President:bureaucracy review

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President:bureaucracy review

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 14
 The Presidency

  2. 2. 2 The Evolution of the Presidency ■ Concerns of the Founders ■ Did NOT want a King ■ Wanted power to rest with the people ■ Decided on a single executive with powers limited by checks and balances of the legislative and judicial branches Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  3. 3. 3 Presidents and Prime Ministers ■ Presidents are Often Outsiders ■ Presidents Choose Cabinet Members from Outside Congress ■ Presidents Have No Guaranteed Majority in Congress ■ Presidents and Prime Ministers at War Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  4. 4. 4 Divided Government ■ Divided government – One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress ■ Unified government – The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress ■ Does gridlock matter? ■ Is policy gridlock bad?Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  5. 5. 5Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  6. 6. 6 Qualifications Article II of the Constitution ■ Formal ■ natural born citizen ■ at least 35 years of age ■ resident of the US 14 years prior to the election
  7. 7. 7 Historically ■ Shared Characteristics ■ political/military experience ■ married ■ white male ■ protestant ■ north European ancestry
  8. 8. 8 Term and Tenure ■ Single Executive, indirectly elected through an electoral college for a 4 year term. ■ 1951 - 22nd Amendment ■ Limits president to two elected terms
  9. 9. 9 Succession and Disability ■ The Constitution provides that if the president can no longer serve in office, the vice president will carry out the duties and powers of the office ■ 25th Amendment - states that the vice president becomes president if the office becomes vacant or unable to perform duties, and provides for the nomination of a new vice president
  10. 10. 10 Impeachment and Removal ■ The Constitution allows for the removal of the president through the impeachment process ■ The House of Representatives brings charges of wrongdoing ■ The Senate sits in judgment, the chief justice of the Supreme Court presides ■ Conviction requires a 2/3 vote of the Senate
  11. 11. 11 The Road to the White House ■ Succession ■ Election ■ Constitution and 12th Amendment give an electoral college the power to elect the president ■ Electoral College - HOR + Senators + DC ■ Need 270 or HOR chooses
  12. 12. 12Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  13. 13. 13 The Vice Presidency ■ Choice influenced by desire to balance the ticket ■ Constitutionally ■ preside over Senate, cast tie- breaking vote ■ help determine presidential disability under the 25th Amendment ■ terms not limited
  14. 14. 14 Presidential Powers ■ Executive ■ Legislative ■ Diplomatic ■ Military ■ Judicial ■ Party Powers
  15. 15. 15 Executive Powers ■ Enforce laws, treaties, court decisions ■ issue executive orders to carry out policies ■ appoints / removes officials ■ assumes emergency powers ■ presides over the cabinet and executive branch
  16. 16. 16 Legislative Powers ■ Gives annual State of the Union ■ Issues annual budget and economic report ■ Signs or vetoes bills ■ Proposes legislation and uses influence to get it passed ■ Calls for special sessions of Congress
  17. 17. 17 Diplomatic Powers ■ Appoints ambassadors and other diplomats ■ Negotiates treaties and executive agreements ■ Meets with foreign leaders at international conferences ■ Accords diplomatic recognition to foreign governments ■ Receives foreign dignitaries
  18. 18. 18 Military Powers ■ Serves as commander-in-chief of the armed forces ■ Has final decision-making authority in matters of national and foreign defense ■ Provides for domestic order
  19. 19. 19 Judicial Powers ■ Appoints members of the federal judiciary ■ Grants pardons, reprieves, amnesty
  20. 20. 20 Party Powers ■ Recognized leader of the party ■ Chooses Vice-Presidential nominee ■ Strengthens the party by helping members get elected (coattails) ■ Appoints party members to government positions (patronage) ■ Influences policies and platform of the party
  21. 21. 21Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  22. 22. 22 Limitations ■ Congressional Checks ■ override vetoes (2/3) ■ power of the purse (appropriations) ■ impeachment ■ appointment approval ■ legislation to limit (War Powers Act - limit president’s ability to use military force) ■ legislative veto (unconstitutional 1983)
  23. 23. 23 Limitations ■ Judicial - Judicial Review ■ Political Checks ■ public opinion ■ media attention ■ popularity
  24. 24. 24 The Bureaucracy ■ A systematic way of organizing a complex and large administrative structure ■ hierarchical - like pyramid, those at top have authority over those below ■ job specialization - defined duties and responsibilities, division of labor ■ formal rules - established regulations and procedures
  25. 25. 25 History and Growth ■ spoils system - giving offices and government favors to political supporters and friends ■ reform movement - competitive exams were tried but failed due to inadequate funding from Congress ■ Pendleton Act - Civil Service Act of 1883, replaces spoils system with merit system
  26. 26. 26 History and Growth ■ Hatch Act of 1939, amended 1993 - prohibits government employees from engaging political activities while on duty, running for office or seeking political funding while off duty ■ Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 - created the Office of Personnel Management to recruit, train, classify federal employees
  27. 27. 27 Organization ■ Cabinet Departments - 15 executive departments created to advice the president and operate specific policy ■ Independent Executive Agencies - similar to departments but without cabinet status ■ Independent Regulatory Agencies - independent from executive, to regulate or police ■ Government Corporations - business activities, charge for services
  28. 28. 28Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  29. 29. 29 Influences ■ Executive - appointing the right people, issuing executive orders, affecting the agency’s budget ■ Congressional - hearings, legislations, approve appointments, affect budget
  30. 30. 30 Influences ■ Iron Triangle - alliance between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees ■ Issue Networks - interest groups, Congressional staff, think tanks, universities, media that discuss and advocate public policy
  31. 31. 31 Executive Office of the President ■ Established 1939 ■ Includes closest advisors to the president ■ White House Office ■ National Security Council ■ Office of Management and Budget ■ Office of the Vice-President
  32. 32. 32 The Office of the President ■ The White House Office • Pyramid structure • Circular structure • Ad hoc structure ■ The Executive Office of the President ■ The Cabinet ■ Independent Agencies, Commissions, and Judgeships Copyright © 2013 Cengage
  33. 33. 33 Executive Departments (Cabinet) ■ State, Treasury, Defense, Interior, Justice, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security

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