Foundations of Fire Fighting Tactics and Strategies   Chapter 5
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the process of developing the fire fighting strategy and tactics involved in planning, locatin...
Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Define the term  size-up  and explain the steps and factors involved in making a size-up </li...
Introduction <ul><li>Learn about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure fires and fire behavior patterns most likely to be encou...
Development of Strategy and Tactics <ul><li>Overall mission for firefighters responding to fire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loc...
Development of Strategy and Tactics (cont’d.) Figure 5-2  The five steps in the decision-making model
Attack Modes <ul><li>Offensive mode: make a direct attack on fire for purposes of control and extinguishment </li></ul><ul...
Attack Modes (cont’d.) <ul><li>Non-attack mode (passive approach):   under certain circumstances, a fire attack may be too...
Size-Up at the Incident Scene <ul><li>RECEO-VS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposures </li></ul...
Construction <ul><li>Includes building components, materials, and extent of their fire-resistive abilities </li></ul><ul><...
Type I or Fire-resistive Construction <ul><li>Columns, beams, floors, walls, and roof made of materials classified as non-...
Type II or Non-combustible Construction <ul><li>Non-combustible and either protected or unprotected </li></ul>Figure 5-5(a...
Type III or Exterior Protected/Ordinary Construction <ul><li>Exterior walls made of masonry materials  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Type IV or Heavy Timber/Mill Construction <ul><li>Exterior walls are usually made of masonry and therefore are non-combust...
Type V or Wood Frame Construction <ul><li>All major structural components can be made of combustible materials </li></ul>F...
Occupancy or Use <ul><li>The building code that classifies buildings by their use </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of lives in build...
Apparatus and Staffing <ul><li>Standard operating procedure (SOP): specific information and instructions on how a task or ...
Life Hazard <ul><li>Primary search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive primary search for victims during the first few moment...
Terrain <ul><li>Structure can be built on land with different grade levels </li></ul><ul><li>Careful pre-incident planning...
Water Supply <ul><li>Can water be delivered in sufficient gallons per minute to suppress the number of BTUs being given of...
Auxiliary Appliances <ul><li>Fire sprinklers have record of over one hundred years of being 90% to 98% effective in contro...
Street Conditions <ul><li>Narrow streets, traffic congestion, double-parked cars, and construction work can severely impac...
Weather <ul><li>Extreme weather conditions can affect operations </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation system: </li></ul><ul><u...
Exposures <ul><li>Using water by running it down side of exposed building, coating it with water </li></ul><ul><li>Water s...
Area and Height <ul><li>Indicates maximum potential fire area </li></ul><ul><li>Height of building raises issues of whethe...
Location and Extent of Fire <ul><li>The lower the fire, the more serious the threat of fire is to the building </li></ul><...
Time <ul><li>May determine life-threatening situation </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day impacts time required for a fire appar...
Special Concerns <ul><li>Personnel accountability report (PAR):   reports on location/condition of personnel  </li></ul><u...
Fire Behavior in Specific Occupancies <ul><li>Different procedures need followed for various types of buildings </li></ul>...
Building Construction Methods and Occupancy Types <ul><li>Platform construction method:   floors built separately from out...
Single-Story Family Dwellings of the Past <ul><li>1940s – 1950s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastered walls covering wood/wire m...
Today’s Residential Properties <ul><li>Better insulation and increase in fire load </li></ul><ul><li>More plastics </li></...
Multiple-family Dwellings <ul><li>Vary from city to city </li></ul>Figure 5-16  Open attic and truss construction
Mercantile Fires <ul><li>Strip malls made as cheaply as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Barely meet code requirements </li></ul...
Hotel Fires <ul><li>Not designed with fire safety in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Older hotels built with open stairways and roo...
Industrial Occupancies <ul><li>Vary considerably due to manufacturing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant factory/loft buil...
Churches <ul><li>Similar construction </li></ul><ul><li>Large hanging ceilings or cocklofts lead to church’s destruction <...
Schools <ul><li>Fire drills usually constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvement in the use of fire-resistant con...
Basement Fires <ul><li>Good location for storage of combustible items </li></ul><ul><li>Can become fully developed and pre...
Attic Fires <ul><li>Burn upward </li></ul><ul><li>Respond quickly to proper vertical ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Should ...
Flat Roofs <ul><li>Attic space is approximately three feet deep and provides open space between underside of roof and top ...
Peaked Roofs <ul><li>Encourage the use of aerial ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Roof ladder also used if aerial not possible </...
Carport/Garage <ul><li>Carport: freestanding structure open on all sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carport itself is not serio...
Summary <ul><li>Understand basic principles of fire fighting and characteristics of fire behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Three ...
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Chapter 05- Foundations of Firefighting Tactics and Strategies

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• Describe the process of developing the fire fighting strategy and tactics involved in planning, locating, confining, extinguishing, and overhauling fires in buildings and other special fire situations
• Discuss the methods used for the determination of the proper fire operating mode: offensive, transitional, defensive, or nonattack mode
• Define the term size-up and explain the steps and factors involved in making a size-up
• Review the fire strategy and tactics used by firefighters and apply the fire behavior characteristics discussed in the text to the situations reviewed
• Describe difficult fire situations encountered by firefighters and the strategies and tactics they should use to resolve these situations

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Chapter 05- Foundations of Firefighting Tactics and Strategies

  1. 1. Foundations of Fire Fighting Tactics and Strategies Chapter 5
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the process of developing the fire fighting strategy and tactics involved in planning, locating, confining, extinguishing, and overhauling fires in buildings and other special fire situations </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the methods used for the determination of the proper fire operating mode: offensive, transitional, defensive, or non-attack mode </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Define the term size-up and explain the steps and factors involved in making a size-up </li></ul><ul><li>Review the fire strategy and tactics used by firefighters and apply the fire behavior characteristics discussed in the text to the situations reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Describe difficult fire situations encountered by firefighters and the strategies and tactics they should use to resolve these situations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Learn about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure fires and fire behavior patterns most likely to be encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to apply fire behavior tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall mission for fire incidents has three major components: finding the location of the fire, confining the fire, and extinguishing the fire </li></ul><ul><li>Size-up : method used to identify problem(s) presented by the incident </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development of Strategy and Tactics <ul><li>Overall mission for firefighters responding to fire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confine the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguish the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision-making model : overall strategy on emergency incidents </li></ul>
  6. 6. Development of Strategy and Tactics (cont’d.) Figure 5-2 The five steps in the decision-making model
  7. 7. Attack Modes <ul><li>Offensive mode: make a direct attack on fire for purposes of control and extinguishment </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional mode: shifting from offensive to defensive mode or from defensive to offensive mode </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive mode: conducted on exterior of building to protect adjacent buildings from fire spreading </li></ul>
  8. 8. Attack Modes (cont’d.) <ul><li>Non-attack mode (passive approach): under certain circumstances, a fire attack may be too dangerous and incident command will choose to let the fire burn out without an attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be made without careful consideration and by making every effort to include the owner in the decision making process </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Size-Up at the Incident Scene <ul><li>RECEO-VS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confinement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Construction <ul><li>Includes building components, materials, and extent of their fire-resistive abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Five NFPA classifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I, II, III, IV, and V </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Type I or Fire-resistive Construction <ul><li>Columns, beams, floors, walls, and roof made of materials classified as non-combustible </li></ul>Figure 5-4 Type I or fire-resistive construction
  12. 12. Type II or Non-combustible Construction <ul><li>Non-combustible and either protected or unprotected </li></ul>Figure 5-5(a) Type II or noncombustible construction
  13. 13. Type III or Exterior Protected/Ordinary Construction <ul><li>Exterior walls made of masonry materials </li></ul><ul><li>Interior walls and materials permitted to be partially or wholly combustible </li></ul>Figure 5-6 Type III or ordinary construction
  14. 14. Type IV or Heavy Timber/Mill Construction <ul><li>Exterior walls are usually made of masonry and therefore are non-combustible </li></ul>Figure 5-7 Type IV or heavy timber/mill construction
  15. 15. Type V or Wood Frame Construction <ul><li>All major structural components can be made of combustible materials </li></ul>Figure 5-8 In Type V construction, all major structural components can be made of combustible materials
  16. 16. Occupancy or Use <ul><li>The building code that classifies buildings by their use </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of lives in building fires is always a concern where large numbers of people gather </li></ul>
  17. 17. Apparatus and Staffing <ul><li>Standard operating procedure (SOP): specific information and instructions on how a task or assignment is to be accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know manpower resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number, type of pumping, and ladder capability </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Life Hazard <ul><li>Primary search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive primary search for victims during the first few moments after arrival </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal alert safety system (PASS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, motion sensitive unit attached to and worn with the SCBA by firefighters when entering an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) environment </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Terrain <ul><li>Structure can be built on land with different grade levels </li></ul><ul><li>Careful pre-incident planning can help in reducing the time required to deal with terrain problems </li></ul>
  20. 20. Water Supply <ul><li>Can water be delivered in sufficient gallons per minute to suppress the number of BTUs being given off by the fire? </li></ul><ul><li>Learn location of water lines of other jurisdictions or districts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Auxiliary Appliances <ul><li>Fire sprinklers have record of over one hundred years of being 90% to 98% effective in controlling fires </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of water sprinkler application systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deluge </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Street Conditions <ul><li>Narrow streets, traffic congestion, double-parked cars, and construction work can severely impact fire operations </li></ul><ul><li>Close coordination with public works and traffic departments can reduce such problems </li></ul>
  23. 23. Weather <ul><li>Extreme weather conditions can affect operations </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Exposures <ul><li>Using water by running it down side of exposed building, coating it with water </li></ul><ul><li>Water spray can protect against movement of heated air currents and direct flame impingement </li></ul><ul><li>Use large water appliances to reduce or redirect air currents and to cool threatened building surfaces </li></ul>
  25. 25. Area and Height <ul><li>Indicates maximum potential fire area </li></ul><ul><li>Height of building raises issues of whether the fire department has necessary ladder lengths to reach upper building areas </li></ul><ul><li>Height may provide exposure hazard to nearby buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts use of master streams </li></ul>
  26. 26. Location and Extent of Fire <ul><li>The lower the fire, the more serious the threat of fire is to the building </li></ul><ul><li>Fire below grade such as a basement fire, are hotter, and generally more complex </li></ul>
  27. 27. Time <ul><li>May determine life-threatening situation </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day impacts time required for a fire apparatus to arrive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning and evening traffic peaks can double the response time </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Special Concerns <ul><li>Personnel accountability report (PAR): reports on location/condition of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel accountability system (PAS): determines entry/exit of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid intervention team or crew (RIT/RIC): assignment of group for rapid deployment of reports on personnel in trouble/missing </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fire Behavior in Specific Occupancies <ul><li>Different procedures need followed for various types of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Important to understand essential differences of building methods and building types when evaluating how to approach a fire </li></ul>
  30. 30. Building Construction Methods and Occupancy Types <ul><li>Platform construction method: floors built separately from outer walls and ceiling and floor area serves as fire block to stop movement of hot fire gases between floors </li></ul><ul><li>Balloon frame method of construction: obsolete construction method where wood studs run from foundation to roof and floors are nailed to studs </li></ul>
  31. 31. Single-Story Family Dwellings of the Past <ul><li>1940s – 1950s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastered walls covering wood/wire mesh which was painted/covered with heavy paper or cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bare wood, rugs, linoleum, wool carpets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bare wood to upholstered furniture with cotton, wool, or leather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooms poorly insulated with single-paned windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire load was low and the rooms were well ventilated </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Today’s Residential Properties <ul><li>Better insulation and increase in fire load </li></ul><ul><li>More plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Interior fire fighting hotter </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased time to flashover </li></ul><ul><li>Has become much more dangerous in these occupancies </li></ul>
  33. 33. Multiple-family Dwellings <ul><li>Vary from city to city </li></ul>Figure 5-16 Open attic and truss construction
  34. 34. Mercantile Fires <ul><li>Strip malls made as cheaply as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Barely meet code requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Fire originating in one store of a strip has good chance of communicating to others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can extend into cockloft area and once there, will move horizontally with little or no resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roof ventilation is important </li></ul>
  35. 35. Hotel Fires <ul><li>Not designed with fire safety in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Older hotels built with open stairways and rooms off of corridors with transoms </li></ul><ul><li>HVAC units can circulate hot fire gases throughout the building if unit is not protected with fire dampers </li></ul><ul><li>Not equipped with an eyebrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to prevent or inhibit fire and smoke from lapping into the upper floor(s) in a multistory building </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Industrial Occupancies <ul><li>Vary considerably due to manufacturing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant factory/loft building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for a fast-spreading fire is high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newer manufacturing buildings constructed using concrete tilt-up construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide open void spaces where fire gases can accumulate </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Churches <ul><li>Similar construction </li></ul><ul><li>Large hanging ceilings or cocklofts lead to church’s destruction </li></ul><ul><li>If steeple present, collapse is likely </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety record for church fires is good </li></ul>
  38. 38. Schools <ul><li>Fire drills usually constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvement in the use of fire-resistant construction materials in new schools </li></ul><ul><li>Some schools use modular classrooms </li></ul>
  39. 39. Basement Fires <ul><li>Good location for storage of combustible items </li></ul><ul><li>Can become fully developed and present a very hot, smoky fire situation where visibility is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Long hoses may be required </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of gas ignition </li></ul>
  40. 40. Attic Fires <ul><li>Burn upward </li></ul><ul><li>Respond quickly to proper vertical ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Should be attacked as fast as possible </li></ul><ul><li>As little water as possible should be used </li></ul>
  41. 41. Flat Roofs <ul><li>Attic space is approximately three feet deep and provides open space between underside of roof and top side of ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Always work with wind at your back or side from where the wind is blowing: windward side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps smoke and hot gases downwind </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Peaked Roofs <ul><li>Encourage the use of aerial ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Roof ladder also used if aerial not possible </li></ul><ul><li>Vent hole cut as close to the ridge as possible without damaging the underlying rafters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be made on leeward side </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Carport/Garage <ul><li>Carport: freestanding structure open on all sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carport itself is not serious fire problem because it is constructed using a minimum amount of combustible materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable liquid fires common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Garage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-story: line inside house to prevent extension of the fire into this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-story: direct attack on garage and line upstairs </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Summary <ul><li>Understand basic principles of fire fighting and characteristics of fire behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Three efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confine the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguish the fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine type of attack necessary </li></ul>

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