Section 6:  Powers of the Presidency <ul><li>What powers does the executive branch have? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Powers of the President Alone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Com...
<ul><li>Cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convene Congress in special sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive am...
<ul><li>Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wield “executive power” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint officials to l...
<ul><li>Powers Shared with Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make Treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint Amba...
<ul><li>Power shared with Congress as a whole (House and Senate) </li></ul><ul><li>Approve legislation </li></ul>
<ul><li>Taken alone and interpreted narrowly this list is not very impressive.  </li></ul><ul><li>This interpretation has ...
<ul><li>Executing the law </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executes, enforces, and carries out the provisions of federal law </li...
<ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executes all federal laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also interprets law....
<ul><li>Laws of Congress are written in broad terms, executive branch must set out basic policies in day-to-day usage </li...
<ul><li>Ordinance Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to issue executive orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An e...
<ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President needs loyal subordinates to presidential policies </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Removal Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Senate have to give consent to remove someone from office or does t...
<ul><li>Power to make treaties </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal agreement between two or more sovereign states </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Executive Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pact between the president and a foreign state </li></ul></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Power of Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the legal existence of a country and its government </l...
<ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost without limit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates mo...
<ul><li>Congress has not declared war since WWII.  </li></ul><ul><li>It has enacted joint resolutions to authorize the pre...
<ul><li>Where it has used force </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Militar...
<ul><li>President has used forces without military joint resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan in Grenada </li></ul...
<ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave president broad powers to commit unlimited numbers o...
<ul><li>War Powers Act -  </li></ul><ul><li>President must be able to respond rapidly but not drag US into undeclared or i...
<ul><li>ii.  Combat must end within 60 days unless Congress agrees to longer.  It can be extended up to 30 days to allow f...
<ul><li>Recommend legislation in the State of the Union (message power) </li></ul><ul><li>Three major messages to Capitol ...
<ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.  Sign It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Pocket veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Line-Item Veto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 - Gives president power to reject individual items in spending bills and...
<ul><li>Line-Item cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Budget Impoundment Control Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President can refuse to spend money appropriated by Congr...
<ul><li>Impoundment cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Constitution is silent on whether President MUST spend that money ...
<ul><li>Budget Impoundment Control Act 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>requires president to spend all appropriated funds unless he...
<ul><li>Grant Reprieves (postponement of execution of a sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>Grant Pardons (legal forgiveness) </li...
<ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Executive Privilege </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution says nothing about whether the president has to divulge...
<ul><li>US v Nixon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1973 - Watergate Tapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court to d...
<ul><li>US v Nixon cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is ok to use if the  information is so sensitive that it requires pro...
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Section 6 of the Executive Branch Unit

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Section 6 of the Executive Branch Unit

  1. 1. Section 6: Powers of the Presidency <ul><li>What powers does the executive branch have? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Powers of the President Alone </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commission officers in the armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grant reprieves and pardons (except for impeached persons) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convene Congress in special sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive ambassadors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take care that laws are faithfully executed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wield “executive power” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint officials to lesser offices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Powers Shared with Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make Treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint Ambassadors, judges, and high officials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Power shared with Congress as a whole (House and Senate) </li></ul><ul><li>Approve legislation </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Taken alone and interpreted narrowly this list is not very impressive. </li></ul><ul><li>This interpretation has grown, especially using the “faithfully executed” clause, its seen as elastic </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Executing the law </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executes, enforces, and carries out the provisions of federal law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rests on the oath of office that “laws be faithfully executed” </li></ul></ul></ul>Executive Powers
  9. 9. <ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executes all federal laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also interprets law. The president can use his discretion with how vigorously and in what particular way a law will be applied in practice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Laws of Congress are written in broad terms, executive branch must set out basic policies in day-to-day usage </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ordinance Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to issue executive orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An executive order is a rule or directive issued by the president...sort of like a law, but NOT a law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Appointment Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President needs loyal subordinates to presidential policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, Cabinet Ministers, heads to independent agencies, Judges, US Marshals, Attorneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senatorial Courtesy applies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Removal Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Senate have to give consent to remove someone from office or does the President have this discretion? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Rule - President can only remove those that he appoints (EXCEPT FEDERAL JUDGES) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Power to make treaties </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal agreement between two or more sovereign states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate must give approval by two-thirds present before a treaty made by the president can become effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treaties have the same legal standing as a law (last enacted is the law) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Executive Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pact between the president and a foreign state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require Senate consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must flow out of legislature already passed, usually routine matters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Power of Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the legal existence of a country and its government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persona non grata - recall that nations ambassadors an unwelcome person or remove ours from their nation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost without limit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates most of command authority to military subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents often use armed forces abroad without a declaration of war </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Congress has not declared war since WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>It has enacted joint resolutions to authorize the president to meet certain international crises with military force </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Where it has used force </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Reaction to the Berlin Wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive Iraq out of Kuwait 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use force against those responsible for 9/11 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2002- what is necessary and appropriate to remove threat posed by Hussein </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>President has used forces without military joint resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan in Grenada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Panama in 1989 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balkans in 1995 and 1999 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave president broad powers to commit unlimited numbers of troops for an unlimited amount of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never really a success with LBJ or post-LBJ era presidents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>War Powers Act - </li></ul><ul><li>President must be able to respond rapidly but not drag US into undeclared or illegal war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. Within 48 hours of committing troops to combat abroad president must report to Congress detailed circumstances and scope </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>ii. Combat must end within 60 days unless Congress agrees to longer. It can be extended up to 30 days to allow for safe withdrawal of American forces </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Congress may end the combat commitment at any time by passing a concurrent resolution </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Recommend legislation in the State of the Union (message power) </li></ul><ul><li>Three major messages to Capitol Hill each year, first is the State of the Union </li></ul>Legislative and Judicial Powers
  25. 25. <ul><li>Veto Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Sign It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Pocket veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Not signed within 10 days - law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto it </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Line-Item Veto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 - Gives president power to reject individual items in spending bills and to eliminate any provisions of a tax bill that benefits fewer than 100 people </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Line-Item cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the president legislative power, not keeping the branches separate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Budget Impoundment Control Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President can refuse to spend money appropriated by Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. JFK did not spend money appropriated for a new weapons system or LBJ did not spend all appropriated for highway constructions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Impoundment cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Constitution is silent on whether President MUST spend that money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon impounded funds under laws he had not vetoed...Congress was mad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to Budget Impoundment Control Act 1974 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Budget Impoundment Control Act 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>requires president to spend all appropriated funds unless he first tells Congress which he wishes not to spend and within 45 days Congress deletes it </li></ul><ul><li>Federal courts have upheld that the president must spend what has been appropriated </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Grant Reprieves (postponement of execution of a sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>Grant Pardons (legal forgiveness) </li></ul><ul><li>Commutation - a change of legal punishment to a lesser one </li></ul>Judicial Powers
  32. 32. <ul><li>Amnesty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex 1977- Carter granted amnesty to Vietnam War draft dodgers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Executive Privilege </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution says nothing about whether the president has to divulge private communications between himself and principle advisors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should he have this right? It could weaken the number of officials the pres can speak to in confidence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>US v Nixon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1973 - Watergate Tapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court to decide on executive privilege directly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no unqualified executive privilege from the judicial process but there might be a sound basis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>US v Nixon cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is ok to use if the information is so sensitive that it requires protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watergate tapes were not sensitive materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinton and Paula Jones (Clinton v Jones) - no immunity from civil litigation </li></ul></ul></ul>

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