Happy to be here and talk to you about the Internet of Things, one of the research domains iMinds is very active in. As IoT is a multifaceted domain, this presentation mainly aims to give you a high-level introduction to the IoT and the role it can play for you or your company.
What is IoT all about?
First of all, we need to understand what the Internet of Things is (how do we define the IoT?). Many definitions exist, but basically it all boils down to the fact that …
The last few years, IoT has really become a hype and a buzzword…
Term first coined in late nineties in the context of RFID tags.
Tomorrow, if it depends on Cisco, we maybe no longer talk about the IoT, but about the IoE.
It is a no-brainer to see that there is more than just the things themselves.
It is also about the: Data that needs to be turned into more useful information People Processes that need to deliver the right information to the right person/machine at the right time All these components need to be networked, together forming the Internet of Everything
Cisco: People = connecting people in more relevant, valuable ways Process = delivering the right information to the right person (or machine) at the right time Data = leveraging data into more useful information for decision making Things = physical devices and objects connected to the Internet and each other for intelligent decision making
If you look at the potential size of the IoT, you see that Cisco estimates that by 2020 there will be 50 billion smart objects (compared to 8 billion human beings on our planet).
If you look at the value of the IoT, then Gartner estimates that the economical added value through the sales and usage of IoT technology will be almost 2 trillion $ in 2020.
Further, many big players are contributing to the IoT hype as well… companies launch new business units companies launch alliances to promote their technology
And then there is the recent acquisition of the IoT company NEST by Google for 3.2 billion $
So maybe in the future, next to app stores, you will have device stores with devices that perfectly integrate with an IoT ecosystem offered by a major player such as Google or Apple.
Hype, but huge potential even when partially realized
Simply look at all the potential applications domains like…
Example of an IoT device that can dramatically improve your life… Keeps track of # of eggs in fridge, date you bought them and comes with a handy app
Today there is no market for such gadgets, but in the future it may be embedded in your fridge at a fraction of the current production cost.
[Funny example on how IoT could improve our life] Any idea what this is (it is an IoT device)?
If you’ve always wanted to be able to check, from anywhere in the world, exactly how many eggs are in your fridge at home, the Egg Minder is for you. Sure, it sounds silly. Do we really need an internet-connected device and companion smartphone app to tell us something so inessential? But it’s no worse than most other examples of that growing category of products comprising the “internet of things” (the expanding realm of devices that send information to, and can often be controlled from, the internet). And, at a price that may ultimately be as low as $14, at least this internet-connected device has enough utility to justify its price. Egg Minder is part of a collaboration—clearly promotional—between GE and Quirky, a crowd-funding site devoted entirely to gadgets.
Now let’s take a look at two more serious application domains, healthcare and manufacturing
Assume everything is connected in healthcare…
Another interesting application domain is manufacturing…
IoT has a lot of potential, but to make it happen several challenges need to be tackled
Functional view of Cloud-based system
Alternative systems: Local systems: users directly interact with IoT devices Mixed systems: direct + via Cloud Brokerage solutions integrating various systems
Illustration of complex IoT landscape, listing companies that provide several of these ingredients. Most solutions are vertical proprietary solutions
There is a clear lack of interoperability, which is a bottleneck for realizing the IoT
Open horizontal solutions: Devices that can be used in different application domains using reconfigurable technologies Connectivity using standards such as IP and web service technology Application enablers in order to support any domain specific application
Another major challenge is the deployment and operation, taking into account the huge number of devices that will become part of the IoT
What you need is plug & play functionality, meaning solutions to easily (automatically) deploy and configure large numbers of devices smart components for self-management, self-diagnosis communication solutions that remain robust at scale
On top of that, in order to handle the huge amounts of traffic, you need distributed intelligence.
traditionally: endpoint - network - server (cloud) -> all data to the cloud, assuming infinite bandwidth and no delay => will not be feasible anymore
IoE: distributed intelligence or Fog: take the intelligence from server/cloud down as close as possible where the data is generated (limited BW and CPU -> smaller pipe is needed)
There are two aspects to security:
First there is the technological aspect: many security protocols exists and e.g. The IETF is very active in designing protocols that are suited for constrained devices. However, there are still open challenges, for instance how to deal wil stolen, list, sold devices
Then there is also a human/legal aspect: It is not because security is there, that it is being used in the correct way -> e.g. changing default router password Next to this, there is also the privacy aspect: how to maintain control over your data. Facebook is a good example of how data can become (accidentally) too public
Here you see an example of an ongoing healthcare project, where sensor data is being tagged at the gateway. Next, the tagged data is sent to the Cloud, where it is mapped to a concept from an ontology. Next, the Cloud system is able to reason upon this data and the resulting knowledge can then be used in services.
Next to this, you also have other approaches. For instance, the open source Apache Storm system allows distributed processing of in real-time data streams. This framework is for instance used by Twitter.
--- Apache Storm is a free and open source distributed realtime computation system. Storm makes it easy to reliably process unbounded streams of data, doing for realtime processing what Hadoop did for batch processing. Storm is simple, can be used with any programming language, and is a lot of fun to use!
What is the internet of things v3
What is the Internet of Things
Internet Based Communication
Networks and Services (IBCN)
Department of Information Technology
Ghent University - iMinds
Heterogeneous objects reveal information about the physical
world, inject it into the virtual world (Internet) where it can be used
as input to services, which can act again upon the physical world.
Data created by PERSONS ➔ data created by THINGS,
uniquely identifiable things with a virtual representation
IoT is not new
• Equip objects with tags, read radio
tags, identify and inventory
• First use of IoT (1999)
• One device = one SIM card
• One-to-one device-server
communication over operator
Internet of Things (IoT)
• One device = one IP address
• Internet-based device access:
operator = transport network
• Direct interactions, flexible
Ingredients: Cloud-based IoT system
Source: white paper arm.com / freescale.com
Connectivity: local + global (wireless)
Proprietary ver cal solu ons:
proprietary protocols &
From closed vertical solutions to open horizontal solutions
Easy support of wide diversity of IoT applications
Security – privacy – data protection
security protocols exist / are being designed
• E.g. IETF is very active on security for constrained devices
• Open challenges: deal with limited capabilities, devices can
be lost/stolen/sold/have finite life, scale, across systems
• Apply security solutions
(e.g. default router password)
• How to control your data
(e.g. Facebook data)
Turning data into knowledge
Tagging + semantics
Reasoning on sensor
and other data