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Schedule Integrity - The Key to Successful Project Management

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Shane Forth
North West Branch
16th March 2016
Manchester University, Manchester

Published in: Business
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Schedule Integrity - The Key to Successful Project Management

  1. 1. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule MEETING NATIONAL NEEDS SCHEDULE TECHNICAL INTEGRITY THE KEY TO SUCCESSFUL PROJECT MANAGEMENT Shane Forth Msc, FAPM, FACostE Costain Natural Resources - PMO Director APM North West Event at University of Manchester - 16TH March 2016
  2. 2. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 2 Introduction Alumni of Manchester University www.costain.comContact Tel: Mobile: Email: Follow us on: 01642 664155 0161 910 3369 07812 961901 shane.forth@costain.com ‘I received high quality support throughout from the Universities MACE School, course co-ordinators, programme team, academic staff, course administrators and especially, my dissertation supervisor Therese Lawlor- Wright, who provided excellent support and guidance.’ 2
  3. 3. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 3 Costain Group plc Securing a future energy  supply… …maintaining a safe and  reliable water supply …upgrading the transport  infrastructure Infrastructure Natural Resources
  4. 4. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 4 Costain Group plc Natural  Resources LISTED ON THE London Stock Exchange SECURED BUSINESS UK EMPOLYEES 35382014 Female 681 Male 2857 Costain Group plc is one of the UK’s largest and most respected Engineering Solutions Providers Infrastructure Rail  Highways Power Water Nuclear Oil & Gas
  5. 5. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 5 Costain Natural Resources  Established over 60 years ago  UK & Internationally focused  Full project lifecycle delivery   Driven by technology & innovation  Focus on advisory & design services  Improvement & development of  customer facilities Advisory & Concept Development Specialist Design Programme Management Complex Project Delivery Technology Integration Asset Optimisation & Support Our Natural Resources division supports  the Oil & Gas, Power, Water and Carbon Management sectors.
  6. 6. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 6 Costain Oil & Gas Project Delivery Centres Manchester Delivery Centre 870 people across process sectors Immingham CORE CAPABILITIES – FULL PROJECT LIFE CYCLE  Concept, feasibility and FEED  Detailed design, engineering, procurement and project management services  Construction Management  Asset management & industrial services 180 Head Office  Maidenhead 450 Leeds170 Teesside30 Aberdeen130
  7. 7. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 7 Project Management Office (PMO) ‘ ‘ To develop, implement and continuously improve our processes and tools for project controls and information management to help our project teams improve delivery outcomes on new projects to benefit both Costain and our customers Our customers recognise the industry leading processes and tools we provide for project controls and information management that strongly support our project teams and ensure predictable project delivery in all our target markets
  8. 8. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 8 Integrated Project Delivery Solution (IPDS) http://costain.com/media/597674/ipds‐2pp.pdf
  9. 9. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 9 IPDS System Offering
  10. 10. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 10 IPDS System Offering
  11. 11. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 11 Project Controls Technician Trailblazer Apprenticeship
  12. 12. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 12 Agenda 1. Schedule Technical Integrity - What is it and How Big is the Problem ? 2. Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules 3. A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network 4. Real World Case Studies 5. 5-Step Solution 6. Emerging Trends in Industry 7. Why is Planning & Scheduling Important?
  13. 13. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 13 Technical relating to a particular subject, art, or craft, or its techniques Integrity the condition of being unified or sound in construction http://oxforddictionaries.com/ Schedule Technical Integrity What is It?
  14. 14. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 14 Technical Assurance The monitoring of the technical integrity of products. Technical Pertaining to the application of specific principles and/or reasoning to the resolution of project management issues or problems. Integrity In dealings between parties, firm adherence to a code of moral values including completeness, honesty, honor, forthrightness, straightforwardness and entirety. Wideman Comparative Glossary of Project Management Terms v3.1 http://www.maxwideman.com/pmglossary/index.htm Schedule Technical Integrity What is It?
  15. 15. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 1515 After: Ernest & Young 2014  Schedule Technical Integrity How Big is the Problem?
  16. 16. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 16 Schedule Technical Integrity How Big is the Problem?  ENR, May 2003, reported on a meeting at which four scheduling experts lamented the state of scheduling and what they saw as widespread abuse of powerful software to produce badly flawed schedules, that look good but lack mathematical coherence or common sense. They described this as:  The article included a quote from Russell J. Lewton, construction manager for the Weitz Co LLC, Des Moines: Korman et al (2003) ‘Among the young guys, computers have made it east to slap together something that looks right, but there is a thought process that must be involved, and it is hard to tell in many contemporary schedules if the thinking has happened or not.’ Critics can't find the logic in many of today's CPM schedules Users want software with flexibility, but is it true CPM?
  17. 17. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 17 Schedule Technical Integrity How Big is the Problem? We might liken the current condition of schedule analyses to fruit we buy at the market. We have all had the experience of buying fruit that looks to be in excellent condition, only to get home and find it is rotten to the core. In the era of Enron we have seen this trend carry over to accounting reports not worth the paper on which they are written. Unfortunately the field of construction planning today presents a landscape that is littered with too many ‘rotten banana’ schedules. Whilst the majority of schedules in use today present tools for planning and scheduling projects, too many of today’s schedules fall into the ‘rotten bananas’ category. Frequently these ‘rotten banana’ schedules appear to be in excellent condition from the outside. However when we look at the actual content of these documents and files, we find that the schedules are flawed, if not useless. Wickwire et al, 2003 ‘Rotten bananas in a Software Paradise
  18. 18. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 18 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules 1. Open ended activities - no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail These five problems lead to project networks with incorrect float calculations and invalid or absent critical path. Credibility is lacking, predictability and forecasts are poor and this not acceptable to customers
  19. 19. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 19 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Open ended activities occur as a result of decisions (or errors) made by the project planner when creating the project schedule. To illustrate the impact of the problem, we can consider the impact on a very simple project network. 1. Open ended activities - no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail
  20. 20. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 20 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules A B F I J C D E G H   A B F I J C D E G H  
  21. 21. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 21 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules
  22. 22. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 22 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules The FS dependency between Activity C & D has been removed or missed by the planner below, what are the effects?
  23. 23. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 23 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules
  24. 24. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 24 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules The FS dependency between Activity B & C has been removed or missed by the planner below, what are the effects?
  25. 25. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 25 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Computerised project management systems have various constraint date types, which can be assigned to activities as imposed dates – but beware, this will override the calculation and results of a natural forward and backward pass. 1. Open ended activities – no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail
  26. 26. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 26 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules
  27. 27. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 27 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Computerised project management systems offer various types of constraint dates which can be assigned to activities as imposed dates, overriding the calculation and results of a natural forward and backward pass
  28. 28. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 28 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Computerised project management systems offer various types of constraint dates which can be assigned to activities as imposed dates, overriding the calculation and results of a natural forward and backward pass Activity C Start On or After 28 Aug
  29. 29. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 29 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Computerised project management systems offer various types of constraint dates which can be assigned to activities as imposed dates, overriding the calculation and results of a natural forward and backward pass Look what’s happened to the Project Finish date ? Activity C Start On or After 28 Aug
  30. 30. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 30 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Constraint Types (Primavera P6)  Start On or After  Finish On or After  Start On or Before  Finish On or Before  Mandatory Start  Mandatory Finish Constraint Types (Microsoft Project)  Start No Earlier Than  Finish No Earlier Than  Start No Later Than  Finish No Later Than  Must Start On  Must Finish On
  31. 31. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 31 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules 31 Extract from CPM Network without Imposed Restraints (Adapted from Ahujah, 1976: 54, Figure 3-8) Figure ‐ Extract from CPM Network with Imposed Restraints (Adapted from Ahujah, 1976: 54, Figure 3‐9) 
  32. 32. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 32 1. Open ended activities – no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules
  33. 33. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 33 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules   Activity B needs to Start 20 days before Activity A finishes Dur = 50 days Dur = 40 days
  34. 34. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 34 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules   Activity B needs to Start 20 days before Activity A finishes Dur = 50 days Dur = 40 days This suggests that the finish of a future activity will determine the start of an activity in the past which is neither logical nor possible Better options are  Use an SS relationship with a positive lag of 30 days from Activity A to Activity B  Use more detailed activities (with smaller durations) and an FS 0 relationship between them
  35. 35. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 35 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules 1. Open ended activities – no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail
  36. 36. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 36 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Some Examples of the complexity in software settings Include:  Activity Duration Types – Fixed Duration and Units – Fixed Duration and Units/Time – Fixed Units/Time – Fixed Units  Scheduling Options – Make open ended activities critical – When scheduling progressed activities use Retained Logic or Progress Override or Actual dates – Calculate Start to Start Lag from Early Start or Actual Start – Use Expected Finish Dates – Ignore dependencies (relationships) to and from activities in other projects – Compute Total Float as Start Float, Finish Float or smallest of Start and Finish Float – Calculate Float based on Finish Date of Each Project or Opened Projects
  37. 37. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 37 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Some Examples of the complexity in software settings Include:  Activity Duration Types – Fixed Duration and Units – Fixed Duration and Units/Time – Fixed Units/Time – Fixed Units  Scheduling Options – Make open ended activities critical – When scheduling progressed activities use Retained Logic or Progress Override or Actual dates – Calculate Start to Start Lag from Early Start or Actual Start – Use Expected Finish Dates – Ignore dependencies (relationships) to and from activities in other projects – Compute Total Float as Start Float, Finish Float or smallest of Start and Finish Float – Calculate Float based on Finish Date of Each Project or Opened Projects If the planner changes the activity duration manually, the software automatically changes the resources (manhours)
  38. 38. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 38 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules 1. Open ended activities – no predecessor or no successor 2. Use of constraint dates 3. Negative Lags 4. Incorrect software settings can affect calculations 5. Excessive detail
  39. 39. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 39 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Excessive activity detail in the project network has been a problem since the very first use of the critical path method. (CPM)  1957-58 - during testing in first use of CPM by Du Pont US on a new chemical plant facility, a team of six engineers went into far more detail than expected (Kelley & Walker, 1959)  Early 1960s - the USAF Dyna Soar rocket missile program had a network of 250,000 activities that had to be simplified for contractors (Battersby, 1964)  Early 1960s - Bristol Aircraft ran into difficulties with a 3000 activity network in Concorde, encountering incomplete logic, loops and incorrect event numbering (Battersby, 1964) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  40. 40. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 40 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules Excessive network activity detail causes the following problems:  Many stakeholders are overwhelmed and don’t understand the plan, or ignore it  Need for taller organisation with increased levels of management and slower decisions  Difficulties in keeping the project schedule current – Progress update is a high maintenance chore, the network quickly becomes out of date – Difficulties adding authorised changes into the network, another high maintenance chore – Progress status reports are late and inaccurate  Abortive and inefficient schedule development work – As the more distant planned work moves towards the upcoming time horizon, the schedule activity detail that was planned too early, before the prerequisite level of scope definition and information was available, has to be reworked
  41. 41. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 41 The convenience of PC, modern project management software and speed of data entry that can easily lead the planning engineer and project team into temptation to develop the project network in more detail than the availability of the prerequisite information supports A long list of authoritative sources cite the problem of excessive activity as the single most problem in the development of robust and usable project networks (e.g. PMI, 2007, Andersen, 1996; Lockyer & Gordon, 1996; Drigani, 1989; Laufer & Tucker, 1988; Lockyer, 1984; Morton, 1983b; Lester, 1982 (citing NEDO, 1976); Woodgate, 1977; Ahuja, 1976 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules
  42. 42. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 42 Common Problems in the Development of Project Schedules In addition to the convenience of the PC, organisational and behavioural issues influence come into play:  Whilst some project team members or stakeholders complain there is too much detail in the project schedule  … it is often assumed that more thought must have been put into project schedule development and that more detail provides more certainty as to the outcome  … many find this a comfort, it give them a (false) sense of security  … I would suggest to you that this is a confusion in thinking that quantity is equal to quality.
  43. 43. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 43 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network 2015 - APM - Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control: The Practical Project Management of Time, Cost and Risk 2014 - CPM Scheduling for Construction Best Practice and Guidelines 2010 - American Association of Cost Engineers - Identifying the Critical Path - Schedule Level of Detail - Forensic Schedule Analysis 2007 - Project Management Institute (PMI) PMBOK 2002 - Society of Construction Law Delay and Disruption Protocol Standards and Guidelines that contain statements of good practice concerning the project network include:
  44. 44. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 44 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network 2011 - Chartered Institute of Builders (CIOB) - Review for schedule integrity 2010 - Association for Project Management (APM) - The scheduling maturity model 2010 - Government Accountability Office (GAO) - 9 point schedule analysis 2009 - Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMS ) - 14 point schedule assessment Standards and Guidelines - As awareness of problems have increased, government organisations and professional bodies have introduced specific standards and guidelines for the checking of schedule integrity
  45. 45. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 45 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network A B F I J C D E G H    A B F I J C D E G H     Open Ends
  46. 46. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 46 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Open Ends
  47. 47. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 47 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Use of Constraint Dates
  48. 48. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 48 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Use of Constraint Dates
  49. 49. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 49 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network FS - 20  SS 30 FF 20 Negative Lags
  50. 50. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 50 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Negative Lags
  51. 51. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 51 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Most professional bodies recommend the ‘rolling wave method to address the issue of excessive detail (as do Costain procedures)  APM advocates the ‘rolling wave’ method  PMI acknowledge that too much detail can mean a schedule which is difficult to manage and suggest that the level should be sufficient for the assigned person to carry out the task without requiring further sources of guidance  AACEI recommend Level 3 detail, which is not too high-level and not too detailed and support the ‘rolling wave’ method whereby Level 3 may apply o the detailed engineering/design phase, but the later phases for procurement and construction phases might only be detailed to Level 1 or 2.  GAO Best Practice number 3 specifies the ‘rolling wave’ method  Society of Construction Law guidance is that activities should not exceed 28 days duration  Costain specify a maximum 3,000 activities for the project network and recommend the ‘rolling wave’ method Level of Detail
  52. 52. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 52 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network CIOB (2011a :30). Graph of schedule density in relation to predictability Level of Detail
  53. 53. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 53 A Review of Good Practice in Preparing the Project Network Level of Detail CIOB (2011b :36). WBS levels and schedule density
  54. 54. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 54 Real World Case Study 1 All eight networks would all fail the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA ) 14 Point Schedule Assessment, which recommends a 5% limit for open ends, constraints and negative lags Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project F Project G Project J Max Avg # Activities 4067 3597 3528 2792 1933 1526 923 522 2361 # Open Ends 5.3% 10.6% 9.2% 7.5% 4.4% 29.1% 33.3% 36.4% 36.4% 11.4% # Constraints 1.1% 12.6% 11.3% 4.3% 6.5% 2.4% 1.1% 1.3% 12.6% 6.4% # Negative Lags 0.1% 3.6% 1.8% 2.1% 1.0% 8.9% 1.6% 11.1% 11.1% 2.6% Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project F Project G Project J Max Avg # Activities 4067 3597 3528 2792 1933 1526 923 522 2361 # Open Ends 5.3% 10.6% 9.2% 7.5% 4.4% 29.1% 33.3% 36.4% 36.4% 11.4% # Constraints 1.1% 12.6% 11.3% 4.3% 6.5% 2.4% 1.1% 1.3% 12.6% 6.4% # Negative Lags 0.1% 3.6% 1.8% 2.1% 1.0% 8.9% 1.6% 11.1% 11.1% 2.6% Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project F Project G Project J Max Avg # Activities 4067 3597 3528 2792 1933 1526 923 522 2361 # Open Ends 214 380 325 209 86 444 307 190 444 269 # Constraints 46 454 399 121 126 36 10 7 454 150 # Negative Lags 6 130 64 58 20 136 15 58 136 61 Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project F Project G Project J Max Avg # Activities 4067 3597 3528 2792 1933 1526 923 522 2361 # Open Ends 214 380 325 209 86 444 307 190 444 269 # Constraints 46 454 399 121 126 36 10 7 454 150 # Negative Lags 6 130 64 58 20 136 15 58 136 61
  55. 55. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 55 Real World Case Study 1  Some Possible Causes – Lack of time to prepare plan (leads to shortcuts) – Too much detail (high maintenance) – Lack of checking – Computer functionality – Bad habits – Laziness/easy way out – Unlearned what we did before – Lack of training and procedures – Lack of experience or capability – GiGO
  56. 56. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 56 Real World Case Study 1  Some Possible Causes – Lack of time to prepare plan (leads to shortcuts) – Too much detail (high maintenance) – Lack of checking – Computer functionality – Bad habits – Laziness/easy way out – Unlearned what we did before – Lack of training and procedures – Lack of experience or capability – GiGO  Some Definite Impacts – Float calculations wrong – Critical path invalid or absent – Plan lacks credibility – Plan not realistic – Plan not accepted by client – Poor predictability or forecasts – Poor reputation – Plan not recognised in adjudication or arbitration – People may not realise there’s a problem (ignorance is bliss) – GIGO
  57. 57. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 57 Real World Case Study 2 The Good Semi-Structured Interviews 13 Project Controls and Planning Managers from 11 companies with significant experience in energy industry
  58. 58. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 58 Real World Case Study 2 The Good
  59. 59. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 59 Real World Case Study 2 The Bad
  60. 60. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 60 Real World Case Study 2 … and the Ugly
  61. 61. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 61 5 Step Solution Steps 1 to 4 1 Rules Procedures, practices & work instructions - Procedures and practices prohibit or discourage actions which cause problems in project network development - Detailed work instructions for Primavera P6 2 Schedule integrity check 3 Schedule Narrative 4 Risk analysis Independent 99 point checklist (before baseline issued) Eight topics covered including: - Network Logic & Constraints - Scheduling Method - Critical Path/ Float - Primavera P6 Practice compliance - etc. Basis of Schedule - WBS & activity detail - Clarifications & assumptions - Schedule method statement - Use of constraints - Critical path, - Key issues - Calendars, and seasonal implications - Resource availability - Resource levelling Schedule optimisation - More realistic schedule, - 3 point estimate of completion date rather than deterministic schedule - May be applied to separate standalone schedules if program//project network is too large.
  62. 62. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 62 5 Step Solution Step 5 5 Project team review the plan (content and constructability) before issue Includes project management team and key stakeholders
  63. 63. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 63 5 Step Solution Technical Integrity Audit of Project Network
  64. 64. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 64 Independent 99 Point Checklist (before Baseline issued) Items on Checklist include:  Guidance Notes  Findings  Recommended Actions Eight Topics Covered: 1.Project Setup 2.Project Details 3.Network Logic & Constraints 4.Scheduling Method 5.Critical Path/Float 6.Resource Management 7.Progress 8.Primavera P6 Practice compliance Summary Report Produced for Senior Management 5 Step Solution Technical Integrity Audit of Project Network
  65. 65. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 65 5 Step Solution Typical Results (Project X) Date / # Activities 17 Dec 2010 1340 Qty % 11 Jan 2011 1340 Qty % 10 Feb 2011 1358 Qty % Open Ends – No Predecessor or No Successor 204 15.2% 172 12.8% 24 1.8% Constraints 246 18.4% 97 7.2% 83 6.1% Negative Lags 35 2.6% 35 2.6% 31 2.3% Date / # Activities 17 Dec 2010 1340 Qty % 11 Jan 2011 1340 Qty % 10 Feb 2011 1358 Qty % Open Ends – No Predecessor or No Successor 204 15.2% 172 12.8% 24 1.8% Constraints 246 18.4% 97 7.2% 83 6.1% Negative Lags 35 2.6% 35 2.6% 31 2.3%
  66. 66. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 66 5 Step Solution Typical Results (Project Y) Date / # Activities 09 Nov 2010 2965 Qty % 03 Dec 2011 2394 Qty % 25 Jan 2011 2392 Qty % Open Ends – No Predecessor or No Successor 388 13.1% 113 4.7% 60 2.5% Constraints 41 1.4% 26 1.1% 21 0.9% Negative Lags 16 0.5% 24 1.0% 20 0.8% Date / # Activities 09 Nov 2010 2965 Qty % 03 Dec 2011 2394 Qty % 25 Jan 2011 2392 Qty % Open Ends – No Predecessor or No Successor 388 13.1% 113 4.7% 60 2.5% Constraints 41 1.4% 26 1.1% 21 0.9% Negative Lags 16 0.5% 24 1.0% 20 0.8%
  67. 67. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 67 5 Step Solution Feedback Project Director – Project X ‘I welcome your input to ensure we have best practice on the project in line with governance’ Project Director – Project Y ‘I really appreciate your time spent on auditing the schedule. Always good to have an outside view on the content. While the results are encouraging, I still believe we have a way to go on making this schedule robust. I am aware that this audit is usually undertaken on a 6 monthly cycle, but I would appreciate if you could take time out before the xmas holiday break to check the progress against the actions, and ensure they are closed out.’ Project Sponsor – Project Y ‘Thanks team, great work’
  68. 68. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 68 5 Step Solution Looking Forward Indications from feedback are that benefits are being realised Schedule technical integrity 5-step solution has been incorporated into Costain project management plans and procedures Continued recruitment of new practitioners at all levels, and the development and training and retention of these and existing is happening The level of checking required for technical integrity of project schedules can gradually be relaxed, as improved practice is embedded The strong likelihood that customer requirements will include the need to the ensure schedule technical integrity will help implement the solution
  69. 69. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 69 Emerging Trends in Industry Further to the recent trend in issuing specific standards and guidelines, the number of software applications are coming onto the market for checking the schedule integrity of project networks is increasing 2007 Steelray Project Analyzer 2010 Acumen Fuse 2004 Pertmaster Risk 2003 Schedule Analyzer for the Enterprise 2010 Primavera P6 v 8 2010 Schedule Cracker 1999 Schedule Analyzer Pro
  70. 70. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 70 Why is Planning & Scheduling Important ? A 2009 report by Independent Project Analysis (IPA) benchmarking organisation for the UK Government found that better scheduling and cost estimating methods lead to better engineering and construction labour productivity and cost performance
  71. 71. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 71 Why is Planning & Scheduling Important ? The same report found that in the UK, less than 20% of projects have resource loaded schedule at project sanction, compared to over 40% in US Gulf Coast, but use of critical path techniques is 40% in UK compared to just over 30% in US Gulf Coast. The paradox is that UK projects tend to be cost rather than schedule driven
  72. 72. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 72 Why is Planning & Scheduling Important ? Projects not using network analysis techniques had an average 26% schedule overrun this includes projects using project management software but with over-constrained project networks Almost 50% of projects use network analysis techniques with an average 14% schedule overrun
  73. 73. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 73 References Association for Project Management (2010: 17-18). The Scheduling Maturity Model. High Wycombe, UK: APM Publishing Association for Project Management (2008: 15). Introduction to Project Planning. High Wycombe, UK: APM Publishing AACE International (2010a: 76). Recommended Practice No. 29R-03 Forensic Schedule analysis. AACE International: Morgantown, WV. AACE International (2010b: 4-6). Recommended Practice No. 49R-06 Identifying the Critical Path. AACE International: Morgantown, WV AACE International (2010c: 2 & 4). Recommended Practice No. 37R-06 Schedule Level of Detail – As Applied in Engineering, Procurement and Construction. AACE International: Morgantown, WV Bendix Corporation (1955 :1). The Bendix G-15 CPM/PERT Program http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102646275 [Accessed 31 January 2010] CIOB (2011a :30). Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Complex Projects. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell CIOB (2011b :36). Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Complex Projects. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Drigani, F. (1989 :149). Computerized Project Control. New York. Marcel Dekker Inc Foxley, E. (2005), Computers 1960 to 1965. http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~ef/ComputerXHistory/FirstComputers-2/1963-ICT1500-GeneralView.htm [Accessed 31 January 2010} Moder, J. et al (1983 :64). Project Management with CPM, PERT and Precedence Diagramming.3rd Edn.Wisconsin, USA. Blitz Publishing Company (Reprinted 1995) Moder, J. et al (1983 :356). Project Management with CPM, PERT and Precedence Diagramming.3rd Edn.Wisconsin, USA. Blitz Publisghing Company (Reprinted 1995) Mosaic Project Service Pty Ltd. (2009b :21). Seeing the Road Ahead http://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/PDF_Papers/P106_Seeing_The_Road_Ahead_PMOZ.pdf [Accessed 2nd February 2011] Project Management Institute.(2007) 18). The Practice Standard for Scheduling. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute Project Management Institute.(2007) 19). The Practice Standard for Scheduling. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute Society of Construction Law (2002: 40). Delay and Disruption Protocol. Wantage. Society of Construction Law (Reprinted October 2004) Society of Construction Law (2002: 68). Delay and Disruption Protocol. Wantage. Society of Construction Law (Reprinted October 2004)
  74. 74. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 74 Bibliography AACE International (2010a). Recommended Practice No. 29R-03 Forensic Schedule analysis. AACE International: Morgantown, WV. AACE International (2010b). Recommended Practice No. 49R-06 Identifying the Critical Path. AACE International: Morgantown, WV AACE International (2010c). Recommended Practice No. 37R-06 Schedule Level of Detail - As Applied in Engineering, Procurement and Construction. AACE International: Morgantown, WV Acumen Fuse. http://www.projectacumen.com/fuse/industry-standards/dcma-14-point-assessment/ [Accessed 7th December 2010] APM PMC SIG (2015). Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring and Control: The Practical Project Management of Time, Cost and Risk. High Wycombe, UK: APM Publishing Association for Project Management (2010). The Scheduling Maturity Model. High Wycombe, UK: APM Publishing Association for Project Management (2008: 15). Introduction to Project Planning. High Wycombe, UK: APM Publishing Association of Cost Engineers, Book Review, Project Control Professional, Vol 49 No 1, 26 Bendix Corporation (1955). The Bendix G-15 CPM /PERT Program http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102646275 [Accessed 31 January 2010] Binafore, B. (2007 :69). Microsoft Project 20007: The Missing Manual. USA. O’Reilly Media, Inc. Buttrick, R. (1997). The Project Workout. London. Pitman Publishing Carson, C, Oakander, P., Relyea, C. (2014). CPM Scheduling for Construction Best Practice and Guidelines. Newtown Square, PA: Project Mangement Institute CIOB (2011). Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Complex Projects. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell CIOB (2008). Managing the Risk of Delayed Completion in the 21st Century. Ascot: CIOB Cornish. J. (2008). A Brief History of Project Scheduling. http://www.microplanning.co.uk/downloads.htm#Papers [Accessed 28th January 2011] Douglas III, E.E., Calvey, T.T., McDonald Jr, D. F., & Winter, R. M. The Great Negative Lag Debate. http://www.calveyconsulting.com/files/PS02_Great_Negative_Lag_Debate.pdf [Accessed 7th December 2010] Drigani, F. (1989). Computerized Project Control. New York. Marcel Dekker Inc Gray, C.F. and Larson, E.W. (2011). Project Management: The Managerial Process. 5th Ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Kerzner, H. (1992). Project Management A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling. 4th Edn. London, Chapman and Hall
  75. 75. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 75 Korman, Richard & Daniels, Stephen H. (2003). “Critics Can’t Find the Logic in Many of Today’s CPM Schedules,” http://enr.construction.com/features/bizLabor/archives/030526.asp [Accessed 1st December 2010] . PlP Lester, A. (2005). Project Planning and Control. 4th Edn. Bodmin, MPG Books Ltd. Minor Richards Associates (2001). An evaluation of the projected future evolution of the workforce and key skills needs within the engineering contractors sector of the Oil Gas and Chemical Industry URN/01/1066. June 2001. Moder, J. et al (1983). Project Management with CPM, PERT and Precedence Diagramming.3rd Edn.Wisconsin, USA. Blitz Publishing Company (Reprinted 1995) Mosaic Project Service Pty Ltd. (2009a).Improving Schedule Management http://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/Resources_Papers_081.html [Accessed 2nd February 2011] Mosaic Project Service Pty Ltd. (2009b). Seeing the Road Ahead http://www.mosaicprojects.com.au/PDF_Papers/P106_Seeing_The_Road_Ahead_PMOZ.pdf [Accessed 2nd February 2011] O’Brien, J. & Plotnick, F.L. (2010). CPM in Construction Manaagement. 7th Ed. USA, McGraw-Hill Professional Pacelli, L. (2004). The Project Management Advisor: 18 Major Project Screw-ups, and How to Cut Them off at the Pass. New Jersey. Prentice Hall PC User NSTL Lab Report (1992). NSTSL Lab Report. PC User. 179, March. p134-140 Pinto, J. K. (2010). Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage. 2nd Edn. New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall Primavera P6 Professional Project Management. http://www.oracle.com/us/products/applications/042374.htm [Accessed 7th December 2010] Primavera Risk Analysis. .http://www.oracle.com/us/products/applications/042371.htm [Accessed 7th December 2010] Project Management Institute.(2007). The Practice Standard for Scheduling. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute Reiss, G. (1998). “Project Management Demystified. 2nd Edn. London, E & FN Spon Schedule Analyzer Professional for the Enterprise. http://scheduleanalyzer.com/ [Accessed 7th December 2010] Schedule Analyzer Professional. http://scheduleanalyzer.com/ [Accessed 7th December 2010] Society of Construction Law (2002). Delay and Disruption Protocol. Wantage. Society of Construction Law (Reprinted October 2004) Steelray Project Analyzer. http://www.steelray.com/spafeatures.html [Accessed 7th December 2010] Bibliography
  76. 76. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 76 Stretton, A. (2007). A Short History of Modern Project Management. http://www.pmforum.org/library/second-edition/2007/PDFs/Stretton-10- 07.pdf [Accessed 27th January 2010] Wikipedia (2011). Critical Path Method http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_path_method#History [Accessed 27th January 2010] Wickwire, J. (2004). An Interview with Jim O’Brien – December 1, 2004. http://www.pmicos.org/jointerview.asp Bibliography
  77. 77. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule IMPROVING PROJECT SCHEDULE OUTCOMES  HOW EFFECTIVE ARE YOUR PROJECT SCHEDULES  AND CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS METHODS IN MANGING TIME  Shane Forth - PMO Director
  78. 78. Technical Integrity of the Project Schedule 78 Two Hour Workshop To Help You Improve Your Project Planning
  79. 79. This presentation was delivered at an APM event To find out more about upcoming events please visit our website www.apm.org.uk/events

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