Blood
Functions of Blood
1. Deliver O2, nutrients to all body cells
2. Transport waste products from cells for
elimination
3. Tr...
Blood Components
 Plasma (55%)
 water (90%), ions,
proteins, gases,
nutrients, wastes,
hormones
 Cells (45%)
 RBCs, WB...
Blood Cell Formation
 Hematopoiesis: blood
cell formation
 Occurs in red bone
marrow
 Skull, pelvis, ribs,
sternum, hum...
Erythrocytes
 Red blood cells (RBCs)
 Transport O2 in blood
 Biconcave discs
 Anucleate (no nucleus)
 Hemoglobin: iro...
 Anemia: decrease in oxygen-carrying ability of
blood
 Low RBC count or deficient hemoglobin content
 Sickle-Cell Disea...
Leukocytes
 White blood cells (WBCs)
 Defend body against infection and tumors
 Locate areas of tissue damage by respon...
 Leukemia: bone marrow becomes cancerous
 huge numbers of WBCs
 Treatment: chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell
transplant
Platelets
 Cell fragments (irregularly-shaped bodies)
 Needed for clotting blood
HemostasisHemostasis = stoppage of bleeding
1. Vascular spasm
 Constrict damaged blood vessels
1. Platelet plug forms
 P...
Disorders
 ThrombusThrombus: clot in unbroken blood vessel
 Coronary thrombosis = heart attack
 EmbolusEmbolus: thrombu...
Human Blood Groups
 Antigen: foreign substance that immune system
recognizes
 Antibodies: Y-shaped proteins secreted by
...
ABO Blood Groups
42% 12% 3% 43%
 Type A: has A antigen on surface of RBC
 Type B: has B antigen
 Type AB: has both A & ...
 Rh antigen found on RBC’s in Rhe sus
monkeys (1940)
Rh+ : 85% Rh- : 15%
Blood Typing Game
Blood Typing Analysis
 Blood sample mixed with 3 antibodies
 If blood clumps, antigens are present
 If no clumps, no an...
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood
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Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood

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Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Notes - Blood

  1. 1. Blood
  2. 2. Functions of Blood 1. Deliver O2, nutrients to all body cells 2. Transport waste products from cells for elimination 3. Transport hormones 4. Maintain body temp (distribute heat) 5. Maintain pH (carry buffers) 6. Maintain fluid volume 7. Prevent blood loss (clotting) 8. Prevent infection (WBCs, antibodies)
  3. 3. Blood Components  Plasma (55%)  water (90%), ions, proteins, gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones  Cells (45%)  RBCs, WBCs, platelets  Develop from stem cells in bone marrow
  4. 4. Blood Cell Formation  Hematopoiesis: blood cell formation  Occurs in red bone marrow  Skull, pelvis, ribs, sternum, humerus, femur
  5. 5. Erythrocytes  Red blood cells (RBCs)  Transport O2 in blood  Biconcave discs  Anucleate (no nucleus)  Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein, binds to O2  Life span: 100-120 days
  6. 6.  Anemia: decrease in oxygen-carrying ability of blood  Low RBC count or deficient hemoglobin content  Sickle-Cell Disease: abnormal hemoglobin  Genetic disorder  Carriers of 1 allele are resistant to malaria in Africa
  7. 7. Leukocytes  White blood cells (WBCs)  Defend body against infection and tumors  Locate areas of tissue damage by responding to chemicals  Types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
  8. 8.  Leukemia: bone marrow becomes cancerous  huge numbers of WBCs  Treatment: chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell transplant
  9. 9. Platelets  Cell fragments (irregularly-shaped bodies)  Needed for clotting blood
  10. 10. HemostasisHemostasis = stoppage of bleeding 1. Vascular spasm  Constrict damaged blood vessels 1. Platelet plug forms  Platelets stick and bind to damaged site  Release chemicals to attract more platelets 1. Coagulation  Blood clotting  Fibrin threads forms mesh that traps RBCs Time: blood clot normally forms within 3-6 min.
  11. 11. Disorders  ThrombusThrombus: clot in unbroken blood vessel  Coronary thrombosis = heart attack  EmbolusEmbolus: thrombus breaks away from vessel wall and floats freely  Cerebral embolus = stroke  HemophiliaHemophilia: hereditary bleeding disorder, lack clotting factors
  12. 12. Human Blood Groups  Antigen: foreign substance that immune system recognizes  Antibodies: Y-shaped proteins secreted by WBC’s that attach to antigens  Agglutination: clumping caused by antibodies binding to antigens on RBCs  RBC surface proteins:  A antigen  B antigen  Rh antigen
  13. 13. ABO Blood Groups 42% 12% 3% 43%  Type A: has A antigen on surface of RBC  Type B: has B antigen  Type AB: has both A & B antigens  Type O: has no antigens on surface
  14. 14.  Rh antigen found on RBC’s in Rhe sus monkeys (1940) Rh+ : 85% Rh- : 15%
  15. 15. Blood Typing Game
  16. 16. Blood Typing Analysis  Blood sample mixed with 3 antibodies  If blood clumps, antigens are present  If no clumps, no antigens are present Anti-A antibody testAnti-A antibody test Anti-B antibody testAnti-B antibody test Rh antibodyRh antibody testtest

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