Intermediate level grammar review day 2

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Intermediate level grammar review day 2

  1. 1. Intermediate Level Grammar Review Day 2
  2. 2. References <ul><li>http://esl.about.com/od/beginningenglish/ig/Basic-English/Prepositions-of-Time.htm </li></ul>
  3. 3. In / On / At For Time <ul><li>IN </li></ul><ul><li>Use 'in' months and years and periods of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in January </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the twenties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use 'in' a period of time in the future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a few weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in a couple of days </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. In / On / At For Time <ul><li>AT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 'at' with precise time: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at six o'clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at 10.30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at two p.m. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 'on' with days of the week: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on Monday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on Fridays </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. In / On / At For Time <ul><li>Use 'on' with specific calendar days: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on Christmas day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on October 22 nd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT NOTES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the morning / afternoon / evening - at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We say in the morning, afternoon or evening BUT we say 'at night' </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Gerund / Infinitive (playing vs. play) <ul><li>Verb + 'ing' OR Verb + Infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>When two verbs are used together, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gerund / Infinitive (playing vs. play) <ul><li>Common Verbs + 'ing' </li></ul><ul><li>Go / enjoy / quit / discuss / mind / can't stand suggest </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>They go jogging on Saturdays. I don't mind helping you. They can't stand driving in traffic jams. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gerund / Infinitive (playing vs. play) <ul><li>Common Verbs + Infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>promise / plan / refuse / want / need / decide / hope </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I promised to help him. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice needs to start that task. </li></ul><ul><li>He decided to quit his job. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present Simple <ul><li>Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take place on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Sentences  Subject + present conjugation of verb + objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I / You drive to work every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She / He / It drives to work every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You / We / They drive to work every day. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Present Simple <ul><li>Negative Sentences Subject + do not + base form of verb + objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I / You don't (do not) use a computer every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She / He / It doesn't ( does not) use a computer at work. It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You / We / They don't (do not) use a typewriter at work. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Present Simple <ul><li>Question Form Wh? + do + subject + base form of verb ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When do I / you arrive at work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does he / she / it use at work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we / you / they keep the paper? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Modals: Should, May, Can <ul><li>Modals are verbs that modify other verbs. The most common modals are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can / Should / Must </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that all subjects take the same form of the modal. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + Modal + Base Form of Verb + Objects </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Modals: Should, May, Can <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He can play the piano. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I must leave soon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + Modal + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can't visit next week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You shouldn't go to that film. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Modals: Should, May, Can <ul><li>They can't visit next week. You shouldn't go to that film. </li></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Modal + Subject + Base Form of Verb + Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you help me? What should I do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving Advice with Should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'Should' is used when asking for or giving advice. It is also used when asking for suggestions. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Modals: Should, May, Can <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I think you should see a doctor. What type of job should I get? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressing Ability with Can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'Can' is used to speak abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He can speak Japanese. Can you play golf? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Modals: Should, May, Can <ul><li>Asking for Permission with May </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'May' is used to ask for permission. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May I help you? May I visit you this afternoon? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTE: In spoken English, 'Can I ...?' is often used instead of 'May I ...?' </li></ul>
  17. 17. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>The future with 'Will' is used in a variety of situations discussing the future. Use the following forms with 'will'. Notice that 'will' or 'won't' is used for ALL subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + will + base form of verb + object(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + will + not + base form of verb + object(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Question Word) + will + subject + base form of verb? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>Used for spontaneous decisions. Spontaneous decisions are decisions made AT the moment of speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack's hungry. I'll make her a sandwich. That's difficult! I'll help you with the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for predictions: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will snow tomorrow. She won't win the game. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>Used for scheduled public events </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concert will begin at 8 o'clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When will the train leave? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The class won't start next week. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for promises </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you marry me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I'll help you with your homework after class. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>The future with 'going to' is used to speak about future intentions or plans made before the present moment. Use the following forms with 'going to'. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + to be + going to + base form of verb + object(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject + to be + not + going to + base form of verb + object(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Question Word) + to be + subject + going to + base form of verb? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>Examples   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are going to study French next semester. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are you going to stay in France? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She isn't going to take a vacation this year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for planned decisions. Planned decisions are decisions made BEFORE the moment of speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'm going to study Languages at university next year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We're going to stay at the Hilton in New York next week. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Future: Going to and Will <ul><li>Used for predicting an action that you see is about to happen: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch out! You're going to hit that car! Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for future intentions: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'm going to be a policeman when I grow up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katherine is going to study English when she goes to University. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Country, Language, People <ul><li>One syllable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France French French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece Greek Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ends in –ish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain English British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden Swedish Swedish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey Turkish Turkish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark Danish Danish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland Finnish Finnish </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Country, Language, People <ul><li>Ends in –ish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland Polish Polish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain Spanish Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ends in –an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany German German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico Spanish Mexican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States English American </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Country, Language, People <ul><li>Ends in –ian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia English Australian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil Portuguese Brazilian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt Arabic Egyptian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy Italian Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hungary Hungarian Hungarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea Korean Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia Russian Russian </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Country, Language, People <ul><li>Ends in –ese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China Chinese Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan Japanese Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal Portuguese Portuguese </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Countable and Uncountable </li></ul><ul><li>Uncountable </li></ul><ul><li>Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns. Use both 'some' and any' with uncountable nouns when speaking about specific objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have any butter? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is some juice in the bottle. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>If you are speaking in general, do not use a modifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you drink Coca Cola? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He doesn't eat meat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countable </li></ul><ul><li>Use the plural form of the verb with countable nouns. Use both 'some' and 'any' with countable nouns when speaking about specific objects. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some magazines on the table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has he got any friends? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you are speaking in general, use the plural form of the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They love books by Hemingway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He doesn't eat apples. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Expressions for Use with Countable and Uncountable Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Use the following expressions with uncountable nouns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most / much / lots of / a lot of / some / a little / little </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is lots of interest in the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She's got some money left in the bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There's little time to finish. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Use the following expressions with countable nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Many / lots of / a lot of / several / some / not many / only a few / few </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are a lot of pictures on the wall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have several friends in Chicago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She bought some envelopes this afternoon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are only a few people in the restaurant. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>COUNT, NON-COUNT NOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>What are countable nouns? </li></ul><ul><li>Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>books, Italians, pictures, stations, men, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A countable noun can be both singular - a friend, a house, etc. - or plural - a few apples, lots of trees, etc. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Use the singular form of the verb with a singular countable noun: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a book on the table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That student is excellent! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the plural form of the verb with a countable noun in the plural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some students in the classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those houses are very big, aren't they? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>What are uncountable nouns? </li></ul><ul><li>Uncountable nouns are materials, concepts, information, etc. which are not individual objects and can not be counted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information, water, understanding, wood, cheese, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncountable nouns are always singular. Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is some water in that pitcher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is the equipment we use for the project. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Adjectives with Countable and Uncountable Nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a/an with countable nouns preceded by an adjective(s): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom is a very intelligent young man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have a beautiful grey cat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not use a/an with uncountable nouns preceded by an adjective(s): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is very useful information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is some cold beer in the fridge. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Much, Many, Few, A Lot of <ul><li>Some uncountable nouns in English are countable in other languages. This can be confusing! Here is a list of some of the most common, easy to confuse uncountable nouns. </li></ul>garbage information work progress research travel knowledge luggage money news pasta accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture
  37. 37. Comparative <ul><li>COMPARATIVE (hot – hotter, good – better, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>We use the comparative and superlative form to compare and contrast different objects in English. Use the comparative form to show the difference between two objects.  Example: New York is more exciting than Seattle.  Use the superlative form when speaking about three or more objects to show which object is 'the most' of something.  Example:  New York is the most exciting city in the USA. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Comparative <ul><li>Here is a chart showing how to construct the comparative form in English. Notice in the example sentences that we use 'than' to compare the two objects: </li></ul>
  39. 39. Comparative <ul><li>One Syllable Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>add '-er' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel) remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'ier' </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  cheap - cheaper / hot - hotter / high - higher </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yesterday was hotter than today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This book is cheaper than that book. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Comparative <ul><li>Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y' </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  happy - happier / funny - funnier </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am happier than you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That joke was funnier than his joke. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Comparative <ul><li>Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>place 'more' before the adjective </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  interesting - more interesting / difficult - more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>London is more expensive than Madrid.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This test is more difficult than the last test. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Comparative <ul><li>IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good - adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better - comparative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This book is better than that one.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am better at tennis than my sister. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Comparative <ul><ul><li>bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bad - adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worse - comparative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His French is worse than mine.  His singing is worse than Tom's. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Superlative <ul><li>SUPERLATIVE (cold – colder, bad, - worst, etc. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a chart showing how to construct the superlative form in English: </li></ul><ul><li>One Syllable Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Place 'the' before the adjective and add '-est' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Superlative <ul><li>Example:  cheap - the cheapest / hot - the hottest / high - the highest </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today is the hottest day of the summer.  This book is the cheapest I can find. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Place 'the most' before the adjective. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Superlative <ul><li>Example:  interesting - the most interesting / difficult - the most difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>London is the most expensive city in England.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is the most beautiful painting here. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Superlative <ul><li>Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y'  Place 'the' before the adjective and remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'iest'. </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  happy - the happiest / funny - the funniest </li></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New York is the noisiest city in the USA.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is the most important person I know. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Superlative <ul><li>IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good - adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the best - superlative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter is the best golf player in the school.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the best school in the city. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Superlative <ul><ul><li>bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bad - adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the worst - superlative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane is the worst student in the class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the worst day of my life. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Time Expressions <ul><li>Time expressions are used to indicate the time at / during which an action took place. Common time expressions include: </li></ul><ul><li>Present forms:  everyday, on Fridays, at the moment, now,  as well as  adverbs of frequency such as always, usually, sometimes (for present habits and routines). Days of the weeks followed by 's' such as Mondays, Tuesdays, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He sometimes finishes work early. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marjorie is listening to the radio at the moment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter goes jogging on Saturdays. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Time Expressions <ul><li>Past forms:  when I was ..., last week, day, year, etc., yesterday, ago (two weeks ago, three years ago, four months ago, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He visited his friends last week. I didn't see you two days ago. Jane flew to Boston yesterday. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Time Expressions <ul><li>Future forms:  next week, year, etc., tomorrow, by (the end of the week, Thursday, next year, etc.) in X time (in two weeks time, in four months time, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'm going to attend a conference next week. It won't snow tomorrow. They're going to visit New York in two weeks. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Time Expressions <ul><li>Perfect forms: since, yet, already, just, for </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael has worked here since 1998. Have you finished reading the paper yet? He's just gone to the bank. </li></ul></ul>

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