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34 authoring tools


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34 authoring tools

  1. 1. AUTHORING  TOOLS  FEATURES  TO  SUPPORT  E-­‐ LEARNING  RESOURCE  CREATION  FIXED  TO  ACCESIBILITY  GUIDELINES:  FROM  A  CRITICAL  VIEW       Ludy  Gélvez,  Juan  Sáenz,  Silvia  Baldiris,  Ramón  Fabregat          Accessibility  Reaching  Everywhere  –  AEGIS  Workshop  and  InternaVonal   Conference  –  Brussels,  Belgium  28-­‐30  November  2011  
  2. 2. ALTER-­‐NATIVA  Project     Programa  de  cooperación  entre  Ins;tuciones  de     Educación  Superior  de  la  Unión  Europea  y     América  La;na  (Alfa  III).      “Referentes  curriculares  con  incorporación     tecnológica  para  facultades  de  educación  en   las  áreas  e  lenguaje,  matemá;cas  y  ciencias   para  atender  poblaciones  en  contextos  de   diversidad”    
  3. 3. ALTER-­‐NATIVA  Project   Curricular   Guidelines   AdapVve   ValidaVon   Infrastructure   ALTER-­‐NATIVA   Accessible   Repository   Network   IntegraVon   Guidelines  
  4. 4. ALTER-­‐NATIVA  Popula;ons   Mul;lingualism  Limited  Access  to  Technology   Hearing  Limita;ons   Visual  Impairment   APen;on  Deficit  
  5. 5. ALTER-­‐NATIVA  Project   Curricular   Guidelines   AdapVve   ValidaVon   Infrastructure   ALTER-­‐NATIVA   Accessible   Repository   Network   IntegraVon   Guidelines  
  6. 6. Some  problems  to  aPack!   Programa  de  cooperación  entre  Ins;tuciones  de   Educación  Superior  de  la  Unión  Europea  y   América  La;na  (Alfa  III).  •  Adequate  Author  Tools  to  support  the  teacher   design  task  in  the  context  of  a  virtual  learning   environment.  •  Adequate  tools  to  support  the  reuse  of   learning  objects  in  the  design  task  of  learning   experience.  
  7. 7. Some  Problems  to  aPack!  •  Technical  Evalua;on  of  eXe  •  Technical  Evalua;on  of  LO  over  distributed   learning  objects  repositories.    
  8. 8. exe  Technical  Evalua;on    •  1.  Valida;on  of  W3C  technologies  (priori;es  1  and  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  2.  Frames  (priori;es  1  and  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  3.  Forms  (priori;es  1  and  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  4.  Textual  alterna;ves  to  mul;media  elements  (priority  1  in  WCAG   1.0.)  •  5.  Headers  (priority  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  6.  Rela;ve  units  in  the  style  sheet  (priori;es  1  and  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  7.  Comprehensible  links  (priority  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  8.  Contrast  (priority  2  for  the  images  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  9.  Seman;c  use  of  colors  (priority  1  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  10.  Content  alignment  of  tables  (priority  2  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  11.  Data  tables  (priority  1  in  WCAG  1.0).  •  12.  Scripts  (priority  1  in  WCAG  1.0).  
  9. 9. Conclusions  about  eXe  •  It   was   observed   that   eXe-­‐Learning   does   not   correctly   use   style   sheets,   because   it   not   formally   validate   the   HTML   code   generated   or   maybe   it   not   complete   a   correct  coding  in  the  style  sheets.    •  The   automa;c   genera;on   of   frames   to   layout   the   content  is  done  incorrectly.  In  this  case  the  frame  has  a   name,  but  it  has  been  generated  automa;cally  and  it  is   not   related   to   its   own   content.   Unfortunately,   this   cannot  be  corrected  in  eXe  without  directly  modifying   the   API   of   the   content   generator,   wriPen   in   Python   programming  language.  
  10. 10. Conclusions  about  eXe  •  The   accessibility   of   forms   created   by   eXe   was   evaluated.   Some   ac;vi;es   of   different   types   were   created  (ques;on  type,  format  fields),  which  in  case   they   are   not   correctly   labeled   then   they   could   establish   accessibility   barriers.   Forms   are   a   basic   element   in   LMS   contents,   they   support   the   interac;on   of   the   user   and   the   service   intended   to   be   used.   In   the   case   of   eXe-­‐Learning,   the   forms   generated   do   not   meet   with   the   specifica;ons   of   accessibility   guidelines.   The   solu)on   lies   in   the   modifica)on  of  the  source  code  of  eXe.  
  11. 11. Conclusions  about  eXe  •  On   the   other   hand,   eXe’s   HTML   editor   does   not  allow  a  correct  use  of  the  sec;on  headers.   The   correct   usage   of   headers   eases   the   naviga;on  of  contents  and  allows  for  seman;c   structure   in   the   web   page’s   contents.   The   elements  h1,  h2…  h6  must  be  used  to  provide   said  structure  and  must  be  used  following  the   internal   hierarchy   (without   skipping,   for   example,   from   h2   to   h4   without   providing   a   header  h3  in  between).  
  12. 12. Conclusions  about  eXe  •  The   links   generated   can   be   formaPed   in   an   accessible   form   with   the   HTML   editor   of   eXe.   Considering   accessibility,   it   is   fundamental   that   the   text   and/or   image   that   make   up   a   link,   meets   its   objec;ve   autonomously.   An   adequate   text   or   an   image   with   an   alterna;ve   descrip;on   guided   in   each   link   is   fundamental   because   some   users   only   look   at   this   element   of   the   Web   to   access   informa;on   they   are   interested   (Sayago   &   Blat,   2004.).   This   happens   to   those   who   browse   the   web   in   devices   with   small   screens   and   those   who   access  Internet  through  a  screen  reader.  
  13. 13. LOR  Accessibility   REGION HERA T.A.W INTAV %ERROR COMMON ERRORS FOUNDNorth 2 2 1 1.25 *1.1. Provide a text equivalent for every non- text element.America 1 0 0 0.25 *6.3. Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, 2 1 1 1 applets, or other programmatic objects are 2 9 2 3.25 turned off or not supported. *8.1. Make programmatic elements such asEurope 1 0 1 0.5 scripts and applets directly accessible or 3 4 3 2.5 compatible with assistive technologies. 1 1 1 0.75 *12.1. Title each frame to facilitate frame 0 0 0 0 identification and navigation.Asia & Africa 0 4 1 1.25 1 1 0 0.5 1 11 1 3.25 0 0 0 0Central & 1 4 2 1.75South 3 3 1 1.75America 1 6 4 2.75 1 1 1 0.75 1,344
  14. 14. LOR  Accessibility   REGION HERA T.A.W INTAV %CRITERIA COMMON CRITERIA TO TO VERIFY VERIFYNorth 9 252 10 65.25 *2.1. Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for exampleAmerica 9 132 11 35.25 from context or markup. 9 93 12 25.5 *4.1. Clearly identify changes in the natural 7 29 10 9 language of a documents text and any textEurope 7 42 10 12.25 equivalents. 8 185 14 48.25 *5.1. For data tables, identify row and column headers. 8 15 6 5.75 *5.2. For data tables that have two or more 7 22 8 7.25 logical levels of row or column headers, useAsia & 0 0 0 0 markup to associate data cells and header cells. 4 5 6 2.25 *6.1. Organize documents so they may be readAfrica without style sheets. 9 74 8 20.75 *6.3. Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, 7 12 8 4.75 applets, or other programmatic objects are turnedCentral & 10 94 10 26 off or not supported.South 8 191 12 49.75 *11.4. If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternativeAmerica 10 72 34 20.5 page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, 7 20 8 6.75 has equivalent information, and is updated as 21.203 often as the inaccessible page.
  15. 15. Conclusions  •  The   use   of   open   source   somware   contribute   to   accessibility.   Even   though   it   does   not   avoid   the   problem   of   inaccessible   content   crea;on,   but   it   facility  the  teacher  task.    •  eXe-­‐Learning  need  to  be  reprogrammed  in  order   to   adjust   HTML   and   CSS   code   to   the   formal   grammar   of   the   W3C.   A   correct   coding   can   be   correctly   interpreted   by   the   user’s   naviga;on   devices   and   par;cularly   by   the   special   devices   used  by  handicapped  people.    
  16. 16. Conclusions  •  The   study   carried   out   over   LOR   provides   an   overview   of   the   current   situa;on   of   the   learning   object   repositories   according   to   accessibility.  The  main  issue  in  this  point  is  to   offer   the   appropriated   forma;on   to   the   designers  of  the  learning  objects  and  services   (teachers,  web  designers  in  the  universi;es)  in   order  to  improve  the  quality  offered.  
  17. 17. Thanks for your attention Programa  de  cooperación  con  América  La;na  Alban Program and the EuropeanU n i o n P ro g r a m o f H i g h L e v e lScholarships for Latin America(scholarship No. E06D103680CO). Spanish Science and Education Ministry for the financial support of A2UN@ project (TIN2008-06862-C04-02/TSI). Group of Broadband Communications and Distributed Systems Institute of Informatics and Applications University of Girona