Aim: To what extent can the president exercise their power?
How have Presidential power grown in the last 200 years? </li></ul>
Presidential Power Framers established the presidency and the grants of presidential power via the Constitution - power to command the armed forces - make treaties - approve or veto acts of congress - send and receive diplomatic representation - grant powers and reprieves, "To take care that laws be faithfully executed."
<ul><li>Chief of state : ceremonial head of government of the United States
Chief executive : vested in the Constitution with the “executive power”
Chief administrator : director of the huge executive branch of the Federal Government
Chief diplomat : main architect of American foreign policy and the nations chief spokes person to the rest of the world. </li></ul>The Presidents Jobs <ul><li>Commander in chief : direct and immediate control over the nations entire military
Chief legislator : main architect of nation’s public policies
Chief of party : acknowledged leader of the political party that controls the executive
Chief citizen : expected to be the representative of all the people </li></ul>
<ul><li>There is a never ending debate on whether president should be weaker and subordinate to the Congress or stronger and independent. The Framers were afraid of imperial presidency .
The dispute began during the Philadelphia convention in 1787. Which established a single executive, chosen independently of Congress with it's own distinct powers. </li></ul>
Growth of Presidential Power <ul><li>grants of power have grown over the past 200 years because it is easy to expand the presidential power:
- the office and it's powers are held by one person vs. the Congress which has two houses that need to agree before anything happens
-the country becomes more industrial and technologically advanced which leads to people relaying more on the Federal Government to take larger roles, especially relying on the president
-need to take immediate and decisive action in times of crisis and war </li></ul>
Publicity Congress also plays part in the presidents action because they are responsible for carrying out the executive branches law. Presidents attract public attention and build support for their policies and actions through uses of mass media forms such as radio, television, and internet.
<ul><li>President does not have power to control whatever they want and have gone to court many times for over stepping their boundaries.
A labor dispute threatened to shut down the nation’s steel industry and hurt the war effort in Korea. In order to prevent a strike, President Harry Truman ordered that the Secretary of Commerce seize and operate several steel mills. The Supreme Court said that he was overstepping his constitutional authorities because only Congress could authorize private property in time of war. </li></ul>Limits of the Presidency
Presidential Power: There are two contrasting points <ul><li>strong presidential power
- do everything for the people without looking for the authorization as long as there are no rules against it in the Constitution or by laws. - important issues are dealt with faster than if they were brought to Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>against strong power
- condemns imperial presidency: president taking strong action without consulting Congress - worry presidents have become isolated policy makers who are not really accounted through their Congress representatives anymore </li></ul>
Executing the Law <ul><li>- There are two provisions, one of them is the Oath of Office. The other is to make sure that the laws will be “faithfully executed”. The Oath of Office is a constitutional provision in which the president swears to “preserve, protect, and defend the constitution”.
- The president must execute all federal laws. It does not matter what his/her views are on the law.
- Most of the laws Congress passes are very broad, they do no go into specific detail. It is up to the Executive Branch to work it out . </li></ul>
The Ordinance Power <ul><li>Ordinance of Power : The reason why the president can pass an executive order. It comes from the Constitution and acts of Congress. Ordinance power is clearly intended in the constitution. Article II, Section 2.
Since the president is given certain powers, in order for him/her to use them, the president must be allowed to issue necessary orders. </li></ul>
Appointment Powers <ul>The President has the power to appoint “loyal subordinates” who will support the president’s policies such as the vice president, members of the House and Senate, as well as presidential electors. Appointees are named the top ranking officers and with the senate’s consent, are granted their positions. These are: <li>Ambassadors and other diplomats.
All federal Judges, U.S marshals and attorneys. </li></ul>
Nominations <ul>When president appoints people to work in Congress, the nomination goes to senate, where they confirm it Senate Nominations Committee Hearing Senate Debate President's staff Nomination goes to the Senate consults looks for an acceptable Senate committee. the nomination. acceptable Nominee testifies, and other They say how candidate; experts are called to testify they feel before submits choice for and against the nominee. a floor veto is to senate. Majority is needed in order is taken. for the nominee to be sent to the Senate . The Congress then Conforms or Rejects the Nomination </ul>
<ul>The constitution does not say how or who can dismiss appointed officers. The law states that a member of commission can only be removed for “inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office” Congress does not have the power to remove a member of the FTC and other agencies that are removed by the President. </ul>Removal of Office