Background <ul><li>For the year ended 31 March 2010 , w ater consumption increased by 1.6% to 618 million cubic metres. </li></ul>Source: Water Supplies Department
Background <ul><li>The first Dongjiang Water Supply Agreement was signed in 1960 to purchase 22.7 million cubic meters of raw water each year. </li></ul><ul><li>The current Dongjiang Water Supply Agreement was signed on 11 December 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dongjiang Water Supply Agreement guarantees Hong Kong access to up to 1 100 million cubic metres of water annually, that will be adequate to meet Hong Kong’s need beyond 2030. </li></ul><ul><li>The current cost regime for the Dongjiang water is fixed at $2,959 million for 2009, $3,146 million for 2010 and $3,344 million for 2011. </li></ul>
Major concerns Quality and Quantity <ul><li>Once-in-a-century severe drought: </li></ul><ul><li>affected t he south-western part of the Mainland ; </li></ul><ul><li>number of drought victims has exceeded 60 million . </li></ul><ul><li>There have been comments that although the drought has not created immediate impact on the water source of the rivers in the Guangdong region, it has reflected the increasingly pronounced impact of climate change on human lives, which may exert pressure on local water resources in the long-term. </li></ul>Source: Civic Exchange Organisation, http://www.civic-exchange.org/wp/
<ul><li>The Dongjiang River, one of the Pearl River’s major tributaries, is located in the eastern part of Guangdong Province. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures implemented along the Dongjiang include building sewage treatment plants, removing polluting factories, commissioning a bionitrification plant at the Shenzhen Reservoir and diverting polluted water from the Shima River away from the Dongjiang. </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong’s Advisory Committee on Quality Water Supplies (ACQWS) visit various operational aspects of the water transfer chain on a regular basis. </li></ul>Major concerns
Major concerns Financial aspect Source: Water Supplies Department
Major concerns Source: Water Supplies Department
Major concerns <ul><li>The water charges have not been changed since February 1995. </li></ul>Source: Water Supplies Department
Policy Address 2011-12 Dongjiang Water Supply 135. … negotiating a new agreement on the supply of Dongjiang water to Hong Kong with the Guangdong a uthorities … to ensure a continuous, reliable and flexible supply of Dongjiang water to Hong Kong up to 2014. Seawater Desalination 136. … strive to explore other sources of water supply to meet our own needs. … kept abreast of the latest developments in desalination technology and prepared for the related planning and studies … other water sources can be tapped in good time in case of water shortage…conducting a detailed study and field surveys to assess the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of building a medium-sized desalination plant. A site has been reserved in Tseung Kwan O. Source: 2011-12 Policy Address, http://www.policyaddress.gov.hk/11-12/eng/p135.html
Alternatives Source: Water Supplies Department
Alternatives Capacity of Impounding Reservoirs in Hong Kong 586.050 Total capacity : 20.490 Tai Lam Chung Reservoir 13.279 Shing Mun Reservoir 0.374 Shek Lei Pui Reservoir 229.729 Plover Cove Reservoir 4.299 Lower Shing Mun Reservoir 1.578 Kowloon Reservoir 0.121 Kowloon Reception Reservoir 0.800 Kowloon Byewash Reservoir 281.124 High Island Reservoir 1.490 Tai Tam Upper Reservoir 6.047 Tai Tam Tuk Reservoir 0.686 Tai Tam Intermediate Reservoir 0.080 Tai Tam Byewash Reservoir 24.461 Shek Pik Reservoir 0.233 Pok Fu Lam Reservoir 0.773 Aberdeen Upper Reservoir 0.486 Aberdeen Lower Reservoir Capacity (1) Million Cubic Metre Name of Impounding Reservoirs
Alternatives About 20%-30% of our water supply is surface water collected from local water gathering grounds
Alternatives Israel Large scale projects to direct water from rivers and reservoirs in the north, make optimal use of groundwater, and reclaim flood overflow and sewage have been undertaken. Israel relies on unconventional water resources, including reclaimed water and desalination . Groundwater recharge from flood water is done by collecting runoff from winter rains in a drainage basin and directing it into recharge ponds. The groundwater is then pumped back up during summer through wells around the recharge ponds. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Israel
Alternatives Watershed management Controlling erosion and runoff
Alternatives Water Governance The immediate outcome of failing to achieve 'participation as citizenship', 'participation as payment' or effective hybrid spaces for water governance is that access to drinking water is neither sustainable nor equitable. However, there is currently insufficient data on overall pump downtime, the direct impacts (for example, drinking water of poorer quality, travelling further to another source, using lower quantities of water) and the indirect effects (for example, health problems, less time for pursuing livelihood activities or education).
Conclusion Hong Kong should consider all the alternatives, in order to include a variety of sources. Also, the Government should be careful in water management.