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Fire Fighting Theory

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Fire Fighting Theory

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Fire Fighting Theory

  1. 2. Fire Safety Training
  2. 3. What you will learn <ul><ul><li>What is Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes of Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- What to do in Case of Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Extinguishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Use an Extinguisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of Extinguishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Responder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Response team Development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Fire is man’s best friend & worst enemy
  4. 5. It is a source of heat and light It illuminates our homes, drives our automobiles, flies our aircraft, etc.
  5. 6. Fire when out of control has no friends no moral values respects no barriers & recognizes no boundaries
  6. 7. Definition of Fire <ul><li>Exothermic chemical reaction followed by the evolution of heat and light </li></ul>
  7. 8. Heat Fuel Air TRIANGLE OF FIRE
  8. 9. Tetrahedron of Fire
  9. 10. <ul><li>Petrol </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene </li></ul>Fire & its speed
  10. 11. Chemical Chain Reaction
  11. 12. Basic Definitions <ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable Limit of a material is a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>% by volume mixture of its vapours with air within which it will burn (explode) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Flammable Limits Note: Oil will not burn if not vaporising or not having any space above its surface. LEL % UEL %
  13. 16. PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION
  14. 17. PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 1. STARVATION Heat Air Removing or limitation of fuel
  15. 18. <ul><li>Heat </li></ul>Fuel PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 2.SMOTHERING <ul><ul><ul><li>limitation of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Air </li></ul>Fuel PRINCIPLES OF EXTINCTION 3.COOLING Removal of heat
  17. 22. FIRE SPREADING (CONDUCTION)
  18. 23. FIRE SPREADING (RADIATION)
  19. 24. FIRE SPREADING- (CONVECTION)
  20. 25. Classifications of Fire
  21. 26. Solid <ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul>
  22. 27. Liquid & Gases <ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Paints </li></ul><ul><li>Tars </li></ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylene </li></ul><ul><li>Propane </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  23. 28. Electric <ul><li>Fire that involve energized electrical Equipment. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Metals <ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium </li></ul><ul><li>Zirconium </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul>
  25. 30. Classifications of Fire NFPA Wood , paper,cloth etc. Liquids (oils, paints etc.) & Gases Energized Electrical Appliances Metals ( like magnesium, aluminum etc.)
  26. 31. Classifications of Fire BS/EN
  27. 32. Common Causes of Fire <ul><li>Physical Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Radiological Cause </li></ul>
  28. 33. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Fire Extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Alarm & Detection Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Hydrants </li></ul><ul><li>Hose Cabinets & Risers </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Installations (Powder, Gas, Foam etc.) </li></ul>
  29. 34. Types of Extinguishers <ul><li>Type of fire extinguishers are classified by the type of fires on which they may be used </li></ul>
  30. 36. FIRE EXTINGUISHER FOR CLASSES “A” “B” “C’ & ‘D’ FIRES
  31. 37. Fire Extinguishers <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Foam </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Chemical Powder </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Expelling Agents </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 (Internal or External Cartridges) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul>Mechanism
  32. 38. Stored Pressure Fire Extinguishers CO 2
  33. 39. How to use a Fire Extinguisher Use the PASS System
  34. 40. PASS <ul><li>Pull </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep </li></ul>
  35. 41. Pull <ul><li>Pull the Pin </li></ul><ul><li>This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher </li></ul>
  36. 42. Aim <ul><li>Aim at the base of the fire. If you aim at the flames, the extinguishing agent will fly. </li></ul>
  37. 43. Squeeze <ul><li>Squeeze the top handle or lever. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent in the extinguisher </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Sweep <ul><ul><li>Sweep from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>side to side until the fire is completely out. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 45. Fire Routine What to do in case of a Fire ?
  40. 46. 1 Raise fire alarm or shout fire fire What to do in case of a fire?
  41. 47. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 2 What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire
  42. 48. 3 Use appropriate Fire extinguisher What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16
  43. 49. What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 3. Use appropriate Fire Extinguishers 4 Shut / switch off necessary Valves / Switches
  44. 50. Assemble at Muster Point 5 What to do in case of a fire? 1. Raise Fire Alarm or Shout Fire Fire 2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 3. Use appropriate Fire Extinguisher 4. Shut / switch off necessary Valves / Switches
  45. 51. <ul><ul><li>1. Raise Fire Alarm or shout fire fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Telephone City Fire Brigade 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Use appropriate Fire Extinguisher if Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Shut / Switch off (necessary valves / switches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Assemble at Muster Point </li></ul></ul>What to do in case of a fire?
  46. 52. Fire Emergency Response R escue A larm C ontain E xtinguish R A C E
  47. 53. Fire Fighting Hints <ul><li>Always “Size Up” the fire </li></ul><ul><li>Select the proper Extinguishing Agent </li></ul>
  48. 54. <ul><li>Work on side of fire where it is </li></ul><ul><li>extending </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use Fire Extinguisher/ </li></ul><ul><li>Water until fire is seen </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  49. 55. <ul><li>Attack the fire until it “Dies – Out”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hit it again if it rekindles </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  50. 56. <ul><li>Do not hit hot glass with water unless you want </li></ul><ul><li>to break it </li></ul><ul><li>Use all available means for personal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Check carefully all possible avenues of fire travel </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  51. 57. <ul><li>If you have to force open a door, smash a panel near the lock, so you may be able to get a hand to unlock the door from inside </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t enter a burning building or room without Extinguishing media or Proper cover </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  52. 58. <ul><li>Feel door handles or knobs with the back of an ungloved hand before opening the doors. A hot handle is a good indicator of fire on the other side. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t stand in front of the door stay to one side, keep low, and open the door. this will allow the heat and smoke to pass overhead </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  53. 59. Keep close to the walls, when moving across a room or down stairs, which may have been weakened by the effects of fire Fire Fighting Hints
  54. 60. <ul><li>When having to crawl down stairs; come </li></ul><ul><li>backwards, with feet first </li></ul>Fire Fighting Hints
  55. 61. If a burning room gets too hot for you, shut the door as you retreat; it restricts the air supply Fire Fighting Hints
  56. 62. Self Survival
  57. 63. Smoke, heat and gases can choke and kill you after a few breaths If you are caught in smoke, get down and crawl
  58. 64. Stop, Drop and Roll!
  59. 65. Another enemy is the Elevator Never use in case of fire
  60. 66. <ul><li>Have a prepared escape plan showing your escape routes </li></ul><ul><li>Close doors behind you </li></ul>Self Survival
  61. 67. Self Survival <ul><li>If you are trapped </li></ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul><ul><li>Seal off cracks around doors and vents with cloth or rug. Soak them if water is nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Shut off fans and air conditioners </li></ul><ul><li>Be calm. Rescue may be moments away </li></ul>
  62. 68. Safely lower yourself like this If your escape route is blocked
  63. 69. Signal at the window Self Survival If there is a phone, call the fire department and tell them where you are, even if they are already on the scene
  64. 70. Casualty Handling & Transportation Techniques
  65. 71. Pick a Back To carry light weight casualties
  66. 72. Cradle To carry children
  67. 73. Removal Down Stairs / Dragging Unconscious casualty
  68. 74. Fireman’s Crawl To bring an unconscious casualty from a smoke filled room
  69. 75. Fore & Aft Carry To carry an unconscious casualty
  70. 76. Two Handed Seat To carry an unconscious casualty
  71. 77. Three Handed Seat To carry a casualty with one leg injured
  72. 78. Four Handed Seat To carry a heavier and conscious casualty
  73. 79. Preparing the Stretcher
  74. 80. Orthopaedic Stretcher This scoop stretcher is used to lift the casualty who must be moved in the position he/she is found Not to carry the casualty
  75. 81. Blanket Lift To lift the Casualty from ground & To load the casualty on stretcher
  76. 82. Lifting & Carrying the Stretcher
  77. 83. Improvised Stretchers Use of door and other planks
  78. 84. Improvised Stretchers Use of blanket
  79. 88. Fire Risk Screening
  80. 89. ACCIDENTS DURING THE LAST 20 YEARS NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS Technical Measures Process Safety Measures Human Factors Measures
  81. 91. Electrical Safety
  82. 92. Clean up
  83. 93. Clean up all spillages
  84. 94. Dispose off rubbish safely
  85. 95. Keep fire exits clear
  86. 96. Keep equipment clean & well maintained
  87. 97. Don’t use more then one appliance from one socket
  88. 98. While leaving the office, switch off all electrical appliances
  89. 99. Get Fire Safety Training
  90. 100. Keep flammables in tightly closed containers
  91. 101. Keep your place neat and tidy
  92. 102. Plan two ways to escape
  93. 103. Don’t smoke in ‘No Smoking’ Areas
  94. 104. Know the location of Mains, Gas Valves & Fire Point
  95. 105. Follow the Checklist Before any Hot Work
  96. 106. Housekeeping & Fire Safety
  97. 109. A place for every thing And everything at its place
  98. 111. <ul><li>Are the premises kept clear of combustible waste and refuse? </li></ul>
  99. 112. <ul><li>Are metal </li></ul><ul><li>receptacles </li></ul><ul><li>with closely </li></ul><ul><li>fitting lids </li></ul><ul><li>available for </li></ul><ul><li>waste such </li></ul><ul><li>as floor </li></ul><ul><li>sweepings? </li></ul>
  100. 113. <ul><li>Are separate clearly labeled containers provided for </li></ul><ul><li>waste with special hazards - flammable liquids, swarf, paint rags, oily rags? </li></ul>OILY RAGS
  101. 114. <ul><li>Are waste </li></ul><ul><li>containers </li></ul><ul><li>removed from the </li></ul><ul><li>building at the </li></ul><ul><li>end of each </li></ul><ul><li>working day </li></ul><ul><li>or more </li></ul><ul><li>frequently if </li></ul><ul><li>necessary? </li></ul>
  102. 115. <ul><li>Is waste put out in a </li></ul><ul><li>safe place awaiting </li></ul><ul><li>disposal? </li></ul>
  103. 116. <ul><li>Are cupboards, lift shafts, spaces under benches, gratings, conveyor belts and behind radiators, and similar places kept free from dust and rubbish? </li></ul>
  104. 117. Are areas in and around the buildings kept free from accumulated packing materials and pallets?
  105. 118. L.P.G Cylinders <ul><li>Are liquefied petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>gas (LPG) cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>safely preferably in a </li></ul><ul><li>fenced compound </li></ul><ul><li>outdoors at least 2m </li></ul><ul><li>away from any boundary </li></ul><ul><li>fences? </li></ul>
  106. 119. <ul><li>Is the store </li></ul><ul><li>used only for </li></ul><ul><li>cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>storage? </li></ul>
  107. 120. Are empty cylinders treated in the same manner, but kept separate and labeled empty?
  108. 121. <ul><li>Are permanent </li></ul><ul><li>warning notices </li></ul><ul><li>prominently </li></ul><ul><li>displayed </li></ul><ul><li>prohibiting </li></ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul><ul><li>and naked lights? </li></ul>
  109. 122. Are cylinders stored with their valves uppermost?
  110. 123. <ul><li>Are storage </li></ul><ul><li>areas </li></ul><ul><li>accessible to </li></ul><ul><li>fire fighters? </li></ul>
  111. 124. <ul><li>Are stack sizes kept as </li></ul><ul><li>small as </li></ul><ul><li>practicable </li></ul><ul><li>in the </li></ul><ul><li>circumstances? </li></ul>
  112. 125. <ul><li>Are stacks stable </li></ul><ul><li>and not </li></ul><ul><li>liable to </li></ul><ul><li>collapse </li></ul><ul><li>easily? </li></ul>
  113. 126. <ul><li>Are stocks of material arranged so </li></ul><ul><li>that Fire detectors </li></ul><ul><li>are not impeded </li></ul><ul><li>and the required </li></ul><ul><li>clearance beneath </li></ul><ul><li>this equipment </li></ul><ul><li>maintained? </li></ul>
  114. 127. <ul><li>Are stock kept well clear </li></ul><ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>light fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>and hot </li></ul><ul><li>service </li></ul><ul><li>pipes? </li></ul>
  115. 128. <ul><li>Are all outside contractors </li></ul><ul><li>supervised while on the </li></ul><ul><li>premises and their work is </li></ul><ul><li>authorized by hot work </li></ul><ul><li>permit schemes? </li></ul>
  116. 129. <ul><li>Are all stock of </li></ul><ul><li>flammable liquids </li></ul><ul><li>kept in purpose </li></ul><ul><li>built flammable </li></ul><ul><li>liquid stores? </li></ul>
  117. 130. <ul><li>Is the flammable </li></ul><ul><li>liquids store kept </li></ul><ul><li>un-congested and </li></ul><ul><li>tidy? </li></ul>
  118. 131. <ul><li>Are flammable liquids </li></ul><ul><li>carried in specially </li></ul><ul><li>designed safety containers </li></ul><ul><li>and not open cans and </li></ul><ul><li>buckets etc.? </li></ul>
  119. 132. <ul><li>Are flammable </li></ul><ul><li>liquids kept </li></ul><ul><li>away from </li></ul><ul><li>possible </li></ul><ul><li>source of </li></ul><ul><li>ignition? </li></ul>
  120. 133. <ul><li>Are suitable spark </li></ul><ul><li>reducing tools provided for </li></ul><ul><li>use in places where </li></ul><ul><li>there may be </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable vapours? </li></ul>
  121. 134. <ul><li>Are all </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>subjected </li></ul><ul><li>to </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduled </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  122. 135. <ul><li>Is machinery located so as to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>congestion among machines and materials? </li></ul>
  123. 136. <ul><li>Are motors and all moving parts of </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery kept clean to avoid overheating? </li></ul>
  124. 137. <ul><li>Are drip trays used where necessary and emptied regularly? </li></ul>
  125. 138. Are there restrictions on using unauthorized heaters?
  126. 139. Are combustible materials at a distance of 3 ft from heater?
  127. 140. Are portable heaters securely guarded and placed where they cannot be knocked over or ignite Combustibles?
  128. 141. Do not put the toys or other things over the heater
  129. 142. Is smoking prohibited in all areas where it is particularly, dangerous such as: *Production areas, workshops and other places where materials and waste produced is readily combustible? * Store rooms and warehouse? *Packing and unpacking areas? *Loading and unloading areas? *Infrequently visited areas?
  130. 143. <ul><li>Are these </li></ul><ul><li>receptacles </li></ul><ul><li>emptied at </li></ul><ul><li>least once a </li></ul><ul><li>day? </li></ul>
  131. 144. <ul><li>Are drains provided </li></ul><ul><li>and are they kept </li></ul><ul><li>clear of blockages by </li></ul><ul><li>routine inspection </li></ul><ul><li>and cleaning? </li></ul>
  132. 145. Are hydrants, fire extinguishers, fire alarm and sprinkler systems regularly maintained by qualified people?
  133. 146. <ul><li>Are fire and </li></ul><ul><li>smoke doors </li></ul><ul><li>kept closed </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever </li></ul><ul><li>possible </li></ul><ul><li>and always after </li></ul><ul><li>working hours? </li></ul>
  134. 147. FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Are routine checks made to ensure equipment has not been obscured, moved or damaged?
  135. 148. Join hands to save our people and property from the ferocity of ruthless fires

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