Let’s Remember: Yalta, 1945• Who were the “Big Three”?Joseph Stalin- Communist Dictator of RussiaWinston Churchill- Democratic Prime Minister from EnglandFranklin Roosevelt- Democratic President from America
Yalta, continued• What was the purpose of Yalta?Divide Europe and Germany after WWII- Who was going to control what• What did Stalin promise?Free Elections in Soviet controlled territories after WWII, specifically in Poland• How did the Yalta conference contribute to the growing tensions between the US and USSR?It was obvious Stalin was not going to keep his word, (1947 the election in Poland was likely rigged to favor a socialist government),the big three had a great deal of mistrust between them,
Stalin’s Reason to take Poland“For the Russian people, the question of Poland is notonly a question of honor but also a question of security.Throughout history, Poland has been the corridorthrough which the enemy has passed into Russia. Twicein the last thirty years our enemies, the Germans, havepassed through this corridor. It is in Russia’s interestthat Poland should be strong and powerful, in a positionto shut the door of this corridor by her own force. . Itis necessary that Poland should be free, independent inpower. Therefore, it is not only a question of honor butof life and death for the Soviet state.”
Communism vs. Democracy, (Capitalism)• What are three major parts of Communist Russia?1. People have no say in government,2. Equal division of labor, wealth, and land 3. One party dictatorship• What are three major parts of Democratic US?1. People vote/ select their government officials; 2.competition among businesses to support economy; 3.Unequal distribution of wealth and land
Communism vs. Democracy, (Capitalism)• Why do the differences between Communism and Democracy lead to tensions between Russia and US?Conflicting ideals; Each think their government is the best form; Stalin wants to spread communism and openly states that it is his goal, US wants to preserve Capitalism and Democracy for the worldNeither side can trust each other
Satellite Countries• What is a satellite country?A country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country• Where were some of Stalin’s major satellite countries?Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Satellite Countries• What are two reasons why Stalin developed satellite nations?1. Spread communism throughout the world2. Have protection from invasions; have a sphere of influence
US. vs. USSR• What is a super power?• A country with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale.• How did the US and USSR emerge from WWII as super powers?Europe was destroyed after the war. US and USSR still had territory and were looked to for aid and support
NATO• What is NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization• Why was it • 1949, organization created to created? defend each other from outside enemies. Democratic/• Who created it? Non-Communist countries working together to prevent the spread of Communism • France, UK, US, Italy, Canada were some of the original members
Warsaw Pact• What is Warsaw • was an organization of communist states in• Why was it Central and Eastern created? Europe• Who created it? • 1955, This treaty was in response to the NATO treaty • Bulgaria, Hungry, USSR, Czech, Poland
US vs. USSR continued• What area’s of the world supported democracy and which supported communism? NATO v.s Warsaw Pact• After 1945, who lead the US and USSR?Truman and Stalin
Germany• How was Germany divided after WWII?France, England, US control Western Germany, USSR controls Eastern Germany• Why was Germany not able to complete it’s reunification in 1946?Stalin wanted Germany to be Communist and US wanted Democracy• In his speech, Churchill mentions an “Iron Curtain.” What was this Iron Curtain he speaks of?Division of Communist vs. anti-communist nations. Specifically division in Germany
Berlin Blockade• Soviet block Western allies from aiding Germany• Meant to prevent Unification of Germany, 1948• In June 1948 Soviet forces began a blockade of all rail, road, and water traffic through East Germany to West Berlin• The USA and UK responded, however, by sending food and other vital supplies into the city by air.
Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan• What was the Truman Doctrine?Aide countries trying to resist communism• What two countries did it specifically send aid too?Greece and Turkey• What is the domino theory?If one country falls to communism, the rest of the world will continue to fall• What is the Marshall Plan?Send aide to ALL countries resisting communism• Describe containmentConfront all attempts to spread communism and contain
Iron CurtainWhat was the Iron Curtain speech? A speechgiven in warning of the plausibility of the communistexpansionWhat was the intention of this speech? Towarn anti-communist and neutral countries to beprepared and take action, while allowing Communistcountries to know that we are awareWhen and by whom was it given?March 1946, Winston ChurchillWhat area of the globe is the speaker callingthe Iron Curtain? The barrier dividing theEuropean Continent, between Eastern and Westernterritories, (Specifically Germany)What became the actual symbol of the IronCurtain and the Cold war in General?Berlin Wall1961
Berlin Wall• Built- 1961 ordered by Soviet Primier Nikita Khrushchev• Built to keep unhappy East Berliners from escaping to democratic West, (Official figures show that at least 136 people died trying to cross the border. People attempting to get from East to West were regarded as traitors and guards were instructed to shoot at them if they attempted to cross, although not to kill them)• Economy in East was deplorable• Economy in West, thanks to Marshall Plan, was booming• Wall became symbol of Cold War and the division between democracy and Communism• In certain regions, the “Iron Curtain” was nothing more than a plain chain link fence, when in other places it was a highly guarded area which only people carrying special government permissions could approach.