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From Data Dirt Roads
                                 To Infocosm
  Invited Talk, 7th Intl. Conf. on Management of Data, Pune, India, Dec. 29, 1995.
  [Some parts of the talk emphasize issues and perspectives of particular interest to developing countries.]

                                                   Amit Sheth
                          Large Scale Distributed Information Systems Lab
                                         University of Georgia
                                          http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS
                                                 amit@cs.uga.edu


    Special Thanks: Vipul Kashyap, Srilekha Mudumbai
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                                          1
Outline


   ³ Infrastructure
                    computing and communication to support information
                    society in the next century
   ³ State-of-the-art
                    Internet, WWW, Electronic Commerce
                    unique opportunities due to Network Computing
   ³ New                Challenges in Information Management

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                    2
Our Journey to the
                                   Information Society
    ³ Information                   (Data) Superhighway (aka Infobahn)
               material/physical object-- geography, distance*
               infrastructure not services or application*
                        high cost of broadband fiber-optic networks
               promoted TV (not computer) as the user device
                        computer has been found to be a better starting point
               promise of applications envisaged earlier have fizzled
                        500 channel TV, VOD and the interactive TV? What went wrong?




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)
                            * see also for related discussion: The Road Ahead, Bill Gates.   3
Journey and Destination

  ³ “The     Information superhighway is an
       impoverished metaphor -- it describes only a
       means of transportation. We need a description
       of the destination, of the Infocosm.” [Ferguson]




                        Glover Ferguson, Computer World, Vol. 1, Iss. 6, July 17 1995.
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                    4
Destination Infocosm

        a society whose members (“organisms”) can have
        more effective decision making capability using
        information that is available whenever needed, at
        any place, and in (m)any form(s) [Sheth 93]
        a world where people will work, learn and play,
        unconstrained by time, place and form [Ferguson 95]

                 Sheth and Kashyap, Information Brokering- A Key Challenge in
                          the emerging Infocosm, December 1993.
                 Glover Ferguson, Computer World, Vol. 1, Iss. 6, July 17 1995.

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                             5
Related Themes

  ³ Telecosm             (George Gilder)
             focus on communication and data
                   need to add computing and information
  ³ Telepresence
  ³ “Information             at Fingertips”*




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                      6
Components


                              Information




                        Computing       Communication

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                   7
Computing and Communication

  ³ The last decade belonged to computing,
    PC is 120B$ business.
  ³ Next decade will belong to communication.
  ³ Future computing will be networked oriented
       (analogy of neural nets: “the intelligence will be in the network”).
       We will sell and use Information, not data.
       X Opportunity for Developing Countries!



Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                         8
Wireless communication

  • Stratospheric market estimates are norms, but
    prior expectations have exceeded
  • Estimates of wireless communication devices:
    224M by the year 2000, 300M by the year 2002
  • Growth rate of 40-50% => economy of scale
  • Tremendous number of alternatives
  • India and developing countries will have larger
    share of wireless than most expect

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                 9
Wireless Mela?




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)      EBB, February 1995.   10
Wireless communication and
                                 computing

            U.S. installed base (millions)
              60
                50                           Cellular
                40
                                                  Paging
                30

                20
                10                               PCS

                 0
                 1994     1996    1998        2000      2002       2004       2006

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                          EBB, February 1995    1
Telecommunications
                              -- a few observation about India

       Madras ISDN-trials were announced for 8/95
                   in Madras (probably delayed?)
                   $500 deposit (Handset) to $1550 (PBX)
       Internet-access announced
       e-mail available in several cities; WWW in the few largest ones
       Possible significant use of satellite
             64Kbps dedicated lines are routinely used by large
             companies for international communication
       Expect big take-off for paging and for possibly cellular
       Privatization, while delayed, will have the biggest impact

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                    2
Possible Temporary Setback




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)      The Economist, November 18, 1995   3
CYBERSPACE COMPONENTS

                        END-USER SERVICES & APPLICATIONS

                        INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES:
                        PUBLIC & PRIVATE/COMMERCIAL NETWORKS

                        SOFTWARE PROTOCOLS & “STANDARDS”
                        COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE &
                        PROTOCOLS

                               NODES & REPOSITORIES
                                 [ TEXT, AUDIO, IMAGE, VIDEO
                                   STRUCTURED DATABASES]
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                          4
CYBERSPACE COMPONENTS

         End-User Services & Applications     Infrastructure Services
        • Electronic Commerce                •WWW
        • Information Commerce/ Mall         •White Board, Groupware (Notes)
        • Digital Library                    • Payment / Billing / Collection
        • Video on demand, 500 channels      • Security
        • Edutainment                        • Authentication
        • Virtual Corporation                Communication Infrastructure
                                            •Periodic Connection;On-line Connection
          Software Protocols & Standards
                                            • X.25
         •EDI, PDES, HTML, ...
                                              Wireless     Wired
         • http , -telnet, r-login
                                            (paging)       Copper
         • ftp, X.400                                                    one way
                                            Cellular       Cable
                                                                         two way
                                            Satellite       Fiber


Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                 5
Internet
                        -- a few personal experiences

  ³ organizing international trip
  ³ e-mail exchange with a friend in Ahmedabad
  ³ ftp and WWW for book project management
  ³ use of WWW for
             paper distribution
             complete workshop management
             publicity for the lab (4000+ accesses per week)
             direction to my home
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                          6
Internet
                        CommerceNet-Neilsen Survey


  ³ 11%  (24M) use Internet in USA and Canada;
    17% (37M) have access; 8% (18M) use Web
  ³ Use in last 24 Hours: Access the Web (72%);
    Send e-mail (65%); Non-interactive discussion
    (36%); Download Software (31%); Use Another
    computer (31%); Interactive Discussion (21%),
    Real-time audio or video (19%)
  ³ Average use: 5.5 hr per week!

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                7
winning the whole world?
                        WWW     weird, wacky, and wow!


  Also from CommerceNet-Neilsen survey--
  Use of the Web for
      Browse or explore (90%)
      search for other information (73%)
      search for information on companies/organizations
      (60%)
      Search for information on products/services (55%)
      purchase product or services (14%; 2.5M)
  Web users are upscale with an annual income of
   more than $80K (or $50K depending on the survey).
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                      8
Internet Multimedia Milestones
                 Transport                            Multicasting                   World Wide Web
                                                                               Object technology for Web browsers:
1995 Rapid adoption of 56kbit/s                 Mbone backbone supports        Hot Java
         access by small businesses             limited multicasting           Open Doc
         and branch offices via                                                OLE
         ISDN, frame relay and                                                 VRML
         leased lines
1996 ATM backbone deployment             Real-time audio and video             Enhanced real-time Internet
                                                                               products ship:
       by Internet service providers     servers based on
                                                                               24-bit Color CU-SeeMe
       Regional Bell operating companies pseudo-multicasting                   FM Real Audio Player
       bundle ISDN and Internet access                                         Internet Phone, Netphone
       for small business market                                               Multimedia Netscape Navigator
1997   Projected ISDN installed base :
         1.6 million lines (U.S.)                Widespread adoption of        Widespread use of Web-centric
         7.68 million lines (global)                                           real-time Internet tools for
       Projected installed                       IP next generation protocol
       base of V.34 modems :
                                                                               entertainment, distance learning,
                                                 with support for              and conferencing
         5.4 million (global)
        Telcos bundle ISDN and Internet
                                                 broadcasting
        access for home market
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                     OEM Magazine September 1995                                              9
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   1
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   2
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   3
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   Wired Oct. 1995   4
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   Netguide June 1996   5
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   Web Week December 1995   6
WWW: Conquereing the Business World
                            Example of use in a Workflow Application


                                                                   Healthcare Info Infra. Tech.
                                                                   project: UGA and CHREF
 Generates:
 • alerts to identify                                  CLINICAL SUBSYSTEM
 patient’s needs.
 • contraindications to
                                                                         Reminders to parents
 caution providers.

Health providers can obtain up-to-date
clinical and eligibility information
                                                                                                  CT
                                                                               Reports to state
Hospitals and clinics update
central databases after
encounters               Health agencies can
                                                         Hospitals and
 SDOH and                use reports generated
                                                         case workers
 CHREF                   to track
                                                         can reach
                         population’s needs
  maintain                                               out to the
  databases,            State and HMO’s                  population               HMOs can keep track
                        can update
  support EDI
                        patient’s eligibility
                                                TRACKING SUBSYSTEM                of performance
  transactions          data
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                                   7
Web Browsers: Conquereing the Business World
                        Example of use in a Workflow Application
                                    Interface for a Physician




                                                         List of Overdue
                                                          Vaccinations




                                               Link to contraindication
                                              information obtained from
                                                     the Internet
                                  Clinical Aspects
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                      8
Electronic commerce -- statistics

   Year                 # of Companies   Sales on the
                        on the WWW       Internet

   1994                  29,000               100K
                                                                                  500
   1995                 152,000           75,000K                Financial
                                                                                  400
                                                                 services

  1996                                   553,000K                                 300
  (projected)                                           Publishing
                                                                                  200

  Table: NBC News                                                                 100
  Chart: The Economists                                               Law
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)               90      91      92      93       94      95         9
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   10
Saturn Corp.                                           Fidelity Investments
  (Automaker http://www.saturncars.com)             ( $14 billion mutual funds investor
                                                      http://www.fid-inv.com )
Traffic :84,000 people a month reading 27,000
            pages                                  Vision: Use web as new distribution and sales channel
Vision :Use web to build image as innovative       What you can do: Review and select 160 mutual
           company; build customer relationships    funds, plan college and retirement savings ,download
What you can do: View 1996 models , find a         software demo, participate in survey and “Guess The
retailer, read Saturn magazine, order brochure,     Dow” contest
locate and write other owners via bulletin board   Payoffs: Undisclosed savings in mailing, handling &
                                                   printing from electronically delivered prospectuses.
 Payoff: 25% of brochures requested via Web
W. W. Grainger, Inc. ($3 billion wholesaler and distributor http://www.grainger.com/index.html)
Traffic: 3,000 pages downloaded weekly
Vision: Create low-cost way to expand sales reach; lower acquisition costs for customers
What you can do: Search product databases, review new products, locate branches worldwide,
send E-mail, order catalog
Payoff: Detailed customer demographics and feedback helps set direction
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)            COMPUTERWORLD November 20, 1995                                     1
World PC
                        aka Information Appliance aka Browser Boy


  ³ 500$-700$               PC supporting network computing
                   no hard disk
  ³ $50          LSI Logic “superchip” that incorporates a
       microprocessor, memory, high speed modem and audio
       and video processor
       Java and Servers complete the computing paradigm
       Can reach much larger population
                   many more would have $500 disposable compared to $2000
                   more appealing to less technical user

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                       2
Java

  ³ New  programming language (subset of C++)
    especially suitable to run on network (from Sun)
  ³ Applets (small efficient program) delivered on
    network
  ³ Microsoft licensed it (a first for Microsoft), IBM
    too
  ³ Already hundreds of applications, including
    spreadsheets, wordprocessors and games
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                    3
Java

   •Java: C++ minus :                            Browser        Network    Server
      Typedefs, Preprocessor, ...
      Functions, Multiple Inheritance            User asks
      Opeartor Overloading, Pointers             for object   request
   Plus: Multithreading, ...
  • Server Site:                                                          Object
     Java Souce         Compiler   Byte Codes     Browser




                                                                                    Time
                                                              reply
  • Client Site:                                  doesn’t
                                                  understand request      Java
      Class Loader        Byte Code verifier
                                                  object type             code to
       Run-time            Interpreter                                    support
                                                                          object
                                                  Object      reply
                                                  Displayed

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                4
Browser Boy vs Bill Gates*




                                                                             Java


                                             The Economist, Oct. 14, 1995.




                        * Richard Shaffer, Forbes, December 4, 1995.
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                               5
Network computing--
                           the Equalizer

  Impact on marketing
  ³ Marketing a software product will no longer
    involve the huge investment; WWW provides
    level playing field-- (almost) as easy to have the
    presence on the Web for a small company; level
    playing field in delivery, sales, payment



Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                    6
An opportunity for Developing
                            Countries
  ³ New             Communication Infrastructure Alternatives
             potential for fast catch-up
  ³ New             Computing Paradigm leading to
             diminishing importance of geographic separation and distance
             new marketing, sales, support alternatives
             new ways to interact with clients and customers
             new ways to develop software, new software marketplace
  ³ New             commodity to sell-- information

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                       7
Focus on information

  ³ Exponential  growth in the capability of
    computing (Moore’s law) and communication
    bandwidth is well documented.
  ³ Our ability to represent information and
    knowledge: from numbers and letters to objects
    and relationships, from syntax to semantics, from
    transactions to workflows, from data to
    information, ... has received less attention, is
    harder to address, and has lagged.
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                   8
Data vs Information
                        Data                                   Information
  Set of facts                                 Application of facts and knowledge of
                                               “when” to use facts

  Data Measurements about the real world       Derivation from facts using cognitive
  obtained from human/machine sensors          and perceptual processes

  Interoperability ==> transformation across   Interoperability => transformation of
  different forms, representations and query   knowledge to make it suitable for
  languages                                    application of different facts in a different
                                               environment

  Data + Knowledge about Meaning of data          = Information
  + Knowledge of when to apply it

  Information can be used for decision making based on data

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                          9
Technical Challenges in
                         Global Information Systems

     Difficulties in information access:
                cosmic Easter egg hunt problem-- hard to locate and access pertinent
                                       problem
                information;
                write-only database problem -- easy to create, hard to maintain
     Scale: needle in the haystack problem
                vast amount of information; large number of autonomous sites
     Heterogeneity: tower of Babel problem
                Information represented in different ways
     Query expressiveness: the Pidgin problem
                query language not expressive enough to specify the user’s interest
     Information Overload:
                too much junk (less relevant) information on the network
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                  10
Some approaches ....

      User centered approach:
                  menu-based browsing
                  hypertext browsing
      Syntactic/structural approach:
                  information retrieval, indexing techniques
                  name and attribute-based search, pattern matching
      Descriptive (symbolic) semantics-based approach
                  making design assumptions explicit
                  capturing the semantics of the query
      Cognitive (sub-symbolic) semantics-based approach
                  Pattern/Speech Recognition Algorithms
                  Neural Networks
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                 1
Challenges with current techniques for
                          Information Resource Discovery

     Unattractiveness of Navigation and Browsing:
                tend to give up if the number of links are more than 3 or 4
                need to annotate links with contextual information in order to help reduce the “link-
                chasing”

     Scalability problems in Indexing information:
                cannot index all the information on the internet !!
                difficult to index heterogeneous but related information
                combining results obtained by using independent/ different indices

     Hard to maintain pre-determined relationships:
                file update might make some hyper-links meaningless !!
                hierarchical organizations might prove expensive to search
                if user specified criteria for search is different from criteria of organization
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                                   2
Infocosm via
                        InfoHarness and InfoQuilt

  ³ InfoHarness
             access, scale, heterogeneity
  ³ InfoQuilt
             query expressiveness, semantics
             correlation of heterogeneous media


  InfoHarness is a trademark of Bellcore. Adapt/X Harness is a commercial product
  based on the InfoHarness system (see http://www.bellcore.com/features/index.html).

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                  3
InfoHarness: Business Need Example

                            A Software Business House


        Req., Design, ....                       Where ?           Source code
        Documents                              How to access ?     ( C functions ),
        (Framemaker)                                                man pages
                                                                   ( Unix files )


        Figures                                                  Third party tools
        ( postscript files )

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)     * Leon Shklar, Satish Thatte                                4
InfoHarness: Business Need Example

                            A Software Business House*
       Req., Design, ....                                              Source code
       Documents                              Now I know ...           ( C functions ),
       (Framemaker)                                                     man pages
                                                                       ( Unix files )


       Figures                                                    Third party tools
                                      - Uniform access
       ( postscript files )
                                      - Integrated view of heterogeneous information

                                                         InfoHarness

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)     * Leon Shklar, Satish Thatte                                    5
InfoHarness
                        Dealing with Data Heterogeneity:
                        Use of Domain Independent Metadata
           1.    Information Unit
               1.1 Type                                       Text file
               1.2 Location                       (or its portion), bitmap, email
               1.3 Other Attributes               message, manpage, directory of
           2. List of Collections that                man pages
              include this IHO
                                                              Physical Data
     •Logical structuring of information space without restructuring, reformatting
       or relocating
     •Accessing information via logical units
     •Utilizing third party indexing tools to search for information

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                6
Keyword-based Access



Results of the WAIS QUERY   Let’s Look
                            at the 2nd
                            article.
We can use keywords to query
the WAIS collection, but we can
not provide the semantics “author”
with the keyword “kilpatrick”



  Kilpatrick
  is not the
  author! He
  is referenced.
Attribute-based Access

An attribute-based
access method allows
the specification of
semantics like “author”
and “date”. The typed
attribute “date” allows
data access not
supported
by keyword based
methods
The results will only
contain those articles
authored by Kilpatrick
that were posted after
July 1, 1995.




Keyword-based and Attribute-based access are complementary
InfoHarness Project: Scalability
                                     Query                        Result


                                 Query Processor               Combining
                                                              Partial Results


                                           Partition 2 M.O.                 Partition n M.O
    Partition 1 Metadata Object
   Attribute            Index   Index           Index                      Index        Index
   Metadata                  11     12                  21                         n1        n2


                 Partition 1                 Partition 2
                                                                            Partition n
               (Database of                (Database of       ....      (Database of objects
               Textual object)             Textual object)
                                                                         with Textual and Image
                                                                         Components)

                         http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS/infoharness
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                             1
INFORMATION COMMERCE
                          A proposed Architecture

       INFORMATION CONSUMERS

  I nf o r        I n f o r m a t i Io n f o r m a t i o n
                                       n
  ma t i o        R e q u e st . . R e q u e st
                                       .
  n
  Re q u e
  st                                                  Ontologies/
        INFORMATION BROKERING                         User Models



  I n f o r m a t iI o n o r m a .t i I.onnf o r m a t i o n
                           nf
  Sy st e m IS 1Sy st e m IS 2 Sy st e m IS m
Infocosm (Amit Sheth) INFORMATION PROVIDERS                         2
An a t o m y   of
             I n f o r ma t i o n
         Br o k e r i n g    T a sk s
³I    n f o r ma t i o n                     R e so u r c e
    Di sc o v e r y
           i d e nt i f i c a t i o n o f   t h e          i n f o r ma t i o n
           so u r c e s r e l e v a n t t o a              g i ve n qu e r y
           or    i n f o r ma t i o n n e e d

³Qu        e r y          P r o c e ssi n g
           I n f o r ma t i o n                F o c u si n g
           i d e nt i f i c a t i o n o f  t h e   su b se t o f
           i n f o r ma t i o n i n a     g i v e n i n f o r ma t i o n
           so u r c e    r e l e v a nt t o a     g i ve n qu e r y
       I n f o r ma t i o n                 Co r r e l a t i o n
                  c o mb i n i n g     t h e    r e l e v a nt
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)n f o r m a t i o n
                  i                        f r o m d i f f e r e nt               3
Challenges in Information Brokering


Ne w Ch a l l e n g e s a n d
  R e se a r c h    Di r e c t i o n s
³ Se m a n t i c s- -    k e y     t o
  i n f o r ma t i o n
        wh a t d o y         o u wa n t ? wh a t          i s
        a va i l a b l e     ?
        R e l a t i o n sh   i p b e t we e n
        st r u c t u r e      a n d se m a n t i c s
           Co n t e x t ,          c o nt e x t ,      c o nt e x t
           Un c e r t a i n t y ,          pa r t i a l
Infocosm (Amit Sheth) o r m a t i o n ,
           i nf                            i n c o n si st e n c y    4
Se m a n t i c s ?
                W a t ? W e r e
                 h            h                                             ?
         what is semantics ?                         Where is semantics ?



                                 + relationships
                  Vocabulary                         Ontology (domain specific)
                               Content-descriptive          (domain specific
                                                             metadata)
                    Content                                Metadata

                               content-based (indices)          (abstract structure)

                  Structure
                                content-independent         Data

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                              5
CO NT E XT
Qu e r y   t o W i t e
                  h       Ho u se   se r v e r
 a sk i n g    f or d o c u me n t s o n
 “ I nd i a ” .
2 562 9                O f f i c e - o f - Navajo-and-Hopi-Indian- R e l o c a t i o n
2 5654               Na t i o n a l - Co m m i ssi o n - o n - American-Indian, - Al a sk a -
     Na t i v e , - a n d - Na t i v e - Ha wi i a n - Ho u si n g
2 566 8               I n st i t u t e - o f - American-Indian- a n d - Al a sk a -
     Na t i v e - Cu l t u r e - a n d - Ar t s- De v e l o p m e n t
1 4 8 62 6           National-Indian- Ga m i n g - Co m m i ssi o n
1 4 8 63 2           B u r e a u - o f - Indian-Affairs
1 53 62 2           P u b l i c - a n d - Indian-Housing- P r o g r a m s
1 58 9 3 0             Indian-Health-Services
1 3320 6             1 9 9 4 - 0 4 - 2 9 - B a b b i t t - a n d - De e r - B r i e f i n g -
     o n - Indian-Affairs
1 3330 5             1 9 9 4 - 0 4 - 2 9 - P r e si d e n t - i n - M e e t i n g - wi t h -
     Indian-Tribal- L e a d e r s
30 8 37                  1 9 9 4 - 0 5- 1 9 - P r e si d e n t - a n d - India-PM-RAO-
     i n - P r e ss- Av a i l a b i l i t y
30 9 25                 1 9 9 4 - 0 5- 1 1 - P r e si d e n t - Na m e s- F r a n k -
     W sn e r - a s- Ambassador-to-India
       i
8 1 9 60                   1 9 9 4 - 0 8 - 0 2 - E i g h t - Na m e d - Na t i o n a l -
     Ad v i so r s- o n - Indian-Education
8 1 9 62                  1 9 9 4 - 0 8 - 0 3 - F o u r - o n - Am e r i c a n - Indian-
Infocosm (Amit Sheth) v e l o p m e n t - B o a r d
     Culture- De                                                                                6
1 7 9 39 5             Aid t I di 10 01 93
E na b l i ng
                         I n f o c o sm
  InfoQuilt Project:
  Using metadata PatchQuilt and user models/ontologies to support information
  requests over globally distributed heterogeneous media repositories




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)   h ttp ://w w w .c s .u g a.e d u /LS DIS /in fo q u ilt   7
I n f o Qu i l t
                      Semantic Relationships between
   Metadata
   Qu e r y :             Ge t m e      r e g i o ns
       ( b l o c k s,           c o u n t i e s)    h a v i ng
       a          population g r e a t e r       t h a n 50 0
       a n d area g r e a t e r               t h a n 50
       sq f e e t h a v i n g               a n u r b a n
       land c o v e r           a n d mo d e r a t e
       relief
        qu e r y           r e p r e se n t s se m a n t i c
       r e l a t i o n sh i p s b e t we e n t h e
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                            8
       me t a d a t a :
I n f o Qu i l t
                           Extraction of Domain Specific Metadata

                                  Population:
                                  Area:
              SQL Queries
              return blocks,      Land Cover:     IP functions compute regions
              counties            Relief:          Land cover, Relief
                                  Correlation               SQL queries return
                                                             blocks with Land
                                    SQL Queries return          cover, relief
                                    boundaries of blocks,
                                    counties
       St r u c t u r e d                                          I ma g e
       Da t a                      St r u c t u r e d              Da t a
       US Ce n su s                Da t a                         L a n d Co v e r
       Bu r e a u                  T I GE R / L i n e             El e v a t i o n

       Correlation of blocks satisfying various constraints in different databases!!
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                  9
I n f o Qu i l t :
                        Mu l t i   me d i a
                        Co r r e   l a t i on




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                           1 0
InfoQuilt:
                        Multimedia Correlation




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                            1
InfoQuilt/OBSERVER:
                          Vocabulary Sharing
Ontology-Based System Enhanced
with Relationships for
Vocabulary hEterogeneity Resolution




Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                          2
InfoQuilt

Using descriptive and content-based metadata approach
         •Top-down processing:                         Domain
           - Capture the context of user query         Ontology
           - Construct and display ontologies for
              specific domains                         Query
                                                       Context

       • Bottom-up processing:                            COMPARE
          - Extract metadata from information source
          - Generate mappings between metadata         Information
            and information                            Resource
          - Construct information resource context     Context
            from the metadata
                                                       Metadata
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                3
A Message
  ³ Emerging   network computing and increasing
    importance of communication and the available
    alternatives are tearing up traditional
    geographical and market boundaries, and giving
    once-in-a-life-time opportunity for the developing
    countries to catch-up
  ³ Use information to be happy; know how to
    supply information to be wealthy
  ³ But make no mistake-- data is not information

Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                    4
Memorable and Interesting Quotes

“By means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating
thousand of miles in a breathless point of time. The round globe is a vast ... brain,
instinct with intelligence!”
                              [AI Gore’s Quotation of Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1851]


Zooming is when you overcome your fears and trust the universe to make things right.
You fly and float and hum and weave and sing. Opportunity knocks. Hello! I like
playing with people who zoom. Win-win deals all the time. It’s cooool ..... On really
cool days I zoom. On reallllllly cooooooooool days I zooooooooom.

                            [Dave Winer <dwiner@well.com>, DaveNet, 9/22/95]



Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                   5
About the Speaker
    Dr. Amit Sheth directs the Large Scale Distributed Information Systems (LSDIS) Lab, is an Associate
    Professor of Computer Science at the University of Georgia, and an Adj. Assoc. Professor in the College of
    Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Earlier he worked for nine years in the R&D labs at
    Bellcore, Unisys, and Honeywell. His primary current research interests include workflow automation
    (project METEOR), management of heterogeneous digital data and semantic issues in global information
    systems (projects InfoHarness and InfoQuilt), and electronic/information commerce.

    Prof. Sheth has led projects on heterogeneous DBMS, factory information system, integration of AI-
    database systems (project/system BrAID), transactional workflows (PROMPT and METEOR), federated
    database tools (BERDI and TAILOR), multidatabase consistency, and data quality(Q-Data). LSDIS lab
    (http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS) maintains active collaboration with industry, and has won significant funded
    projects in the areas of interoperable and global information system. Prof. Sheth has published over 80
    papers in the areas of federated databases, workflow management, multidatabase consistency, metadata and
    information modeling, and data consistency and semantics. He has participated in over 30 program/organiz-
    ation committees for conferences , given over 45 invited and colloquia talks and 14 tutorials, and lead two
    international conferences and a workshop as a General/Program (Co-)Chair. Currently he is a
    General (Co-)Chair of the Intl. Conference on Cooperative Information Systems, the Program Chair
    of the NSF Workshop on Workflow and Process Automation, and is on the editorial board of five journals.
    He has also served twice as an ACM Lecturer.
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                                             6
Partial Bibliography
   Besides the articles referred in the presentation, there is considerable information in popular and technical literature on
       the topics of information superhighway, metadata, electronic commerce and related topics. I suggest using any of
       the existing Web tools for a search (for example, most Internet-tools will return more than one hundred URLs for
       any of these topics). Because the list is too large, below is a partial list of research publications with which the
       speaker has been associated. These and other LSDIS publications can be obtained from
       http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS.
   A. Sheth and L. Kalinechenko, "Information Modeling in Multidatabase Systems: Beyond Data Modeling" (invited paper) Proc of the 1st International
         Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), Baltimore, November 1992.
   A. Sheth and V. Kashyap, "So Far (Schematically) yet So Near (Semantically)" (invited paper) Proc of the DS-5 Semantics of Interoperable Database
         Systems, Lorne, Australia, November 1992; In IFIP Transactions A-25, North-Holland, 1993.
   V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Semantics-based Information Brokering: A step towards realizing Infocosm", Technical Report DCS-TR-307, Dept. of
         Computer Science, Rutgers University, March 1994 (Position Paper, December 1993).
   V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Semantic based Information Brokering" Proceedings of the 3rd Intl. Conf. on Information and Knowledge Systems,
         November 1994.
   W. Klas and A. Sheth, Eds., "Metadata for Digital Media", Special issue of SIGMOD Record, December 1994.
   L. Shklar, A. Sheth, V. Kashyap, and K. Shah, "InfoHarness: Use of Automatically Generated Metadata for Search and Retrieval of Heterogeneous
         Information" Proceedings of CAiSE-95, June 1995.
   V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Schematic and Semantic Semilarities between Database Objects: A Context-based Approach" to appear in the VLDB
         Journal.
   V. Kashyap, K. Shah, and A. Sheth, "Metadata for building the MultiMedia Patch Quilt" (to appear in) Multimedia Database Systems: Issues
         and Research Directions, S. Jajodia and V.S.Subrahmaniun, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 1995.
   A. Sheth, V. Kashyap and W. LeBlanc, “Attribute-based Access of Heterogeneous Digital Data,” Proceedings of the Workshop on Providing Web
         Access to Legacy Data, the 4th International World Wide Web Conference, December 1995.
   A. Sheth, "Data Semantics: What, Where and How?" to appear in Database Application Semantics, Proceedings of the 6th IFIP Working
         Conference on Data Semantics (DS-6), R. Meersman and L. Mark (Eds.), Chapman abd Hall, London, UK, 1996.
Infocosm (Amit Sheth)                                                                                                                                  7

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From Data Dirt Roads to Infocosm

  • 1. From Data Dirt Roads To Infocosm Invited Talk, 7th Intl. Conf. on Management of Data, Pune, India, Dec. 29, 1995. [Some parts of the talk emphasize issues and perspectives of particular interest to developing countries.] Amit Sheth Large Scale Distributed Information Systems Lab University of Georgia http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS amit@cs.uga.edu Special Thanks: Vipul Kashyap, Srilekha Mudumbai Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 1
  • 2. Outline ³ Infrastructure computing and communication to support information society in the next century ³ State-of-the-art Internet, WWW, Electronic Commerce unique opportunities due to Network Computing ³ New Challenges in Information Management Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 2
  • 3. Our Journey to the Information Society ³ Information (Data) Superhighway (aka Infobahn) material/physical object-- geography, distance* infrastructure not services or application* high cost of broadband fiber-optic networks promoted TV (not computer) as the user device computer has been found to be a better starting point promise of applications envisaged earlier have fizzled 500 channel TV, VOD and the interactive TV? What went wrong? Infocosm (Amit Sheth) * see also for related discussion: The Road Ahead, Bill Gates. 3
  • 4. Journey and Destination ³ “The Information superhighway is an impoverished metaphor -- it describes only a means of transportation. We need a description of the destination, of the Infocosm.” [Ferguson] Glover Ferguson, Computer World, Vol. 1, Iss. 6, July 17 1995. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 4
  • 5. Destination Infocosm a society whose members (“organisms”) can have more effective decision making capability using information that is available whenever needed, at any place, and in (m)any form(s) [Sheth 93] a world where people will work, learn and play, unconstrained by time, place and form [Ferguson 95] Sheth and Kashyap, Information Brokering- A Key Challenge in the emerging Infocosm, December 1993. Glover Ferguson, Computer World, Vol. 1, Iss. 6, July 17 1995. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 5
  • 6. Related Themes ³ Telecosm (George Gilder) focus on communication and data need to add computing and information ³ Telepresence ³ “Information at Fingertips”* Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 6
  • 7. Components Information Computing Communication Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 7
  • 8. Computing and Communication ³ The last decade belonged to computing, PC is 120B$ business. ³ Next decade will belong to communication. ³ Future computing will be networked oriented (analogy of neural nets: “the intelligence will be in the network”). We will sell and use Information, not data. X Opportunity for Developing Countries! Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 8
  • 9. Wireless communication • Stratospheric market estimates are norms, but prior expectations have exceeded • Estimates of wireless communication devices: 224M by the year 2000, 300M by the year 2002 • Growth rate of 40-50% => economy of scale • Tremendous number of alternatives • India and developing countries will have larger share of wireless than most expect Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 9
  • 10. Wireless Mela? Infocosm (Amit Sheth) EBB, February 1995. 10
  • 11. Wireless communication and computing U.S. installed base (millions) 60 50 Cellular 40 Paging 30 20 10 PCS 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Infocosm (Amit Sheth) EBB, February 1995 1
  • 12. Telecommunications -- a few observation about India Madras ISDN-trials were announced for 8/95 in Madras (probably delayed?) $500 deposit (Handset) to $1550 (PBX) Internet-access announced e-mail available in several cities; WWW in the few largest ones Possible significant use of satellite 64Kbps dedicated lines are routinely used by large companies for international communication Expect big take-off for paging and for possibly cellular Privatization, while delayed, will have the biggest impact Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 2
  • 13. Possible Temporary Setback Infocosm (Amit Sheth) The Economist, November 18, 1995 3
  • 14. CYBERSPACE COMPONENTS END-USER SERVICES & APPLICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES: PUBLIC & PRIVATE/COMMERCIAL NETWORKS SOFTWARE PROTOCOLS & “STANDARDS” COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE & PROTOCOLS NODES & REPOSITORIES [ TEXT, AUDIO, IMAGE, VIDEO STRUCTURED DATABASES] Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 4
  • 15. CYBERSPACE COMPONENTS End-User Services & Applications Infrastructure Services • Electronic Commerce •WWW • Information Commerce/ Mall •White Board, Groupware (Notes) • Digital Library • Payment / Billing / Collection • Video on demand, 500 channels • Security • Edutainment • Authentication • Virtual Corporation Communication Infrastructure •Periodic Connection;On-line Connection Software Protocols & Standards • X.25 •EDI, PDES, HTML, ... Wireless Wired • http , -telnet, r-login (paging) Copper • ftp, X.400 one way Cellular Cable two way Satellite Fiber Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 5
  • 16. Internet -- a few personal experiences ³ organizing international trip ³ e-mail exchange with a friend in Ahmedabad ³ ftp and WWW for book project management ³ use of WWW for paper distribution complete workshop management publicity for the lab (4000+ accesses per week) direction to my home Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 6
  • 17. Internet CommerceNet-Neilsen Survey ³ 11% (24M) use Internet in USA and Canada; 17% (37M) have access; 8% (18M) use Web ³ Use in last 24 Hours: Access the Web (72%); Send e-mail (65%); Non-interactive discussion (36%); Download Software (31%); Use Another computer (31%); Interactive Discussion (21%), Real-time audio or video (19%) ³ Average use: 5.5 hr per week! Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 7
  • 18. winning the whole world? WWW weird, wacky, and wow! Also from CommerceNet-Neilsen survey-- Use of the Web for Browse or explore (90%) search for other information (73%) search for information on companies/organizations (60%) Search for information on products/services (55%) purchase product or services (14%; 2.5M) Web users are upscale with an annual income of more than $80K (or $50K depending on the survey). Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 8
  • 19. Internet Multimedia Milestones Transport Multicasting World Wide Web Object technology for Web browsers: 1995 Rapid adoption of 56kbit/s Mbone backbone supports Hot Java access by small businesses limited multicasting Open Doc and branch offices via OLE ISDN, frame relay and VRML leased lines 1996 ATM backbone deployment Real-time audio and video Enhanced real-time Internet products ship: by Internet service providers servers based on 24-bit Color CU-SeeMe Regional Bell operating companies pseudo-multicasting FM Real Audio Player bundle ISDN and Internet access Internet Phone, Netphone for small business market Multimedia Netscape Navigator 1997 Projected ISDN installed base : 1.6 million lines (U.S.) Widespread adoption of Widespread use of Web-centric 7.68 million lines (global) real-time Internet tools for Projected installed IP next generation protocol base of V.34 modems : entertainment, distance learning, with support for and conferencing 5.4 million (global) Telcos bundle ISDN and Internet broadcasting access for home market Infocosm (Amit Sheth) OEM Magazine September 1995 9
  • 20.
  • 24. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) Wired Oct. 1995 4
  • 25. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) Netguide June 1996 5
  • 26. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) Web Week December 1995 6
  • 27. WWW: Conquereing the Business World Example of use in a Workflow Application Healthcare Info Infra. Tech. project: UGA and CHREF Generates: • alerts to identify CLINICAL SUBSYSTEM patient’s needs. • contraindications to Reminders to parents caution providers. Health providers can obtain up-to-date clinical and eligibility information CT Reports to state Hospitals and clinics update central databases after encounters Health agencies can Hospitals and SDOH and use reports generated case workers CHREF to track can reach population’s needs maintain out to the databases, State and HMO’s population HMOs can keep track can update support EDI patient’s eligibility TRACKING SUBSYSTEM of performance transactions data Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 7
  • 28. Web Browsers: Conquereing the Business World Example of use in a Workflow Application Interface for a Physician List of Overdue Vaccinations Link to contraindication information obtained from the Internet Clinical Aspects Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 8
  • 29. Electronic commerce -- statistics Year # of Companies Sales on the on the WWW Internet 1994 29,000 100K 500 1995 152,000 75,000K Financial 400 services 1996 553,000K 300 (projected) Publishing 200 Table: NBC News 100 Chart: The Economists Law Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 90 91 92 93 94 95 9
  • 31. Saturn Corp. Fidelity Investments (Automaker http://www.saturncars.com) ( $14 billion mutual funds investor http://www.fid-inv.com ) Traffic :84,000 people a month reading 27,000 pages Vision: Use web as new distribution and sales channel Vision :Use web to build image as innovative What you can do: Review and select 160 mutual company; build customer relationships funds, plan college and retirement savings ,download What you can do: View 1996 models , find a software demo, participate in survey and “Guess The retailer, read Saturn magazine, order brochure, Dow” contest locate and write other owners via bulletin board Payoffs: Undisclosed savings in mailing, handling & printing from electronically delivered prospectuses. Payoff: 25% of brochures requested via Web W. W. Grainger, Inc. ($3 billion wholesaler and distributor http://www.grainger.com/index.html) Traffic: 3,000 pages downloaded weekly Vision: Create low-cost way to expand sales reach; lower acquisition costs for customers What you can do: Search product databases, review new products, locate branches worldwide, send E-mail, order catalog Payoff: Detailed customer demographics and feedback helps set direction Infocosm (Amit Sheth) COMPUTERWORLD November 20, 1995 1
  • 32. World PC aka Information Appliance aka Browser Boy ³ 500$-700$ PC supporting network computing no hard disk ³ $50 LSI Logic “superchip” that incorporates a microprocessor, memory, high speed modem and audio and video processor Java and Servers complete the computing paradigm Can reach much larger population many more would have $500 disposable compared to $2000 more appealing to less technical user Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 2
  • 33. Java ³ New programming language (subset of C++) especially suitable to run on network (from Sun) ³ Applets (small efficient program) delivered on network ³ Microsoft licensed it (a first for Microsoft), IBM too ³ Already hundreds of applications, including spreadsheets, wordprocessors and games Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 3
  • 34. Java •Java: C++ minus : Browser Network Server Typedefs, Preprocessor, ... Functions, Multiple Inheritance User asks Opeartor Overloading, Pointers for object request Plus: Multithreading, ... • Server Site: Object Java Souce Compiler Byte Codes Browser Time reply • Client Site: doesn’t understand request Java Class Loader Byte Code verifier object type code to Run-time Interpreter support object Object reply Displayed Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 4
  • 35. Browser Boy vs Bill Gates* Java The Economist, Oct. 14, 1995. * Richard Shaffer, Forbes, December 4, 1995. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 5
  • 36. Network computing-- the Equalizer Impact on marketing ³ Marketing a software product will no longer involve the huge investment; WWW provides level playing field-- (almost) as easy to have the presence on the Web for a small company; level playing field in delivery, sales, payment Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 6
  • 37. An opportunity for Developing Countries ³ New Communication Infrastructure Alternatives potential for fast catch-up ³ New Computing Paradigm leading to diminishing importance of geographic separation and distance new marketing, sales, support alternatives new ways to interact with clients and customers new ways to develop software, new software marketplace ³ New commodity to sell-- information Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 7
  • 38. Focus on information ³ Exponential growth in the capability of computing (Moore’s law) and communication bandwidth is well documented. ³ Our ability to represent information and knowledge: from numbers and letters to objects and relationships, from syntax to semantics, from transactions to workflows, from data to information, ... has received less attention, is harder to address, and has lagged. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 8
  • 39. Data vs Information Data Information Set of facts Application of facts and knowledge of “when” to use facts Data Measurements about the real world Derivation from facts using cognitive obtained from human/machine sensors and perceptual processes Interoperability ==> transformation across Interoperability => transformation of different forms, representations and query knowledge to make it suitable for languages application of different facts in a different environment Data + Knowledge about Meaning of data = Information + Knowledge of when to apply it Information can be used for decision making based on data Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 9
  • 40. Technical Challenges in Global Information Systems Difficulties in information access: cosmic Easter egg hunt problem-- hard to locate and access pertinent problem information; write-only database problem -- easy to create, hard to maintain Scale: needle in the haystack problem vast amount of information; large number of autonomous sites Heterogeneity: tower of Babel problem Information represented in different ways Query expressiveness: the Pidgin problem query language not expressive enough to specify the user’s interest Information Overload: too much junk (less relevant) information on the network Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 10
  • 41. Some approaches .... User centered approach: menu-based browsing hypertext browsing Syntactic/structural approach: information retrieval, indexing techniques name and attribute-based search, pattern matching Descriptive (symbolic) semantics-based approach making design assumptions explicit capturing the semantics of the query Cognitive (sub-symbolic) semantics-based approach Pattern/Speech Recognition Algorithms Neural Networks Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 1
  • 42. Challenges with current techniques for Information Resource Discovery Unattractiveness of Navigation and Browsing: tend to give up if the number of links are more than 3 or 4 need to annotate links with contextual information in order to help reduce the “link- chasing” Scalability problems in Indexing information: cannot index all the information on the internet !! difficult to index heterogeneous but related information combining results obtained by using independent/ different indices Hard to maintain pre-determined relationships: file update might make some hyper-links meaningless !! hierarchical organizations might prove expensive to search if user specified criteria for search is different from criteria of organization Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 2
  • 43. Infocosm via InfoHarness and InfoQuilt ³ InfoHarness access, scale, heterogeneity ³ InfoQuilt query expressiveness, semantics correlation of heterogeneous media InfoHarness is a trademark of Bellcore. Adapt/X Harness is a commercial product based on the InfoHarness system (see http://www.bellcore.com/features/index.html). Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 3
  • 44. InfoHarness: Business Need Example A Software Business House Req., Design, .... Where ? Source code Documents How to access ? ( C functions ), (Framemaker) man pages ( Unix files ) Figures Third party tools ( postscript files ) Infocosm (Amit Sheth) * Leon Shklar, Satish Thatte 4
  • 45. InfoHarness: Business Need Example A Software Business House* Req., Design, .... Source code Documents Now I know ... ( C functions ), (Framemaker) man pages ( Unix files ) Figures Third party tools - Uniform access ( postscript files ) - Integrated view of heterogeneous information InfoHarness Infocosm (Amit Sheth) * Leon Shklar, Satish Thatte 5
  • 46. InfoHarness Dealing with Data Heterogeneity: Use of Domain Independent Metadata 1. Information Unit 1.1 Type Text file 1.2 Location (or its portion), bitmap, email 1.3 Other Attributes message, manpage, directory of 2. List of Collections that man pages include this IHO Physical Data •Logical structuring of information space without restructuring, reformatting or relocating •Accessing information via logical units •Utilizing third party indexing tools to search for information Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 6
  • 47. Keyword-based Access Results of the WAIS QUERY Let’s Look at the 2nd article.
  • 48. We can use keywords to query the WAIS collection, but we can not provide the semantics “author” with the keyword “kilpatrick” Kilpatrick is not the author! He is referenced.
  • 49. Attribute-based Access An attribute-based access method allows the specification of semantics like “author” and “date”. The typed attribute “date” allows data access not supported by keyword based methods
  • 50. The results will only contain those articles authored by Kilpatrick that were posted after July 1, 1995. Keyword-based and Attribute-based access are complementary
  • 51. InfoHarness Project: Scalability Query Result Query Processor Combining Partial Results Partition 2 M.O. Partition n M.O Partition 1 Metadata Object Attribute Index Index Index Index Index Metadata 11 12 21 n1 n2 Partition 1 Partition 2 Partition n (Database of (Database of .... (Database of objects Textual object) Textual object) with Textual and Image Components) http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS/infoharness Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 1
  • 52. INFORMATION COMMERCE A proposed Architecture INFORMATION CONSUMERS I nf o r I n f o r m a t i Io n f o r m a t i o n n ma t i o R e q u e st . . R e q u e st . n Re q u e st Ontologies/ INFORMATION BROKERING User Models I n f o r m a t iI o n o r m a .t i I.onnf o r m a t i o n nf Sy st e m IS 1Sy st e m IS 2 Sy st e m IS m Infocosm (Amit Sheth) INFORMATION PROVIDERS 2
  • 53. An a t o m y of I n f o r ma t i o n Br o k e r i n g T a sk s ³I n f o r ma t i o n R e so u r c e Di sc o v e r y i d e nt i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r ma t i o n so u r c e s r e l e v a n t t o a g i ve n qu e r y or i n f o r ma t i o n n e e d ³Qu e r y P r o c e ssi n g I n f o r ma t i o n F o c u si n g i d e nt i f i c a t i o n o f t h e su b se t o f i n f o r ma t i o n i n a g i v e n i n f o r ma t i o n so u r c e r e l e v a nt t o a g i ve n qu e r y I n f o r ma t i o n Co r r e l a t i o n c o mb i n i n g t h e r e l e v a nt Infocosm (Amit Sheth)n f o r m a t i o n i f r o m d i f f e r e nt 3
  • 54. Challenges in Information Brokering Ne w Ch a l l e n g e s a n d R e se a r c h Di r e c t i o n s ³ Se m a n t i c s- - k e y t o i n f o r ma t i o n wh a t d o y o u wa n t ? wh a t i s a va i l a b l e ? R e l a t i o n sh i p b e t we e n st r u c t u r e a n d se m a n t i c s Co n t e x t , c o nt e x t , c o nt e x t Un c e r t a i n t y , pa r t i a l Infocosm (Amit Sheth) o r m a t i o n , i nf i n c o n si st e n c y 4
  • 55. Se m a n t i c s ? W a t ? W e r e h h ? what is semantics ? Where is semantics ? + relationships Vocabulary Ontology (domain specific) Content-descriptive (domain specific metadata) Content Metadata content-based (indices) (abstract structure) Structure content-independent Data Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 5
  • 56. CO NT E XT Qu e r y t o W i t e h Ho u se se r v e r a sk i n g f or d o c u me n t s o n “ I nd i a ” . 2 562 9 O f f i c e - o f - Navajo-and-Hopi-Indian- R e l o c a t i o n 2 5654 Na t i o n a l - Co m m i ssi o n - o n - American-Indian, - Al a sk a - Na t i v e , - a n d - Na t i v e - Ha wi i a n - Ho u si n g 2 566 8 I n st i t u t e - o f - American-Indian- a n d - Al a sk a - Na t i v e - Cu l t u r e - a n d - Ar t s- De v e l o p m e n t 1 4 8 62 6 National-Indian- Ga m i n g - Co m m i ssi o n 1 4 8 63 2 B u r e a u - o f - Indian-Affairs 1 53 62 2 P u b l i c - a n d - Indian-Housing- P r o g r a m s 1 58 9 3 0 Indian-Health-Services 1 3320 6 1 9 9 4 - 0 4 - 2 9 - B a b b i t t - a n d - De e r - B r i e f i n g - o n - Indian-Affairs 1 3330 5 1 9 9 4 - 0 4 - 2 9 - P r e si d e n t - i n - M e e t i n g - wi t h - Indian-Tribal- L e a d e r s 30 8 37 1 9 9 4 - 0 5- 1 9 - P r e si d e n t - a n d - India-PM-RAO- i n - P r e ss- Av a i l a b i l i t y 30 9 25 1 9 9 4 - 0 5- 1 1 - P r e si d e n t - Na m e s- F r a n k - W sn e r - a s- Ambassador-to-India i 8 1 9 60 1 9 9 4 - 0 8 - 0 2 - E i g h t - Na m e d - Na t i o n a l - Ad v i so r s- o n - Indian-Education 8 1 9 62 1 9 9 4 - 0 8 - 0 3 - F o u r - o n - Am e r i c a n - Indian- Infocosm (Amit Sheth) v e l o p m e n t - B o a r d Culture- De 6 1 7 9 39 5 Aid t I di 10 01 93
  • 57. E na b l i ng I n f o c o sm InfoQuilt Project: Using metadata PatchQuilt and user models/ontologies to support information requests over globally distributed heterogeneous media repositories Infocosm (Amit Sheth) h ttp ://w w w .c s .u g a.e d u /LS DIS /in fo q u ilt 7
  • 58. I n f o Qu i l t Semantic Relationships between Metadata Qu e r y : Ge t m e r e g i o ns ( b l o c k s, c o u n t i e s) h a v i ng a population g r e a t e r t h a n 50 0 a n d area g r e a t e r t h a n 50 sq f e e t h a v i n g a n u r b a n land c o v e r a n d mo d e r a t e relief qu e r y r e p r e se n t s se m a n t i c r e l a t i o n sh i p s b e t we e n t h e Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 8 me t a d a t a :
  • 59. I n f o Qu i l t Extraction of Domain Specific Metadata Population: Area: SQL Queries return blocks, Land Cover: IP functions compute regions counties Relief: Land cover, Relief Correlation SQL queries return blocks with Land SQL Queries return cover, relief boundaries of blocks, counties St r u c t u r e d I ma g e Da t a St r u c t u r e d Da t a US Ce n su s Da t a L a n d Co v e r Bu r e a u T I GE R / L i n e El e v a t i o n Correlation of blocks satisfying various constraints in different databases!! Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 9
  • 60. I n f o Qu i l t : Mu l t i me d i a Co r r e l a t i on Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 1 0
  • 61. InfoQuilt: Multimedia Correlation Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 1
  • 62. InfoQuilt/OBSERVER: Vocabulary Sharing Ontology-Based System Enhanced with Relationships for Vocabulary hEterogeneity Resolution Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 2
  • 63. InfoQuilt Using descriptive and content-based metadata approach •Top-down processing: Domain - Capture the context of user query Ontology - Construct and display ontologies for specific domains Query Context • Bottom-up processing: COMPARE - Extract metadata from information source - Generate mappings between metadata Information and information Resource - Construct information resource context Context from the metadata Metadata Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 3
  • 64. A Message ³ Emerging network computing and increasing importance of communication and the available alternatives are tearing up traditional geographical and market boundaries, and giving once-in-a-life-time opportunity for the developing countries to catch-up ³ Use information to be happy; know how to supply information to be wealthy ³ But make no mistake-- data is not information Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 4
  • 65. Memorable and Interesting Quotes “By means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousand of miles in a breathless point of time. The round globe is a vast ... brain, instinct with intelligence!” [AI Gore’s Quotation of Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1851] Zooming is when you overcome your fears and trust the universe to make things right. You fly and float and hum and weave and sing. Opportunity knocks. Hello! I like playing with people who zoom. Win-win deals all the time. It’s cooool ..... On really cool days I zoom. On reallllllly cooooooooool days I zooooooooom. [Dave Winer <dwiner@well.com>, DaveNet, 9/22/95] Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 5
  • 66. About the Speaker Dr. Amit Sheth directs the Large Scale Distributed Information Systems (LSDIS) Lab, is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Georgia, and an Adj. Assoc. Professor in the College of Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Earlier he worked for nine years in the R&D labs at Bellcore, Unisys, and Honeywell. His primary current research interests include workflow automation (project METEOR), management of heterogeneous digital data and semantic issues in global information systems (projects InfoHarness and InfoQuilt), and electronic/information commerce. Prof. Sheth has led projects on heterogeneous DBMS, factory information system, integration of AI- database systems (project/system BrAID), transactional workflows (PROMPT and METEOR), federated database tools (BERDI and TAILOR), multidatabase consistency, and data quality(Q-Data). LSDIS lab (http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS) maintains active collaboration with industry, and has won significant funded projects in the areas of interoperable and global information system. Prof. Sheth has published over 80 papers in the areas of federated databases, workflow management, multidatabase consistency, metadata and information modeling, and data consistency and semantics. He has participated in over 30 program/organiz- ation committees for conferences , given over 45 invited and colloquia talks and 14 tutorials, and lead two international conferences and a workshop as a General/Program (Co-)Chair. Currently he is a General (Co-)Chair of the Intl. Conference on Cooperative Information Systems, the Program Chair of the NSF Workshop on Workflow and Process Automation, and is on the editorial board of five journals. He has also served twice as an ACM Lecturer. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 6
  • 67. Partial Bibliography Besides the articles referred in the presentation, there is considerable information in popular and technical literature on the topics of information superhighway, metadata, electronic commerce and related topics. I suggest using any of the existing Web tools for a search (for example, most Internet-tools will return more than one hundred URLs for any of these topics). Because the list is too large, below is a partial list of research publications with which the speaker has been associated. These and other LSDIS publications can be obtained from http://www.cs.uga.edu/LSDIS. A. Sheth and L. Kalinechenko, "Information Modeling in Multidatabase Systems: Beyond Data Modeling" (invited paper) Proc of the 1st International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), Baltimore, November 1992. A. Sheth and V. Kashyap, "So Far (Schematically) yet So Near (Semantically)" (invited paper) Proc of the DS-5 Semantics of Interoperable Database Systems, Lorne, Australia, November 1992; In IFIP Transactions A-25, North-Holland, 1993. V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Semantics-based Information Brokering: A step towards realizing Infocosm", Technical Report DCS-TR-307, Dept. of Computer Science, Rutgers University, March 1994 (Position Paper, December 1993). V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Semantic based Information Brokering" Proceedings of the 3rd Intl. Conf. on Information and Knowledge Systems, November 1994. W. Klas and A. Sheth, Eds., "Metadata for Digital Media", Special issue of SIGMOD Record, December 1994. L. Shklar, A. Sheth, V. Kashyap, and K. Shah, "InfoHarness: Use of Automatically Generated Metadata for Search and Retrieval of Heterogeneous Information" Proceedings of CAiSE-95, June 1995. V. Kashyap and A. Sheth, "Schematic and Semantic Semilarities between Database Objects: A Context-based Approach" to appear in the VLDB Journal. V. Kashyap, K. Shah, and A. Sheth, "Metadata for building the MultiMedia Patch Quilt" (to appear in) Multimedia Database Systems: Issues and Research Directions, S. Jajodia and V.S.Subrahmaniun, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 1995. A. Sheth, V. Kashyap and W. LeBlanc, “Attribute-based Access of Heterogeneous Digital Data,” Proceedings of the Workshop on Providing Web Access to Legacy Data, the 4th International World Wide Web Conference, December 1995. A. Sheth, "Data Semantics: What, Where and How?" to appear in Database Application Semantics, Proceedings of the 6th IFIP Working Conference on Data Semantics (DS-6), R. Meersman and L. Mark (Eds.), Chapman abd Hall, London, UK, 1996. Infocosm (Amit Sheth) 7