufacture of dyes and dye staff , pesticides and insecticides, toxic substances, metal cleaning, manufacturing process having high noise level, involving thermal radiation, oil expelling and refinery, fabrication workshop, tire making repairing , these work the children are more sufferer.
  17. 17. 17 NATIONAL POLICY ON CHILD LABOUR- The government believes that it is not easy to completely wipe out child labour. It therefore only tries to improve their working conditions reduce working hours, ensure minimum wages and provide facilities for health and education. It could be said that the national policy has been main ingredients viz, 1-Legal action focusingon general welfare. 2-Developpmentprograms for the child workers and their families. 3-A projectbased action plan. Initially ten projectswere proposed to cover the areas wherechild labour is prevalent. The union governmentset up a National Authority in 1993 to eliminate child labour in hazardousindustriesby theturn of the country.Rs.850 corerswere provided in thisplan for benefiting into two million children.The plansaim at rehabitingthe child workers, givingthem education in 15,000 schoolsin differentparts of the country. The Governmentis also implementingthe international program for elimination of child labour.The program was launched in January 1993. 33 action programsunder thishave been approved and more proposalsare under consideration.oneprojectwith an interpreted approach aims rehabiting 5,000children every year from the carpet trade. Ofcorse, the Indian Governmentis spendingannually Rs. 10 corers on ten National level pilotprojectsin priority industriestowear away child labour and rehabilitate them.
  18. 18. 18 For Successful implementation of the project, the action plan has suggested the following strategies: Mass enrolment of children into the schools, identifications of child labour. The 96 projectscover 2 lakh children in 13 states, but center is willing to extend this to other states Karnataka is among the 13 states, which have larger population of child labour in the country. The government is preparing an action plan for removing all children from hazardous occupation by 2005 and to providemore fundsfor projects where they can be employed more healthy and economically. The number of such projects is beings increased from 96 to 100. There are at present over 35,000 schools in the country where over two lakh children have been rehabilited.
  19. 19. 19 SUGGESTION FOR ELIMINATION OF CHILD LABOUR:- The problem of child labour is a complex one. There variousfactors which are through to be responsiblefor child labour which needs holistic approach for its elimination. Following measures may be taken for elimination of theproblem. 1-STRICT ENFORCEMENT OF LEGISLATION- Various acts have been passed for amelioration, of the problems of child labour. But these acts have not been effective due to lack of proper implementation. Hence, existing labour legislation must be strictly enforced so that much of the evils will disappear. 2. ELIMINATION OF POVERTY:- The root cause of child labour is poverty. The child labour can not be eliminated without the eradication of poverty of parents of child labour. Child labour due to economically necessities. If this is removed the problem will be solved. The problem of elimination of child labours should be doubly attacked, on the one hand, the income of the poor sections of
  20. 20. 20 the peoples should be increased and on the other prohibition of child labour should be strictly followed. 3-PROVISION FOR EDUCATION OF CHILDREN- Free and job oriented education should be given to children up to the age of 15. The child workers should also given education along with their work. The National communism on labour has observed, while the economic difficultiesare real, a way has to be found to give the child the necessary education in his more receptive years. We fell this can be ensured by fixing employment hours of children.
  21. 21. 21 CONCLUSION- Child labour is an international evil. It requires cumulative efforts to wipeit out. Toiling long hours for apittance, these little breadwinners accept exploitingas a way of life. The governmenton this fronthas also taken a few steps. The (ILO) launched the international program for elimination of child labours in 1991 and Indiawas the first join the samein 1992. But still the problem presents dueto poor implementation of the plansand programs. The need of the hours is to expand the machinery for enforcing the various lowsof child labour. There is a plethora of lows but nothing can eradicate. Child labour unlessthere is awareness amongparentsand children, which will go a long way in saving, the futureof millions children in India. Lastly instead of blaming the supply side, we mostfocuson the demand side.