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 Faulty or misused electrical equipments
 Build up of rubbish or waste material (Poor
Housekeeping)
 Smoking
 Cooking
 Heating appliances placed near
Combustible/Flammable materials
 Unsafe Storage and use of
Combustible/Flammable materials
 Unsafe storage and use of hazardous materials
 Hot process
 Arson
1. In order to ignite and burn, a fire required 3 elements
 Fuel
 Heat (a source of ignition)
 Oxygen
2. Each element should be present in correct proportion
3. A fire can be prevented or extinguished by reducing
anyone of these elements below the critical level, i.e.
 Shutting of gas supply (Starvation)
 Cooling for fire with water
 Smothering flames with fire blankets (Suffocation)
 Anything that burns is a potential fuel for a fire
 Duration of the fire will depend on the amount
of fuel available
 Must be sufficient to raise the fuel to its
ignition temperature
 After fire begins to burn, the source of ignition
can be removed as combustion process releases
heat energy to sustain the fire
 Amount of heat required depends on the
following:-
 Combustion point of fuel
 Type of fuel
 Amount of oxygen available
 To sustain a fire, atmosphere only needs to
have 16% oxygen (The air we breathe is around
21%)
 Intensity of a fire depends on the concentration
of oxygen available
 Some chemicals releases oxygen when they
gets heated thus adding to the natural supply
 Combustibles
 Paper and Cardboard
 Plastics and Rubber
 Textiles and Soft furnishings
 Wooden Items
 Waste products
 Flammables
 Flammable liquid based products
 Flammable liquids and solvents
 Flammable chemicals
 Flammable gases
 Cigarettes, Matches and Lighters
 Naked Flames
 Faulty or misused electrical equipments
 Fixed or Portable Heaters (Electric, Gas, Oil-
filled)
 Hot Processes
 Cooking Equipments
 Lighting Equipments
 Obstructions of Equipments Ventilation
 Arson
 Main sources is in the air around us
 In an enclosed building, oxygen is provided by
natural airflow through doors/windows or
mechanical air – conditioning/ air – handling
systems
 Further additional sources can be found in :-
 Oxidizing Chemicals
 Oxygen supplies from cylinders storage and piped
systems
 Hazards – Anything that has the potential to
cause them
 Risks – The chance of that harm occurring and
severity
 Flames and Heat
 Smoke and other products of combustion
 Reduced oxygen
 Structural damage to a building
 Collapse of a building
 Exposed Electrical Cables
 Intense heat can cause serious injuries/death
 High temperatures can melt clothing into skin,
causing severe and deep burns
 Breathing in superheated air causes rapid and
severe lung damage followed by
unconsciousness
 Exposure to excessive heat can cause
physiological effects such as heat stress
 Incomplete combustion produces a variety of by-
products, many of which are toxic and/or
corrosive
 Smoke is the most cause of death in case of fire
 Injuries/death due to inhalation
 Irritation of the eyes can reduce visibility
 Digestive problems and poisoning if swallowed
 Respiratory and circulatory systems affected, if inhaled
 Poisoning if absorbed by the skin
 Many gasses produced by the fire are highly toxic,
e.g. carbon monoxide
 Oxygen deficiency can occur in 2 ways
 Fires consume large quantities of available oxygen
 Fires produces large quantities of other gasses that
displaces oxygen
 Low oxygen levels can result in disorientation
and irrational thinking, which makes escaping
more difficult
 At worse, unconsciousness and death can occur
when the brain gets starved of oxygen
 Heat can have a serious impact on the structure
of the building
 Burning
 Spilling
 Melting
 Expansion
 If a building collapses, the people inside may
be crushed or injured
 Partial collapse may obstruct escape routes
 Fire can cause damage to electrical cables,
leading to short circuits or exposing live
electrical conductors
 Exposed wires can cause electrocution through
direct contact or contact with water
 Convection
 Conduction
 Radiation
 Direct Flame Contact
 Main mode of heat transfer in a developing fire
 Heat transferred by the movement of warmed
particles in a liquid or a gas
 As particles are heated, they becomes lighter and less
dense than air and this rises in atmosphere
 Heated molecules eventually cools becomes denser
and sinks
 Repeated process results in convection currents
 Heat transferred through matter from particle
to particles
 Particles in heated substance gain kinetic energy and
move faster
 These particles than interacts with others particles
nearby, transferring heat to them
 The process continues as thermal energy is
transferred from hotter parts to cooler parts
 Uses electromagnetic waves to transfer heat
 Heat Transfer by radiation can occur over
massive distances – Radiation is how we
receive heat from sun
 Heat radiation can pass through transparent
barriers such as glass
 For significant level of heat to be radiated, the
temperature of the heat source
 Combustible or flammable materials can come
into direct contact with flames, and the fire
may travel along, up or through he material
 Preventative
 Passive
 Active
 Managerial
 Should always be considered first
 Better to reduce the risk of fire starting than to
deal with the consequences
 Adopt safe working practices when undertaking
hot work
 Provide safe ways of discarding cigarettes
 Allow smoking only in designated area and
prohibit it in all areas of fire risk
 Limit the use of open flames
 Use suitable electrical equipments and test it
regularly
 Ensure that all electrical equipments are well
ventilated
 Control Arson
 Reduces the amount of flammable material in the
workplace to the minimum required for the operation
of the business
 Where possible replace flammable material with less
flammable alternatives
 Follow safe working practices when working with
flammable substances
 Ensure Safe storage, transportation and handling of
flammable materials
 Ensures that waste products are stored in an
appropriate place until cleared
 Ensure that paint, wall coverings, textiles and
furnishings are fire resistant.
 Keep windows and doors closed (Balanced
against employee comfort)
 Use compartmentation and self-closing fire
doors
 Close off ventilation systems when not in use
 Prevent or strictly control oxygen rich
atmosphere.
 Building features that prevent the spread of
smoke and heat, e.g.
 Permanent escape routes
 Refuges with communication system
 Fire –resistance features, fittings and décor
 Systems/Devices that provide early warning
of fire, control smoke movement or suppress or
extinguish a fire in its early stages
 Require some sort of operational
(Manual/Automatic, Electrical/Mechanical) to
perform function. Examples
 Automatic Fire Detection System
 Manual Call Points And Alarm System
 Portable Fire Extinguishers and Fire Blankets
 Sprinkler Systems
 Sub-dividing a building into separate fire
compartments in order to:
 Provide a safe refuge to people within the building,
where it is not practicable to evacuate everyone at
once
 Assist fire- fighting operations
 Minimize property damage
 Support and active and passive measures, e.g.
 Develop Fire Safety procedure
 Undertake training and fire drills
 Develop maintenance systems for safety
equipments/fittings
 Undertake regular fire safety inspections
 Require vigilance by those responsible for fire safety
 Use Signage to identify escape routes and high risk
areas
 Building features and Fittings that enables people
to move from a place of potential damage to place
of ultimate or relative safety in an event of fire.
 Should take in to consideration
 Time takes to move people
 Time it takes for a fire to endanger the escape route
 The distance people have to travel to a place of safety
 Features might include
 Structural protection from a fire spread or collapse
 Fire Resistant paints and textiles
 Fire doors and self closing devices
 Signage and emergency lightings
 Ventilation Control System
 Self closing device or door release mechanism that
operates if the fire alarm gets activated
 Solid rebate or intumescent strips and cold smoke
seals to prevent flames and smokes passing
through the gaps
 Viewing panels should be fire –resistant glass
 Constructed from or coated with fire – resistant
material
 Clearly identifiable with appropriate safety
signage
 Easy to open
 Well lit
 Properly maintained
 Travel Distance – How far people have to
travel to reach an exit, usually measured to a
storey exit or another fire compartment or
protected area
 Exit Capacity – How many people can pass
through the exit in a given time.
 Used when main power supply is failed
 Should operate automatically and be sufficiently bright to
allow people to evacuate the premises quickly an safely
 Degree of illumination depends on nature of premises and
its occupants
 Exit Doors and escape routes
 Intersections of corridors
 Emergency Exit Signage
 Stairways
 Changes in Direction/Floor level
 Windowless rooms
 Fire Fighting equipments
 Fire Alarm Call Points
 Equipments to be shut down in an emergency
 Lifts
 Separated from the other parts of the building
 Constructed from the fire resistant material
 “Sterile Places”
 Safe Condition Signs
 Green Rectangle with white symbols/text
 Show Directions to areas of safety and medical assistance
 E.g. Emergency exit signage
 Fire Equipments Signs
 Red Rectangle with white symbols/text
 E.g. At manual call points or next to fire extinguishers
 Mandatory Signs
 Blue Circle with white symbols/text
 Action must be taken
 E.g. Sign instructing that fire door is kept shut
 Hazard Signs
 Yellow Triangle with black outline and symbols/text
 Warn of Danger
 E.g. Flammable Substance sign
 Prohibit signs
 Circle with red outline and red line from top left to
bottom right
 Behavior likely to result in danger is forbidden
 E.g. No Smoking Sign
 Important to detect the fire as soon as possible
after it starts and to warn other people in order
to prompt their evacuation
 In small premises, fire may be detected by
building occupants
 In some premises, fires may be detected
automatically by devices that reacts to the
presence of, for example, smoke, heat or carbon
monoxide gas.
 Shouting “Fire”
 Breaking Glass at Manual Call point
 PA System
 Whistles
 Bells
 Rotary Gongs
 Klaxons
 Class A – Organic Solids, Such As Paper And
Wood
 Class B – Flammable Liquids And Liquefied
Solids
 Class C – Flammable Gasses
 Class D – Metals
 Class F – Cooking Fat And Oil
 Fires are extinguished by reducing one or more
of the element of the fire triangle below the
critical point:
 Reducing the heat (Cooling)
 Reducing the fuel (Starving)
 Reducing the oxygen (Suffocating)
 Red with identifying labels to indicate type
 Location and number determined by the risk
assessment
 Work by breaking the fire triangle
 Use a number of different agents
 Water Cools
 Foam Cools And Provide Barrier To Oxygen
Reacting With Fuel
 Dry Powder And Carbon Dioxide Suffocate
 Red label
 For Fires involving carbon based solid material
(Class A)
 Remove heat from the fire triangle (Cooling)
 Water conducts electricity, so should not be
used where there is a risk of electric shock
 Cream label
 For Fires involving flammable liquid or
liquefied solids (Class A, B and F)
 Form a layer over the burning surface,
separating the fuel from flames (Starving)
 Nozzle sprays foam evenly, quickly coating fire
 Can use near but directly on directly on live
electrical equipments (beware water run-offs)
 Black Label
 For fires involving electrical equipments
(negate chances of electric shock)
 Can be used on fires involving liquids such as
paints and oils (with caution)
 Remove Oxygen from the fire (Suffocation)
 Should not be used in a space restricted
enclosed areas
 Ice can form on extinguisher nozzle
 Noisy when discharge
 Blue Label
 For all common types of fires including
electrical (Class A, B and F)
 Remove Oxygen from the fire – interrupting
the chain of combustion and preventing
reignition
 Extinguish quickly
 Not suitable for use in enclosed space
 Cause excessive damage to electrical
equipments
 Best used for outside fuel fire
 Yellow Label
 For use on deep–fat cooking fire (Class F)
 Create fine mist that cools flames and prevents
splashing, then create thick that smothers fat
and prevent reignition (Starving)
 Only works with animal fats and vegetable oils
 Is the extinguisher ready to be picked up?
 Is the pressure gauge reading is in green zone?
 Weight – has extinguisher been discharged?
 Are there signs of corrosion/leak/rust?
 Test engineer’s label – Has the extinguisher
been serviced in last 12 months?
 Are the safety pins in place and tamper seal
intact?
 Are notices of the type/suitability of the
extinguisher displayed next to it.
 Sheets of Fire retardant material placed over a
fire to suffocate
 Extinguish small fires before they spread
 Light duty – Kitchens
 Heavy Duty – industrial settings (Molten
materials)
 Should be in the vicinity of fire hazards but in
a position where they can be safely and easily
accessed in an emergency
 Must be checked regularly
 Pull the blankets out its case
 Check if the fire is smaller than blanket
 Hold up blanket in front of you by the top
corners and keep your hands tucked behind it
 Place the blanket over the fire and smother it
 Do not remove the blanket for half an hour (to
allow the material to cool down)
 Hose Reel
 Dry and wet riser
 Sprinkler systems
 Gaseous Systems
 Foam Systems
 Help to ensure that:
 Owners and occupiers of building are continuing to
meet their responsibility under the fire safety
regulations
 Buildings are fitted with correct fire safety
installations
 Those installations are maintained in an operational
conditions
 Competent person who implement the fire
safety measures and give effect to appropriate
procedures to be followed in the event of
serious and imminent danger to relevant
persons
 Can be called fire marshals or fire stewards
 Need excellent organizational skills, a level of
confidence and calm head
 Should have received training
 Monitor general fire safety
 Report unsafe practices/conditions
 Reports faults, incidents and near misses
 Discuss evacuations arrangements with staff
and offer guidance on procedures
 Remain familiar with escapes routes
 Take a lead role during fire drills
 Feedbacks on fire drills
 Wear high visibility clothing
 Instruct people to leave via the nearest route
 Help and Ensure all people leaves the premises
 Shut down dangerous equipments
 Help any person waiting for assistance
 Report to central assembly point
 Communicate with other wardens
 Liaise with fire and rescue services on arrival, if
required
 If not safe to move in area, evacuate to central
points
 Report whether or not they have checked their
area, so that someone can be allocated to it and
can be reported to the fire and rescue service

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Fire safety plan

  • 1.
  • 2.  Faulty or misused electrical equipments  Build up of rubbish or waste material (Poor Housekeeping)  Smoking  Cooking  Heating appliances placed near Combustible/Flammable materials  Unsafe Storage and use of Combustible/Flammable materials  Unsafe storage and use of hazardous materials  Hot process  Arson
  • 3. 1. In order to ignite and burn, a fire required 3 elements  Fuel  Heat (a source of ignition)  Oxygen 2. Each element should be present in correct proportion 3. A fire can be prevented or extinguished by reducing anyone of these elements below the critical level, i.e.  Shutting of gas supply (Starvation)  Cooling for fire with water  Smothering flames with fire blankets (Suffocation)
  • 4.  Anything that burns is a potential fuel for a fire  Duration of the fire will depend on the amount of fuel available
  • 5.  Must be sufficient to raise the fuel to its ignition temperature  After fire begins to burn, the source of ignition can be removed as combustion process releases heat energy to sustain the fire  Amount of heat required depends on the following:-  Combustion point of fuel  Type of fuel  Amount of oxygen available
  • 6.  To sustain a fire, atmosphere only needs to have 16% oxygen (The air we breathe is around 21%)  Intensity of a fire depends on the concentration of oxygen available  Some chemicals releases oxygen when they gets heated thus adding to the natural supply
  • 7.  Combustibles  Paper and Cardboard  Plastics and Rubber  Textiles and Soft furnishings  Wooden Items  Waste products  Flammables  Flammable liquid based products  Flammable liquids and solvents  Flammable chemicals  Flammable gases
  • 8.  Cigarettes, Matches and Lighters  Naked Flames  Faulty or misused electrical equipments  Fixed or Portable Heaters (Electric, Gas, Oil- filled)  Hot Processes  Cooking Equipments  Lighting Equipments  Obstructions of Equipments Ventilation  Arson
  • 9.  Main sources is in the air around us  In an enclosed building, oxygen is provided by natural airflow through doors/windows or mechanical air – conditioning/ air – handling systems  Further additional sources can be found in :-  Oxidizing Chemicals  Oxygen supplies from cylinders storage and piped systems
  • 10.  Hazards – Anything that has the potential to cause them  Risks – The chance of that harm occurring and severity
  • 11.  Flames and Heat  Smoke and other products of combustion  Reduced oxygen  Structural damage to a building  Collapse of a building  Exposed Electrical Cables
  • 12.  Intense heat can cause serious injuries/death  High temperatures can melt clothing into skin, causing severe and deep burns  Breathing in superheated air causes rapid and severe lung damage followed by unconsciousness  Exposure to excessive heat can cause physiological effects such as heat stress
  • 13.  Incomplete combustion produces a variety of by- products, many of which are toxic and/or corrosive  Smoke is the most cause of death in case of fire  Injuries/death due to inhalation  Irritation of the eyes can reduce visibility  Digestive problems and poisoning if swallowed  Respiratory and circulatory systems affected, if inhaled  Poisoning if absorbed by the skin  Many gasses produced by the fire are highly toxic, e.g. carbon monoxide
  • 14.  Oxygen deficiency can occur in 2 ways  Fires consume large quantities of available oxygen  Fires produces large quantities of other gasses that displaces oxygen  Low oxygen levels can result in disorientation and irrational thinking, which makes escaping more difficult  At worse, unconsciousness and death can occur when the brain gets starved of oxygen
  • 15.  Heat can have a serious impact on the structure of the building  Burning  Spilling  Melting  Expansion  If a building collapses, the people inside may be crushed or injured  Partial collapse may obstruct escape routes
  • 16.  Fire can cause damage to electrical cables, leading to short circuits or exposing live electrical conductors  Exposed wires can cause electrocution through direct contact or contact with water
  • 17.  Convection  Conduction  Radiation  Direct Flame Contact
  • 18.  Main mode of heat transfer in a developing fire  Heat transferred by the movement of warmed particles in a liquid or a gas  As particles are heated, they becomes lighter and less dense than air and this rises in atmosphere  Heated molecules eventually cools becomes denser and sinks  Repeated process results in convection currents
  • 19.  Heat transferred through matter from particle to particles  Particles in heated substance gain kinetic energy and move faster  These particles than interacts with others particles nearby, transferring heat to them  The process continues as thermal energy is transferred from hotter parts to cooler parts
  • 20.  Uses electromagnetic waves to transfer heat  Heat Transfer by radiation can occur over massive distances – Radiation is how we receive heat from sun  Heat radiation can pass through transparent barriers such as glass  For significant level of heat to be radiated, the temperature of the heat source
  • 21.  Combustible or flammable materials can come into direct contact with flames, and the fire may travel along, up or through he material
  • 22.  Preventative  Passive  Active  Managerial
  • 23.  Should always be considered first  Better to reduce the risk of fire starting than to deal with the consequences
  • 24.  Adopt safe working practices when undertaking hot work  Provide safe ways of discarding cigarettes  Allow smoking only in designated area and prohibit it in all areas of fire risk  Limit the use of open flames  Use suitable electrical equipments and test it regularly  Ensure that all electrical equipments are well ventilated  Control Arson
  • 25.  Reduces the amount of flammable material in the workplace to the minimum required for the operation of the business  Where possible replace flammable material with less flammable alternatives  Follow safe working practices when working with flammable substances  Ensure Safe storage, transportation and handling of flammable materials  Ensures that waste products are stored in an appropriate place until cleared  Ensure that paint, wall coverings, textiles and furnishings are fire resistant.
  • 26.  Keep windows and doors closed (Balanced against employee comfort)  Use compartmentation and self-closing fire doors  Close off ventilation systems when not in use  Prevent or strictly control oxygen rich atmosphere.
  • 27.  Building features that prevent the spread of smoke and heat, e.g.  Permanent escape routes  Refuges with communication system  Fire –resistance features, fittings and décor
  • 28.  Systems/Devices that provide early warning of fire, control smoke movement or suppress or extinguish a fire in its early stages  Require some sort of operational (Manual/Automatic, Electrical/Mechanical) to perform function. Examples  Automatic Fire Detection System  Manual Call Points And Alarm System  Portable Fire Extinguishers and Fire Blankets  Sprinkler Systems
  • 29.  Sub-dividing a building into separate fire compartments in order to:  Provide a safe refuge to people within the building, where it is not practicable to evacuate everyone at once  Assist fire- fighting operations  Minimize property damage
  • 30.  Support and active and passive measures, e.g.  Develop Fire Safety procedure  Undertake training and fire drills  Develop maintenance systems for safety equipments/fittings  Undertake regular fire safety inspections  Require vigilance by those responsible for fire safety  Use Signage to identify escape routes and high risk areas
  • 31.  Building features and Fittings that enables people to move from a place of potential damage to place of ultimate or relative safety in an event of fire.  Should take in to consideration  Time takes to move people  Time it takes for a fire to endanger the escape route  The distance people have to travel to a place of safety  Features might include  Structural protection from a fire spread or collapse  Fire Resistant paints and textiles  Fire doors and self closing devices  Signage and emergency lightings  Ventilation Control System
  • 32.  Self closing device or door release mechanism that operates if the fire alarm gets activated  Solid rebate or intumescent strips and cold smoke seals to prevent flames and smokes passing through the gaps  Viewing panels should be fire –resistant glass  Constructed from or coated with fire – resistant material  Clearly identifiable with appropriate safety signage  Easy to open  Well lit  Properly maintained
  • 33.  Travel Distance – How far people have to travel to reach an exit, usually measured to a storey exit or another fire compartment or protected area  Exit Capacity – How many people can pass through the exit in a given time.
  • 34.  Used when main power supply is failed  Should operate automatically and be sufficiently bright to allow people to evacuate the premises quickly an safely  Degree of illumination depends on nature of premises and its occupants  Exit Doors and escape routes  Intersections of corridors  Emergency Exit Signage  Stairways  Changes in Direction/Floor level  Windowless rooms  Fire Fighting equipments  Fire Alarm Call Points  Equipments to be shut down in an emergency  Lifts
  • 35.  Separated from the other parts of the building  Constructed from the fire resistant material  “Sterile Places”
  • 36.  Safe Condition Signs  Green Rectangle with white symbols/text  Show Directions to areas of safety and medical assistance  E.g. Emergency exit signage  Fire Equipments Signs  Red Rectangle with white symbols/text  E.g. At manual call points or next to fire extinguishers  Mandatory Signs  Blue Circle with white symbols/text  Action must be taken  E.g. Sign instructing that fire door is kept shut
  • 37.  Hazard Signs  Yellow Triangle with black outline and symbols/text  Warn of Danger  E.g. Flammable Substance sign  Prohibit signs  Circle with red outline and red line from top left to bottom right  Behavior likely to result in danger is forbidden  E.g. No Smoking Sign
  • 38.  Important to detect the fire as soon as possible after it starts and to warn other people in order to prompt their evacuation  In small premises, fire may be detected by building occupants  In some premises, fires may be detected automatically by devices that reacts to the presence of, for example, smoke, heat or carbon monoxide gas.
  • 39.  Shouting “Fire”  Breaking Glass at Manual Call point  PA System  Whistles  Bells  Rotary Gongs  Klaxons
  • 40.  Class A – Organic Solids, Such As Paper And Wood  Class B – Flammable Liquids And Liquefied Solids  Class C – Flammable Gasses  Class D – Metals  Class F – Cooking Fat And Oil
  • 41.  Fires are extinguished by reducing one or more of the element of the fire triangle below the critical point:  Reducing the heat (Cooling)  Reducing the fuel (Starving)  Reducing the oxygen (Suffocating)
  • 42.  Red with identifying labels to indicate type  Location and number determined by the risk assessment  Work by breaking the fire triangle  Use a number of different agents  Water Cools  Foam Cools And Provide Barrier To Oxygen Reacting With Fuel  Dry Powder And Carbon Dioxide Suffocate
  • 43.  Red label  For Fires involving carbon based solid material (Class A)  Remove heat from the fire triangle (Cooling)  Water conducts electricity, so should not be used where there is a risk of electric shock
  • 44.  Cream label  For Fires involving flammable liquid or liquefied solids (Class A, B and F)  Form a layer over the burning surface, separating the fuel from flames (Starving)  Nozzle sprays foam evenly, quickly coating fire  Can use near but directly on directly on live electrical equipments (beware water run-offs)
  • 45.  Black Label  For fires involving electrical equipments (negate chances of electric shock)  Can be used on fires involving liquids such as paints and oils (with caution)  Remove Oxygen from the fire (Suffocation)  Should not be used in a space restricted enclosed areas  Ice can form on extinguisher nozzle  Noisy when discharge
  • 46.  Blue Label  For all common types of fires including electrical (Class A, B and F)  Remove Oxygen from the fire – interrupting the chain of combustion and preventing reignition  Extinguish quickly  Not suitable for use in enclosed space  Cause excessive damage to electrical equipments  Best used for outside fuel fire
  • 47.  Yellow Label  For use on deep–fat cooking fire (Class F)  Create fine mist that cools flames and prevents splashing, then create thick that smothers fat and prevent reignition (Starving)  Only works with animal fats and vegetable oils
  • 48.  Is the extinguisher ready to be picked up?  Is the pressure gauge reading is in green zone?  Weight – has extinguisher been discharged?  Are there signs of corrosion/leak/rust?  Test engineer’s label – Has the extinguisher been serviced in last 12 months?  Are the safety pins in place and tamper seal intact?  Are notices of the type/suitability of the extinguisher displayed next to it.
  • 49.  Sheets of Fire retardant material placed over a fire to suffocate  Extinguish small fires before they spread  Light duty – Kitchens  Heavy Duty – industrial settings (Molten materials)  Should be in the vicinity of fire hazards but in a position where they can be safely and easily accessed in an emergency  Must be checked regularly
  • 50.  Pull the blankets out its case  Check if the fire is smaller than blanket  Hold up blanket in front of you by the top corners and keep your hands tucked behind it  Place the blanket over the fire and smother it  Do not remove the blanket for half an hour (to allow the material to cool down)
  • 51.  Hose Reel  Dry and wet riser  Sprinkler systems  Gaseous Systems  Foam Systems
  • 52.  Help to ensure that:  Owners and occupiers of building are continuing to meet their responsibility under the fire safety regulations  Buildings are fitted with correct fire safety installations  Those installations are maintained in an operational conditions
  • 53.  Competent person who implement the fire safety measures and give effect to appropriate procedures to be followed in the event of serious and imminent danger to relevant persons  Can be called fire marshals or fire stewards  Need excellent organizational skills, a level of confidence and calm head  Should have received training
  • 54.  Monitor general fire safety  Report unsafe practices/conditions  Reports faults, incidents and near misses  Discuss evacuations arrangements with staff and offer guidance on procedures  Remain familiar with escapes routes  Take a lead role during fire drills  Feedbacks on fire drills
  • 55.  Wear high visibility clothing  Instruct people to leave via the nearest route  Help and Ensure all people leaves the premises  Shut down dangerous equipments  Help any person waiting for assistance  Report to central assembly point  Communicate with other wardens  Liaise with fire and rescue services on arrival, if required
  • 56.  If not safe to move in area, evacuate to central points  Report whether or not they have checked their area, so that someone can be allocated to it and can be reported to the fire and rescue service