Chapter 14, VA and US Government


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Chapter 14, VA and US Government

  1. 1. Chapter 14: The Presidency in Action <ul><li>Section 1: The Growth of Presidential Power </li></ul>
  2. 2. Vocabulary <ul><li>Executive Article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article II - establishes and gives executive power of the Federal Government to the President </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Imperial Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to describe the president as an emperor who keeps secrets, often used in reference to Nixon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Article II <ul><li>Article II is the EXECUTIVE ARTICLE and says that the executive power of the United States is vested in the President of the United States </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Article II reads like an OUTLINE, it is the most loosely drawn chapter in the Constitution. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Presidential Power Has Grown <ul><li>Over time the champions of a stronger presidency have almost always WON. Reasons include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the President </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Reasons cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and social advances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More industrial and technological society so they need a central unit with more power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Reasons cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for extraordinary and decisive action in times of emergency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has also strengthened the presidential hand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Presidents hold one of two views </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stewardship Theory/Imperial Presidency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are stewards to the people, to do what they can for the people. They can do anything the needs of the country demand unless forbidden by the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Critics of the steward/imperial presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worry that Presidents have become isolated policy makers who are accountable to the American people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 2: The President’s Executive Power <ul><li>Oath of Office </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oath taken by the President on the day he takes office, pledging to “faithfully execute” the office and “preserve, protect, and defend” the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Executive Order </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directive, rule or regulation issued by a president. It has the force of law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ordinance Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power of president to issue executive orders; originates from the Constitution and acts of Congress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>As chief executive, the President executes or ENFORCES, ADMINISTERS, CARRIES OUT the provisions of federal law </li></ul>Executing the Law
  15. 15. <ul><li>This power to execute the law covers all FEDERAL law, examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Armed Forces, Social Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Wage, Gun Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action, Housing, Taxes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In executing and enforcing, the executive branch also interprets it. Congress writes them in fairly BROAD language, giving the executive branch lots of leniency. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ordinance Power <ul><li>The President has the power to issue EXECUTIVE ORDERS </li></ul><ul><li>The power to issue an executive order derives from the CONSTITUTION AND CONGRESS </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution does not mention the ORDINANCE POWER but it is clearly intended or implied </li></ul>
  18. 18. Appointment Power <ul><li>The President cannot hope to SUCCEED without loyal subordinates who support his/her policies </li></ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>With Senate consent, the President names the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassadors and other diplomats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet members and top aides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heads of such independent agencies as the EPA or NASA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal judges, US Marshals, Attorneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All officers in the armed forces </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Removal Power <ul><li>How exactly should they be removed? It does not say anything about it in the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Congress gave the President the power to remove any officer he nominated except federal judges </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>In Myers v US the Supreme Court held that the power of removal was an essential part of the executive power, needed to faithfully execute the laws </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Only can be removed in cases of inefficiency, neglect of duties or malfeasance in office </li></ul><ul><li>As a general rule, the President may remove those whom the President appoints </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 3: Diplomatic and Military Powers <ul><li>VOCAB </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Pact made by a president with the head of a foreign state; binding and counts as law but DOES NOT require Senate approval </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the President to recognize (establish diplomatic relations) with a foreign state </li></ul>
  25. 25. Power to make treaties <ul><li>The President negotiates TREATIES but SENATE must give its approval by 2/3 vote of those present </li></ul><ul><li>Only a relatively SMALL minority in the Senate can kill a treaty </li></ul>
  26. 26. Exec. Agreements <ul><li>The President has a right to make a EXECUTIVE AGREEMENT with the head of a foreign state or between subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike treaties, these do NOT require Senate consent </li></ul>
  27. 27. Recognition <ul><li>The president has the power of RECOGNITION. This indicates that the President acknowledges the legal existence of another country. </li></ul><ul><li>The President may also show American DISPLEASURE with the conduct of another country by asking for a recall of their nation’s ambassador or other diplomatic representative. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Commander in Chief <ul><li>Presidents DELEGATE much of their command authority to military subordinates but they are not required to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents have often used armed forces abroad without a DECLARATION OF WAR. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Many feel that the President must be able to respond rapidly and effectively to threats to the nation’s security. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>War Powers Resolution 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Within 48 hours of committing forces </li></ul><ul><li>the President must report to Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Combat commitment must end within 60 days unless Congress agrees to a longer period </li></ul><ul><li>Congress may end the combat commitment at any time, by passing a concurrent resolution to that effect </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>VOCAB </li></ul><ul><li>Line-Item Veto </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents cancellation of specific dollar amounts (line-items) from a congressional spending bill </li></ul>Section 4: Legislative and Judicial Powers
  32. 32. <ul><li>Reprieve </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postponement of the execution of a sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pardon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal forgiveness of a crime </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Clemency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercy or leniency granted to an offender by the President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Legislative Powers <ul><li>The President has the power to PROPOSE legislation. This is also known as the MESSAGE power </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The president also has the power to deal with a bill. He can do one of four things </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sign It </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veto It </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold it for 10 days while Congress is IN session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Many presidents have wanted the use of a line-item veto power. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996 this passed, but the Supreme Court found it to be UNCONSTITUTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>why? </li></ul><ul><li>it gives the president power to “rewrite a bill” -- which is a legislative power </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The Constitution gives the President the power to </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reprieve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pardon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clemency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commutation </li></ul></ul></ul>Judicial Power
  38. 38. <ul><li>A famous pardon was Ford’s pardon of NIXON. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of granting amnesty: </li></ul><ul><li>Carter granted amnesty in 1977 to all Vietnam War draft dodgers </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>In your opinion, and using things we have talked about.... </li></ul><ul><li>Is the president strong or weak? </li></ul><ul><li>A 1-2 page written assignment </li></ul>