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Produced Water | Session X - Alleman


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Water Management in the Bakken

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Produced Water | Session X - Alleman

  1. 1. WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE BAKKEN Atlantic Council Workshop Fossil Fuel Produced Water: Asset or Waste Washington, DC June 24-25, 2013 Authors: J. Daniel (Dan) Arthur, P.E., SPEC David Alleman
  2. 2. ALL Consulting… Hydraulic Fracturing Considerations for Natural Gas Wells of the Marcellus Shale 2008 (first paper addressing environmental implications of fracturing) June 2013 Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting 2
  3. 3. Shale Oil N. Dakota • North Dakota has passed Alaska to become the 2nd largest oil-producing state. • North Dakota’s unemployment is 3.3% compared to the national average of 7.2%. • One-third of the natural gas produced in N. Dakota is flared. • Worker demand in North Dakota is high enough that a workers at McDonalds can earn up to $25/hour! • Rent in Williston ranges from $2,000 to $3,400 for a one- bedroom apartment. June 2013 3Copyright (c) 2012 ALL Consulting
  4. 4. Water: An Array of Considerations • Logistics: Methods for transporting water and resultant wastes can carry wide variations in costs, liabilities, resource production, manpower, community relations, and environmental implications. • Sourcing: Choosing options for sourcing that is best suited to a particular play or region is critical. • Storage: A key aspect to the feasibility of many options, especially for central facilities, reuse/recycling, blending, etc. • Treatment: Treatment adds costs and creates waste. To use treatment, economic thresholds must be achieved. • Disposal/Reuse: Options are generally driven by the character of a play or region. • Compliance/Monitoring: Critical aspect of managing water! March 2013 4Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
  5. 5. Water Use in the Bakken June 2013 5 • Average water use in the Bakken is approximately 2.1 million gallons per well • Range is from approximately 1.0 to 9.5 million gallons per well
  6. 6. Water Sourcing in the Bakken June 2013 ALL Consulting 6 • Primary Water Sources • Municipal fresh water • Fresh ground water • Lake Sakakawea – Conflicts regarding water use have been resolved (at least temporarily) • Now that water from Lake Sakakwea is allowed, water supply does not seem to be an issue at present.
  7. 7. Alternate Water Sources - Bakken June 2013 ALL Consulting 7 • Municipal grey water (POTWs) – Supply is limited due to size of population centers • Saline aquifers – water cycling is possible • Water pulled from the Dakota aquifer (~6,000 ppm TDS) then re-injected in the lower portion of the aquifer • Uneconomic at present Bakken
  8. 8. Water Sourcing Logistics • Operators may procure their own water sources or may purchase from water depots or trucking companies • Fresh water costs range from approximately $1.50 - $5.00 • Most water is transported by truck • Water is typically heated to approximately 80o F prior to mixing and injection • Water is typically stored in insulated tanks at centralized facilities Source: 8Copyright (c) 2012 ALL ConsultingJune 2013
  9. 9. PW Quality • Produced water quality in the Bakken can range from approximately 30,000 to 250,000 ppm TDS • Varies significantly by well • Varies over time June 2013 9Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
  10. 10. PW Management Bakken • Approximately 20% of PW in the Bakken is reused in subsequent fracture operations • The remaining 80% is disposed via Class II injection • Widespread availability of injection wells makes reuse less attractive in most areas • The Dakota aquifer west of the Missouri river is “exempt” and serves as the primary disposal zone June 2013 10Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting
  11. 11. Citation Information: Arthur, J.D., and David Alleman (ALL Consulting). Produced Water Management in Unconventional Resource Plays: Strategies and Technology Needs”. Presented at the Atlantic Council Workshop on Produced Water: Asset or Waste?, June 24-25, 2013. Contact Information David Alleman Environmental Manager ALL Consulting 1718 S. Cheyenne Ave. Tulsa, OK 74119 June 2013 11Copyright (c) 2013 ALL Consulting