Fluid And Electrolytes Burns G.U.


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Fluid And Electrolytes Burns G.U.

  1. 1. Irene M. Magbanua, RN Review Specialist FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
  2. 2. Average daily water intake and output of normal adult water in food- 1000 Urine- 1500 water ingested- 1200 Feces-150 water from oxidation- 300 Lungs -350 2500 Skin-500 2550 W a t e r Water constitutes over 50% of an individual’s weight Infant- 70-80% Adult 50-60% Geriatric 45-55% Water requirement= 2500cc/day; minimum of 1500 cc/day
  3. 3. <ul><li>Fluid compartments </li></ul><ul><li>1. Intracellular - within cells- 70% body water </li></ul><ul><li>2. Extracellular - outside cells -30% body water </li></ul><ul><li>a. interstitial- area around cells- 24% body water </li></ul><ul><li>b. intravascular- area within body vessels- 6% body water </li></ul><ul><li>Function of water and fluids: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of normal body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Making possible all transportation within the body </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Fluid Transport between Vascular and Interstitial Spaces </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Fluid Transport between Vascular and Interstitial Spaces </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Electrolytes ( mEq ) </li></ul><ul><li>salts or minerals in body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>contain electrically charged particles called ions </li></ul><ul><li>principal source of osmotic forces which control volume or location of fluid </li></ul>Cations- positively charged; Na, K, Ca, Mg Anions- negatively charged; CL, HCO3, PO4
  7. 7. Types of Solution 1. Hypertonic- exerts greater concentration of particles outside than inside the cell; cells shrink e.g. D51/2NS, D5 NS, D5 LR, 3%NS, 5%NS 2. Hypotonic- exerts lesser concentration of particles outside than inside the cells; cells swell e.g. 1/2 NS, 1/4 NS, 1/3 NS, 2.5% Dextrose, D5W 3. Isotonic- same concentration of particles inside and outside the cell; no change on size and shape of cells eg. Normal Saline, Lactated Ringer’s
  8. 8. Care of Clients with Burns Irene M. Magbanua, RN Professiomal Review Specialist
  9. 9. <ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>wounds caused by excessive exposure to thermal, electrical, chemical and radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><li>usually secondary to carelessness or ignorance </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Nursing Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>1. ABC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Burn Location </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul>2. Tetanus immunization
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. TBSA- Total Body Surface Area </li></ul><ul><li>a. Berkow formula </li></ul><ul><li>calculated on the basis of the client’s age </li></ul><ul><li>changes that occur in proportion of the head and legs to the rest of the body as the individual grows </li></ul><ul><li>arms and trunk have a fixed proportion throughout life </li></ul>Eg. Head: 1yo = 19%; 1-4yo = 17%; 5-9yo =13%; 10-14yo = 11%; 15yo = 9%; adult = 7%
  12. 12. <ul><li>B. Lund and Browder Chart </li></ul><ul><li>thought to be more accurate </li></ul><ul><li>takes into account changes in % of burned surface at various stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>C. Rule of Nine </li></ul><ul><li>useful for immediate appraisal of the burned area </li></ul><ul><li>body is divided into areas, each represents 9% of or multiples </li></ul><ul><li>of 9 </li></ul>
  13. 14. Classifications of Burns: 1. Major- partial thickness> 25% or full thickness > 10% 2. Moderate- partial thickness 15-25% or full thickness <10% 3. Minor- partial thickness <15% or full thickness < 2%
  14. 15. Categories of burn depth: 1. Partial thickness a. Superficial Partial Thickness (First degree) depth: epidermis cause: sunburn, splashes of hot liquid sensation: painful characteristic: erythema, blanching on pressure, no vesicles
  15. 16. B. Deep Partial Thickness (second degree) depth: epidermis and dermis cause: flash, scalding or flame burn sensation: very painful characteristic: fluid filled vesicles, red, shiny, wet after vesicle rupture
  16. 17. 2. Full thickness (third and fourth degree) depth: all skin layers and nerve endings, may involve muscles, tendons and bones cause: flame, chemicals, scalding, electric current sensation: little or no pain characteristic: wound dry, white, leathery, or hard tissue *eschar- leathery or hard tissue due to loss of blood supply
  17. 18. Nursing Management in Different Stages of Burns : 1. Emergent phase- remove person from source of burn Goals: relief of pain, minimize contamination, transport a. Thermal- stop, drop and roll; flame off b. Smoke inhalation- ensure patent airway c. Chemical- remove clothing that contains chemical; lavage with copious amounts of water d. Electrical- shut off source of electricity; note entry or exit wound
  18. 19. <ul><li>Nursing Interventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure patent airway </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap in dry, clean sheet or blanket or prevent contamination of wound </li></ul><ul><li>Provide warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Provide IV route if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Transport immediately </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>2. Shock Phase- 1 st 24-48 hrs post burns </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid shift from plasma to interstitial fluid= hypovolemia; fluid also moves to areas that normally have little or no fluid (third spacing) </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration, decreased BP, increased pulse, decreased urinary output, thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, increased hematocrit, metabolic acidosis, loss of HCO 3 ions </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>3. Fluid remobilization or Diuretic phase (2-5 days post-burns) </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid returnsto vascular compartments </li></ul><ul><li>Increased BP, increased urinary output </li></ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>4. Convalescent phase </li></ul><ul><li>Starts when diuresis is completed and wound healing begins </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, waxy-white appearance of full-thickness burn changing to dark brown; wet, shiny, serous exudate in partial thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Hyponatremia </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Nursing Interventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide relief or control pain </li></ul><ul><li>Administer analgesic or narcotics (morphine sulfate) 30 mins before wound care </li></ul><ul><li>Position burns to alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor alterations in fluid-electrolyte balance </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor foley catheter output hourly (30 cc/hr) </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh daily </li></ul><ul><li>Administer water or colloids </li></ul><ul><li>Promote maximal nutritional status </li></ul><ul><li>Wound care done 1hr before meals </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wound infection </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Biologic dressing- used to cover large denuded areas </li></ul><ul><li>Grafts- autograft, allograft, xenograft or heterograft </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled sterile environment </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotherapy not more than 30 mins to prevent electrolyte loss </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfamylon, silvadene, silver nitrate, betadine, gentamycin applied using sterile technique </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent GI complications </li></ul><ul><li>Provide client teaching and discharge plan </li></ul><ul><li>Escharotomy- lengthwise incision through eschar to allow expansion of skin as edema forms </li></ul><ul><li>Fasciotomy- surgical incision done on underlying tissues or muscles to explore for viability </li></ul>
  23. 24. Care of Client with Problems Related to the Genitourinary System Irene M. Magbanua, RN Professional Review Specialist
  24. 25. <ul><li>Renal functions: Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain constancy of internal environment by regulating water and electrolyte content and acid base balance </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve appropriate amounts of essential substances vital to normal cell function </li></ul><ul><li>Excrete waste products of metabolism, toxic substances, and drugs in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine role- production of renin, erythropoietin and prostaglandin </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism of vitamin D </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Manifestations of impaired renal function: </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal urinary volume </li></ul><ul><li>Oliguria-< 500ml/24hr </li></ul><ul><li>Anuria- <250ml/ 24hr; renal shutdown, decrease filtartion secondary to renal disease, hypotension, dehydration, decreased renal blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Polyuria- volume >2000ml/24hr </li></ul><ul><li>Pollakuria- abnormally frequent urination </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturia- frequent urination at night </li></ul><ul><li>Isosthernuria- kidneys cannot concentarte urine </li></ul><ul><li>Strangury- desire to pass urine but not received by micturition </li></ul><ul><li>Incontinence- true, false, paradoxical overflow; stress related </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Abnormal urine color Abnormal constituents in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal constituents in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Albuminuria- presence of albumin in the urine secondary to inflammation and damage to glomeruli </li></ul><ul><li>Hematuria- presence of blood (RBC) in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Azotemia- metabolic wastes accumulated in blood, increased urea, creatinine and uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Uremia- symptomatic elevation of metabolic waste products in urine; a state or complex of symptoms reflecting failure of kidneys to excrete metabolic wastes and excess substances </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Fluid, electrolyte and pH imbalance- edema, metabolic acidosis- failure of kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions with increased sodium, phosphate and ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Vital signs- increased BP in renal insufficiency; pulse weak, dyspnea in pulmonary edema; kussmaul breathing in acidosis; breath- uremic or ammoniacal odor in advanced renal failure, fever </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal- anorexia, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, hiccups in advanced renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Headache- secondary hypertension and cerebral edema </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Visual disturbances- papilledema and retinal hemorrhages </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological- irritability, lethargic and drowsy, disoriented to comatose; convulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Skin changes- yellowish brown discoloration dryness or scaliness, pruritus and urea frost (uremic frost) excreted by sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>Hematological- dec erythropoeisis leading to anemia and bleeeding tendencies- petechiae, purpura </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Diagnostic Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Urine examination or analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Routine- midstream first voided urine </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile or catheterized </li></ul><ul><li>24 hours- collection starts at second voided urine </li></ul><ul><li>Residual </li></ul><ul><li>Blood examination or chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>CBC </li></ul><ul><li>BUN </li></ul><ul><li>Creatinine </li></ul><ul><li>Uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Radiologic </li></ul><ul><li>KUB (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)- identifies number and size of kidney, ureters, bladder, tumors, malformation,. Calculi </li></ul><ul><li>IVP (Intravenous Pyelography)- fluoroscopic visualization of kidney after dye injection via IV </li></ul><ul><li>Cystography or cystoscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Prep- NPO 6-8 hrs with premedications like nubain, valium </li></ul><ul><li>PSP (phenolsuphthalein)- checks the secretory ability of the kidneys; urine expected to be red </li></ul><ul><li>Renal angiography </li></ul><ul><li>Percuatneous renal biopsy </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Common Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Urolithiasis- presence of stones anywhere in the urinary tract; often in men 20- 55yo; more in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Diet- large amount of calcium, oxalate, uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Increased uric acid levels </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle, immobility </li></ul><ul><li>Family history of gout or calculi or hyperparathyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic- xanthine, cystine stone </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal or flank pain </li></ul><ul><li>Renal colic </li></ul><ul><li>Hematuria </li></ul><ul><li>Cool moist skin </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Nursing Interventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Strain all urine with gauze or strainer </li></ul><ul><li>Crush all clots </li></ul><ul><li>Force fluids 3000-4000cc/ day </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage ambulation to prevent stasis </li></ul><ul><li>Relieve pain by analgesics or moist heat </li></ul><ul><li>I and O </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Classification of Stones: </li></ul><ul><li>Acid stones- uric acid, cystine. Xanthine </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline stones- phosphate, calcium, oxalate </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Nursing Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Modified diet </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline ash- for acid stones; vegetables, fruits, except prunes, plums and cranberries </li></ul><ul><li>Acid ash- for alkaline stones; cranberries, prunes and plums, meat fish, eggs, whole grain; limit milk </li></ul><ul><li>*avoid oxalates- tea, chocolate, spinach </li></ul><ul><li>*avoid purine- liver,brain, kidneys, shell fish, legumes </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Allopurinol or zyloprim- decrease uric acid production; enhance excretion of uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Lithotripsy- crushing of stone </li></ul><ul><li>ESWL- Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy </li></ul><ul><li>Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Lithopalaxy </li></ul><ul><li>Pyelithotomy, Nephrolithotomy, Utero-lithotomy, Cystolithotomy </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Bladder Cancer- most common Ca in urinary tract; incidence- men 50-70 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing Factors: exposure to chemical especially, aniline dye, cigarette smoking and chronic bladder infection </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing Management </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Cystectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Uterosigmoidostomy </li></ul><ul><li>Ileal conduit </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy- hyperplasia and overgrowth of smooth muscles and connective tissues of the prostate glaned; most common problem of male reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence: 50% men over 50; 75% men over 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: hormonal mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms- nocturia, frequency, decrease force and amount of urinary system, hesitancy, hematuria, increased alkaline phosphatase </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing mgt: </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Proscar </li></ul><ul><li>Prostacatheter </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>TURP Trans Urethral Resection of Prostate </li></ul><ul><li>Suprapubic Prostatectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Retropubic Prostatectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Perineal Prostatectomy </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Nursing Care in Cystolysis (CBI- Continuous Bladder Irrigation): </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain patency of the catheter system </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor appearance of urine; red to light pink (24hrs) to amber or tea-colored (3days) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor for signs of water intoxication; prevent water intoxication by using saline solution </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid enemas and rectal temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Used prescribed medications like analgesics and antispasmodics </li></ul><ul><li>After catheter removal, monitor output for signs of urinary retention; monitor for continence; perineal exercise (kegel’s) if with dribbling; encourage frequent voiding and increased fluid intake </li></ul>
  41. 42. 4. Renal Failure- state of total or nearly total loss of kidney function Acute Renal Failure- sudden inability of the kidneys to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and remove toxic products from the body; reversible Causes: a. Pre-renal- factors interfering with perfusion and resulting in decreased blood flow and glomerular filtrate, ischemia and oliguria b. Intra-renal- conditions that cause damage to nephrons c. Postrenal- mechanical obstruction from tubules to urethra
  42. 43. Phases: 1. Onset- period precipitating event to development of oliguria 2. Oliguria ( to anuria)- urinary output less 400ml 3. Diuretic- gradual return of GFR and BUN level 4. Convalescent- renal function stabilizes with gradual improvement in 3-12 months
  43. 44. Signs and Symptoms: a. oliguria to anuria b. edema c. anorexia d. nausea or vomiting e. leukocytosis f. anemia g. bleeding tendencies h. drowsy i. Muscle twitching and coma (uremic encephalopathy)
  44. 45. Nursing Management a. Fluid and nutrition- limited fluids to 500ml to replace obligatory loss from lungs or skin b. Low protein diet c. Rest d. Precautions: side rails up e. Mouth or skin care f. Pharmacotherapeutics- diuretics g. Dialysis
  45. 46. Chronic Renal Failure- progressive irreversible destruction of kidneys that continues until nephrons are replaced with scar tissues Predisposing Factors: recurrent infections, exacerbations of nephritis, urinary tract obstructions, diabetes, hypertension Signs and Symptoms: a. Electrolyte imbalance b. Cardiovascular- hypertension,left ventricular hypertrophy, CHF c. Hematologic- anemia, decreased erythropoeitin, increased hematocrit and bleeding tendencies
  46. 47. d. Gastro-intestinal- anorexia, nausea, vomiting e. Respiratory- fluid overload, pulmonary edema: “uremic lung” f. Orthopedic- increased Ca elimination, decreased serum Ca, osteodystrophy or osteomalacia g. Dermatological- excoriation or dry skin, uremic frost h. Neurologic- peripheral neuropathy, burning feet; CNS nystagmus, twitching, seizure i. Reproductive-menstrual irregularities impotence, testicular atrophy and decreased sperm count j. Psychological- behavioral and personality changes k. Impaired immunologic system- increased susceptibility to infection
  47. 48. Stages of CRF: 1. Renal impairment 2. Renal insufficiency 3. Renal failure 4. End stage of Renal disease
  48. 49. Nursing Management: 1. Conservative- assess uremia, mental function and supportive; avoid undue fatigue 2. Advanced renal failure- oliguric or uremic phase a. peritoneal dialysis b. hemodialysis c. kidney transplant 3. Dietary- early- no restriction - advanced- low protein Giordano or Giovanette diet- low protein with amino acids
  49. 50. Dialysis- removal by artificial means of metabolic wastes, excess electrolytes and excess fluids Principles: -Diffusion, Osmosis, Ultrafiltration Purposes: 1. To remove excessive amounts of drugs or toxins in poisoning 2. To check serious electrolyte or acid base imbalance 3. To maintain kidney function when renal shutdown occurs 4. To temporarily replace kidney function in patients with acute renal failure and permanently replace in chronic renal failure
  50. 51. Peritoneal Dialysis- introduction of specially prepared dialysate solution into the abdominal cavity where the peritoneum acts as a semi permeable membrane between the dialysate and blood in the abdominal vessels Nursing Interventions: a. Weight pt, VS every 15 mins then every hour b. Patient voids c. Warm dialysate solution to body temperature d. Assist in trocar insertion e. Inflow time, Dwell time and Drain time f. Observe character of dialysate flow
  51. 52. <ul><li>Complications: </li></ul><ul><li>Peritonitis </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Protein loss </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Peritoneal Dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>CAPD- Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>CCPD- Continuous Cycle Peritoneal Dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>IPD- Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Hemodialysis- shunting of blood from client’s vascular system through an artificial dialyzing system and return of dialyzed blood to client’s circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Dialysis coil- acts as a semipermeable mebrane </li></ul><ul><li>Access Routes: </li></ul><ul><li>AV shunt or cannula </li></ul><ul><li>AV fistula </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral or subclavian cannulation </li></ul>
  53. 54. Nursing Interventions: 1. Auscultate for bruit and palpate thrill- check patency 2. Check bleeding 3. Observe arm precaution 4. Avoid restrictive clothing or dressings over site Complications: 1. Hypovolemic Shock 2. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome
  54. 55. Renal transplant pre-requisites 1. Evaluation of patient’s medical immunologic, psychological and social status 2. Should be identical- ABO and HLA compatible Contraindications: 1. Acute infection 2. Malignancy 3. COPD 4. Liver disorder 5. DM 6. Atherosclerosis
  55. 56. Pre-op care: 1. Dialysis to make patient non-toxic 2. Treat all complications 3. Immunosuppressive drug to start 24hrs before transplant; Immuran, Prednisone, Sandimmune 4. Transplanted kidney placed on thigh, usually iliac fossa
  56. 57. Post-op care: 1. Reverse isolation 2. Monitor renal functions 3. Respiratory, therapy, deep breathing and coughing exercises 4. Aseptic wound care 5. Oral hygiene 6.NGT to prevent paralytic ileus 7. Early ambulation 8. Health adjustment process 9. Lifetime-immune suppressive drugs
  57. 58. <ul><li>Complications: </li></ul><ul><li>Acute rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic rejection </li></ul>