2 2 t4e_chapter_two_powerpoint_new1

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2 2 t4e_chapter_two_powerpoint_new1

  1. 1. Chapter Two Nuts and Bolts: The Basics of Argument Second Thoughts, 4 th ed. Wanda Teays McGraw-Hill Higher Ed. © 2010.Wanda Teays.All rights reserved.
  2. 2. <ul><li>There are two components to an argument: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the thesis (conclusion) and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the evidence (premises). </li></ul><ul><li>An author’s thesis (conclusion) rests on a set of reasons offered as support. These reasons are called premises . </li></ul><ul><li>An argument consists of only one conclusion and at least one premise </li></ul><ul><li>If the same set of evidence is used to support two propositions, treat it as two separate arguments and analyze each one separately. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting a pet bird’s wings limits or eliminates the bird’s ability to fly. </li></ul><ul><li>Birds that can’t fly are like guinea pigs with feathers. </li></ul><ul><li>Only someone who is cruel would turn the bird into the equivalent of a guinea pig. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, cutting a pet bird’s wings is cruel . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>When we describe , we try to objectively state a set of facts —-the essential features of the thing by listing its qualities or characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>An inference is a conclusion drawn on the basis of some evidence or observations. </li></ul><ul><li>An inference answers the question, “ What's it about? What story does this tell? ” </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions , like a set of facts, are statements about what is or is not the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, each item in a description is verifiable by examination. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>We describe a friend by giving her height, weight, eye color, hair color and style, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>An inference would be when someone says, “He’s tall, thin, and a real hunk!” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>CONTRAST: </li></ul><ul><li>A description is an attempt to state what is the case, e.g., in terms of physical characteristics or appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>An inference is a conclusion drawn on the basis of a description or other sorts of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>People regularly conclude one thing or another on the basis of what they see or hear. They are drawing inferences . </li></ul><ul><li>An inference is the same as a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the inferences we draw are well founded. Sometimes they are not. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>FACTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Facts are things or events known to be true (as that which can be empirically verified) and concepts that can be proven true, as in science and mathematics. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts are actually the case, known by observation or authentic testimony. </li></ul><ul><li>OPINIONS fall into 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Statements of belief or conjecture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reasoned speculation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Legal opinion (usually expressed as court rulings). </li></ul><ul><li>IDEAS AND HYPOTHESES : Ideas take the form of possible solutions, hypotheses, intentions, plans of action, and theories. Think of a general or ideal form, pattern, vision, or standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all ideas are good, but “brainstorming” could lead to a major breakthrough. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s why problem-solving sessions often start with generating ideas freely, quickly, and without editing, judgment or criticism. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>GOOD ARGUMENTS, </li></ul><ul><li>BAD ARGUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments are all around us—they consist of propositions (at least one of which is offered as evidence for another, the conclusion). </li></ul><ul><li>A PROPOSITION is an assertion that predicates some characteristic of the subject. It is true or false. </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>“ All zoo animals are creatures fond of looking at people.” The subject is “zoo animals.” </li></ul><ul><li>The predicate is “creatures that are fond of looking at people.” </li></ul><ul><li>AN ARGUMENT consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>The conclusion (= thesis) and </li></ul><ul><li>At least one premise (=support, evidence) </li></ul><ul><li>The first step in dismantling an argument is to locate the conclusion (thesis). </li></ul><ul><li> Once the conclusion is clear, we can see how the argument is structured. </li></ul><ul><li>An assumption is something taken for granted or supposed to be the case without proof. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions are often unstated. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Assumptions shape how we see the world and how we think. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is evidence to support the assumption, it is warranted and, if not, it is unwarranted . </li></ul><ul><li>One of our tasks is to recognize and make explicit any assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>We can then decide whether or not they rest on solid footing (i.e., are warranted ) or whether they are questionable or without merit (i.e., are unwarranted ). </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Locate the conclusion (author’s thesis). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set out the premises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The premises should provide a clear link to the conclusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for omissions and questionable claims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See how the evidence supports the conclusion—the premises should supply strong support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note strengths and weaknesses in the reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the argument is not convincing, find the weaknesses in the reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for questionable or unwarranted assumptions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Steps to put an argument </li></ul><ul><li>in standard form: </li></ul><ul><li>List all the premises one by one, </li></ul><ul><li>Number them P1, P2, P3, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stack them like pancakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a line under the last line </li></ul><ul><li> of the premises. </li></ul><ul><li>List the conclusion (C) </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>John went to see the Lakers play. But he forgot his to wear his lucky socks. The Lakers lost. Therefore, John’s not wearing the socks caused the Lakers to lose. </li></ul><ul><li>Here it is in standard form: </li></ul><ul><li>P1: John went to see the Lakers play. </li></ul><ul><li>P2 : He forgot his to wear his lucky socks. </li></ul><ul><li>P3 : The Lakers lost. </li></ul><ul><li>C: Therefore, John’s not wearing the socks caused the Lakers to lose. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PREMISE-INDICATORS </li></ul><ul><li>A premise-indicator is a word or phrase that introduces a premise in an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Because… </li></ul><ul><li>Since* </li></ul><ul><li>In light of… </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas…. </li></ul><ul><li>Given that… </li></ul><ul><li>For the reason that… </li></ul><ul><li>For… </li></ul><ul><li>The reason why [conclusion] is…. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION-INDICATORS A conclusion-indicator is a word or phrase that introduces a conclusion in an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore… Accordingly… </li></ul><ul><li>As a result… </li></ul><ul><li>So… </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently… </li></ul><ul><li>Hence… </li></ul><ul><li>It follows that… </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently… </li></ul><ul><li>Thus… </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Transition words indicate an introduction, amplification, clarification, emphasis, illustration, or contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not function as premise- or conclusion-indicators, unless clearly shown in the context —e.g., when a list of premises or several conclusions are listed in sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition words could be located anywhere—in premises, in conclusions, or in a sentence not part of an argument . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>FUNCTION TRANSITION WORDS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction: In order to, Primarily, The first reason, Initially, </li></ul><ul><li>In the first place, To begin, In general </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification: Moreover, Furthermore, In addition, Provided that, </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, Also, Likewise, First, second, third, </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification: That is, To restate, In other words, In simpler terms, </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly, To repeat, To put it in another light, </li></ul><ul><li>To put it differently, As seen by </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis: In fact, Notably, Nonetheless, Nevertheless, In effect, </li></ul><ul><li>Above all, Indeed, And rightly so, As such </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration: To illustrate, For example, For instance, Specifically, </li></ul><ul><li>Namely, A case in point </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast: However, Alternatively, On the other hand, Notwithstanding, </li></ul><ul><li>In opposition to, And yet, Conversely, At </li></ul><ul><li>the same time, In spite of, Despite </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>State the conclusion (thesis/hypothesis). This gives us a sense of where we're headed. If you don't know the conclusion, you cannot analyze an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>List the premises (reasons/evidence) one by one. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the premises to see if they are sufficient to support the conclusion. Look for any holes, such as missing premises, unwarranted assumptions, biased language, or fallacious reasoning.  </li></ul><ul><li>Listing the premises one by one (P1, P2, P3, etc.) above the conclusion provides order to the argument and makes it easier to read. </li></ul><ul><li>You then have the premises and conclusion clearly set out, so you can examine the relationship between them; and you are less likely to overlook a piece of evidence. </li></ul>

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