Duck n quail


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duck rearing , benefits and constraints, quail types and its rearing

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Duck n quail

  1. 1. Raising Ducks and Quails for profit Dr. Sushil Prasad University Professor, L.P.M Ranchi Veterinary College
  2. 2. WATERFOWALS: DOMESTIC DUCK RARMING IN INDIA <ul><li>Domestic ducks (Platyrhynchos domesticus) are decedents of wild mallard ducks. </li></ul><ul><li>India is largely traditional enterprise among farming community. Free range and backyard duck keeping is normal practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Duck farming in the Central Poultry Development Organization (Southern Research) Hissarghatta, Bangalore is under closed high bio security system. This farm was developed in collaboration with United Kingdom in 1987 and is continuing with the selective duck breeding from Vietnam in 1996. During the last 20 years since 1990-91 till 2008-09 at total of 1.8 millions duckling were produced at this farm at an average of 90.000 annually. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Population and Production Profile of Ducks in India <ul><li>The population of ducks as per last three censuses in India is given at table3. A quick look at the duck population during the last three censuses show some variation mainly due to a surge in improved ducks, some so in duckling, during 1997 census resulting in nearly 7% increase in total population of ducks over 1992. The desi ducks & duckling population has since increased by about 8 % in 2003 but the overall total duck population had dipped by 0.5% over 1997 mainly due to steep decline by nearly 27% improved drakes and duckling and about 11% ducks. The reasons for such decline are yet not known. The proportion of ducks to poultry has also undulated at 7.2%, 8.9% and 6.1% during 1992, 1997 and 2003 censuses respectively( AHS, 2006;2009) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cont… <ul><li>India has a population of 36 million ducks (FAO 2008) and ducks occupy an important position next to chicken. They are mainly concentrated in coastal regions especially southern and north eastern states of the country. In India 90-95 percent of dicks are indigenous or non descript types which are heady with high egg production and highly suitable for extensive system of rearing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Important Duck breeds <ul><li>Khaki Campbell </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Runner </li></ul><ul><li>White Pekin </li></ul><ul><li>Muscovy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Important varieties <ul><li>Chara and Chembali (Kuttanad ducks of Kerala) </li></ul><ul><li>Sythet mete and Nageswari (Eastern region) </li></ul><ul><li>Aarani ducks (Tamil Nadu) </li></ul><ul><li>Desi variety of West Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>Pati, Deo, Cinahabh and Raj Hanh verities (Assam) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Commercial broiler Ducks <ul><li>Commercial broiler duck production in India started with the commercial name of Vigova super M during 90’s Parent stock were distributed in 3 centers acorn India. Broiler duck are fast growing birds they attain their adult body weight by 6 – 8 weeks. It is observed that even up to 3 kg body weight in possible at 8 weeks in ideal condition. In China and Korea the farming is very intensive similar to broiler chicken </li></ul>
  10. 10. Choices of Breeds <ul><li>The table varieties like White Pekin and Minicos grow fast and attain 3 to 3.5 kg body weight at weeks of age with feed conversion of 3 to 3.5 kg gain. The Khaki Campbell and Indian Runner are efficient egg – laying varieties producing 250 to 300 eggs per year. They weight between 2 – 2.5 kg on maturity. Farmer can choose from these varieties depending on type of production (meat and egg) required. </li></ul>
  11. 11. General Care and Management <ul><li>Brooding </li></ul><ul><li>Rearing of adult ducks </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul>
  12. 12. A tentative plan for setting up a duck farm for eggs of Khaki Campbell variety Capacity 1000 birds <ul><li>Fixed Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Land & Building </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Land 1000 sq. Meter (agricultural land) 1, 00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Cost of acquisition and development @ 25% 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li> Total Rs. 1, 25,000 (c) Pond 5,000 sq. Meter @ Rs. 75/- per cubic meter (i.e. 500×2×3) 75,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Building </li></ul><ul><li>Shed 300 sq. Meter @ Rs 500/- per sq. Meter 1,25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Store / Office 15 sq. Meter @ Rs. 500/- per sq. Meter 7,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary fencing 140 meter @ Rs. 500/- per sq. Meter 35,000 </li></ul><ul><li> Total (C+D) Rs. 2, 67,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Total expenditure on land, building and pond ( A +B+C+D) 3,67,500 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cont… <ul><li>Equipments </li></ul><ul><li>Brooder 4 No. Each of 250 ducklings @ Rs. 500/- 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal feeder one meter in length 40 Nos. @ 100 each 4,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal feeder big size 50 Nos. @ Rs. 150 each 7,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Egg trays 100 Nos. @ Rs. 5 each 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Weighing balance 500 </li></ul><ul><li> Total Rs. 14,500 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed capital investment : 3,92,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Land, building and pond 14,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 4, 06,000 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cont… <ul><li>Working capital (for one – and – half year) </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Duckling 1,000 @ Rs.15 per ducking 15,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Feed 80 tones @ Rs. 12,000 9, 60,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Wages (self employment) </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Utility and overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity charge (brooding and two bulbs throughout the period 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine and vaccination @ Rs. 5 each 5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Repair and maintenance 3,000 </li></ul><ul><li> Total Rs. 10, 03,000 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cont… <ul><li>Total capital investment: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Fixed capital 4, 06,500 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Working capital 10, 03,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 14, 09,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of production in one and half year </li></ul><ul><li>Working capital 10, 03,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Interest on capital investment @ 14% (soft loan for agricultural) 2, 10,630 </li></ul><ul><li>For one and half year </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation on equipment @10% 1,400 </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation on building / shed 13,375 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 12, 28,405 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cont… <ul><li>Receipt and profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Receipt from the sale of 2, 87,500 eggs @Rs. 350 per 100 eggs 10, 06,250 </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage value of ducks @ Rs. 100 per duck 1, 00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of 700 Gunny bag @ Rs. 6 / bag 4200 </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of Manure 30 ton @ Rs. 500 /- per ton 15,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 11, 19,200 </li></ul><ul><li>Less: Cost of Production 10, 03,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Profit 1, 16,200 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual profitability 77,466 </li></ul><ul><li>% of profit on sale 7% </li></ul><ul><li>% of return on total capital investment 79.4% </li></ul>
  17. 17. JAPANESE QUAIL <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The quail belongs to the subfamily Phasianidas, in which the eight species of the genus Conurnix are included. There are five improvement varieties of Japanese quail wild type (Pharaoh quail) British range Manchurian golden; English white and Tuxedo. Quails are found widespread throughout the old world. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Quail farming Vs Chicken Farming Quail Chicken Low capital requirement about RS. 50 – 60/ bird. High capital requirement of Rs. 180 – 190/ bird. Quails requires a floor space of 0.2 sq ft/bird Requires 1 to 2.5 sq ft./bird of floor space. It possesses remarkable disease resistance, hence hardly any vaccine are needed. Chicken farming is highly susceptible to common poultry disease and vaccination is must Feed requirement is 25 – 30 gm/ bird/ day. Feed @ 110 – 120 gm/ bird/ day required. 8.5 to 10 kg feed is required to produce 300 eggs with av. egg weight of 10 – 14 gm. 250 – 260 eggs are produced with 42 – 48 kg of feed. The av. weight of egg is 54 – 56 gm. In a year quail produces 25 – 30 times more eggs than its body weight. Hen produces 8 – 9 times more eggs then its body weight. Quail starts laying egg at 6 week and at 10 week attain peak production which continues up to 54 weeks. Hen start laying egg at 20 week and reach peak production at 27 – 29 weeks and continue to lay up to 72 weeks. Broiler quail are sold at 35 days. Chicken broilers are sold at about 42 – 49 days. Less quantity of cholesterol in meat More fat & cholesterol in meat. Quail meat is good for Asthma & those suffering from arthritis. Having no such medical properties. Housing is cheaper, can be reared in multi tier battery cages. Housing is substantially costlier than that in quails. Culled birds fetch more money in term of unit body weight. Culled birds fetch lesser price than quails in terms of init body weight.
  19. 19. ADVANCES IN BREEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF JAJPANESE QUAIL <ul><li>Central Avian Research Institute (ICAR), Izzatnagar, is the premier Institute for introductions of quail farming technology in India. Five pure lines of quails are being maintained at this institute. These lines have been developed adapted for Indian conditions and are being exploited for commercial production of broiler and layer quails. The quail farming is slowly but steadily gaining popularity as it is considered a delicacy for the elite class of society. With the rising income levels, the quails are percolating down in the social strata with increasing demands. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Management of Quail Rearing for Meat Purpose <ul><li>Day–old quail chicks weigh about 7 g and require special care and attention in the first week of their life </li></ul><ul><li>The meat purpose quail chicks reared only upto 5 – 6 weeks which will transfer to the cage after 3 weeks of brooding. The modified battery brooder (five tires) of size 180x120x25 are used and 1.25 cm size litter tray with 25 gauge galvanised iron sheet is placed under the wire netted floor of cage. </li></ul><ul><li>The feeding and watering trays are attached with the cages that will be used after 2 weeks of initial feeding and watering inside the cages </li></ul><ul><li>500 chicks can accommodate in each battery upto the age of 5 to 6 weeks. For an all in and all out operation there is no need to shift them to grower battery or on to the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>No vaccination has been advocated. But, preventive measures to keep the premise disease free must be taken and diseased birds should be culled and destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of bacterial and protozoal infections such as; salmonellosis , colibaccillosis or coccidiosis, treatment with proper medicine in wa ter on advice, are effective. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Method of sex- identification <ul><li>Vent method </li></ul><ul><li>Feather sexing </li></ul><ul><li>Cloacal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Egg Production </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Health coverage </li></ul>
  22. 22. Different Japanese quail line developed at CARI, Izatnagar <ul><li>CARI UTTAM </li></ul><ul><li>CARI PEARL </li></ul><ul><li>CARI SWETA </li></ul><ul><li>CARI UJJWAL </li></ul><ul><li>CARI Brown </li></ul>
  25. 25. Economic Aspects of Quail Rearing <ul><li>Capacity : 2000 quail per lot ( 5 weeks rearing and 10 days of cleaning and disinfection of cages and shed) i.e. 16,000 quails per years </li></ul><ul><li>A. Fixed Cost Rs. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Land and Building – 120sq. meter of already constructed poultry pens 60,000 </li></ul><ul><li>@ Rs. 500 per sq. meter on agricultural land. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Equipments </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Brooder cum grower batteries - 4 nos. @ RS. 5000 each 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Feeder plate - 40 Nos. @ Rs. 10 each 400 </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Water set – 40 Nos. @ Rs. 15 each 600 </li></ul><ul><li> Total Rs. 21,000 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cont… <ul><li>B. Working capital (1+2) 81,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1. Raw material </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Day - old quails – 2,200 (including 10% mortality) 11,000 </li></ul><ul><li>@ Rs. 5 each </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Ration for starter and grower quail @ 400 g per chick upto 16,000 </li></ul><ul><li>5 – 6 weeks of age @ Rs. 2000 per quintal (27 and 24% cp in the Ration, 8×650). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wages – self employed </li></ul><ul><li>  3. Utility and overheads </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Electricity charges 500 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Water charges 200 </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Veterinary aid 500 </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Other expenses 500 </li></ul><ul><li>------------ </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 28,700 </li></ul><ul><li>­­­­­­­­­­­­ </li></ul><ul><li>Total working capital (1+2+3) 28,700 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cont… <ul><li>Total capital investment for the year </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed capital 81, 000 </li></ul><ul><li>Working capital ( Rs. 28,700 x 8) 2, 29,600 Total Rs. 3, 10, 600 </li></ul><ul><li>  Cost of Production per Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Working capital for one year 2, 29,600 </li></ul><ul><li>Interest on total capital investment @ 14% 32,144 </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation on building @ 5% 3,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation on equipment @ 10% 2,100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 2, 66,844 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cont… <ul><li>Receipt and Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Sale of quails – 16,000 @ Rs. 15 per bird weighing about 40, 0000 </li></ul><ul><li>Weighing about 120 – 130 g each </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Sale of manure 3,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs. 4, 03,000 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  (c) Less: Cost of production 2, 66,844 </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Annual profitability 13, 6,156 </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Per cent profit on sale 34% </li></ul><ul><li>(f) Per cent return on total capital investment 130% </li></ul>
  29. 29. THANKS