What is Accessibility ?
Purpose of Accessibility
Assistive Technology Products
Web Accessibility: Web accessibility means designing sites so that
people with disabilities can use them fully. The aim is to ensure that whatever
disability a person may have, they should be able to perceive, understand,
navigate, and interact with the web.
Accessibility Aim: "The power of the Web is in its universality.
Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.“
Accessibility functionality: Accessibility functionality makes content
resources usable by persons with disabilities chiefly through careful attention to the
linearizing of content navigation as well as the separation of presentation style and
actual symbolic content.
They may not be able to see, hear, move, or may not be able to process
some types of information easily or at all.
They may have difficulty reading or comprehending text.
They may not have or be able to use a keyboard or mouse.
They may have a text-only screen, a small screen, or a slow Internet
They may not speak or understand fluently the language in which the
document is written.
They may be in a situation where their eyes, ears, or hands are busy or
interfered with (e.g., driving to work, working in a loud environment, etc.).
They may have an early version of a browser, a different browser entirely, a
voice browser, or a different operating system
Mobility Impaired – Reduced functions of legs and feet
Dexterity Impaired –Reduced functions of arms and hands
Visually Impaired – Total loss of visibility (Blindness)
Hearing Impaired – Profound hearing loss or hard of hearing
Speech Impaired - Fluency or voice volume
Language Impaired – Difficulty to comprehend or express concepts in
Disabled and elderly people contribute 20% in European market and almost
all the other developed countries which is expected to be 25% by the year
About 10 per cent of the world population is disabled.
None of the 15 Indian companies surveyed had websites which met the
international accessibility standards (BS Reporter / New Delhi February 12,
At all stages of a project
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are part of a series
of Web accessibility guidelines published by the W3C's Web
They consist of a set of guidelines on making content accessible,
primarily for disabled users, but also for all user agents, including
highly limited devices, such as mobile phones.
A Web content developer must satisfy this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more
groups will find it impossible to access information in the document. Satisfying this
checkpoint is a basic requirement for some groups to be able to use Web documents.
A Web content developer should satisfy this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more
groups will find it difficult to access information in the document. Satisfying this
checkpoint will remove significant barriers to accessing Web documents.
A Web content developer may address this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more
groups will find it somewhat difficult to access information in the document. Satisfying
this checkpoint will improve access to Web documents.
**Some checkpoints specify a priority level that may change under certain (indicated)
Conformance Level "A": all Priority 1 checkpoints are satisfied;
Conformance Level "Double-A": all Priority 1 and 2 checkpoints
Conformance Level "Triple-A": all Priority 1, 2, and 3 checkpoints
Guideline 1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.
Guideline 2. Don't rely on color alone.
Guideline 3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.
Guideline 4. Clarify natural language usage
Guideline 5. Create tables that transform gracefully.
Guideline 6. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform
Guideline 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes.
Guideline 8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces.
Guideline 9. Design for device-independence.
Guideline 10. Use interim solutions.
Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines.
Guideline 12. Provide context and orientation information.
Guideline 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.
Guideline 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple
Accessibility audit - An accessibility expert reviews your site,
highlighting any accessibility issue
Accessibility testing - Real disabled users complete common tasks
on your website whilst a moderator notes all problems they experience
Automated accessibility testing - An automated program
evaluates your website against accessibility guidelines
All functions should be available via Keyboard.
Information should be visible when the display settings are changed to high
Screen reading tool should be able to read all the text available and every
picture/image should have corresponding alternate text associated.
Product defined keyboard actions should not affect accessibility keyboard
Try using different browsers (Text / Image).
Web accessibility evaluation tools are software programs or online services
that help determine if a Web site meets accessibility guidelines.
Automation tools are big time-saver.
Single tool cannot certify that your product is accessibility compliant. (“N”
number of tools are available)
Only do a partial job
Web Accessibility Toolbar
Web Developer Toolbar
◦ Speech – to – text
◦ Speech to symbolic & pictorial information
◦ Speech to lip movement
◦ Speech to signs (animation)
◦ Musical sounds to visual presentation
◦ Environment sound to visual presentation
Still Pictures >
◦ Tactile presentation of still pictures
◦ Description of still pictures using sounds
◦ Description of still pictures using text
◦ Contrast/Color/Enlargement of still pictures
Moving Pictures >
◦ Description of moving pictures using text
◦ Description of moving pictures using sounds
◦ Gesture – to – text
◦ Text to speech
◦ Text to Braille
◦ Text to graphics/symbols
◦ Text to sign (animation)
◦ Text to lip movements (animation)
◦ Text to gesture
◦ Tactile representation of graphics
◦ Description of graphics using text
Moving Graphics >
◦ Description of moving graphics using text
Wands and sticks