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Key New Media Theories
OLD MEDIA
The ‘Media Gods’
Passive Audience
‘Appointment to view’
Expensive
Separate Platforms
Centralized
Wasted Time/Cog...
NEW MEDIA
Global Village
‘Cool Media’
OLD MEDIA
The Gutenberg Galaxy
‘Hot’ Media
Marshall McLuhan
The Medium is the
Messag...
NEW MEDIA
Lean Forward
‘Lean back 2.0’ OLD MEDIA
Lean back
Nielsen
Lean Forward, Lean Back
As opposed to
‘On the Web, user...
Nielsen: Lean Forward/Lean Back
Different communication
protocols.
Competing (expensive)
commercial software
Military/Scientific/Academic
users
URLs
Every...
Includes all, irrespective
of wealth, social status,
or geography Monopolies (like Google)
Concentrate power and make
the ...
Open source software
(Linux, HTML)
Common Standards
(W3C consortium)
Copyrighted commercial
software.
Tim Berners Lee
OPEN...
Includes all, irrespective
of wealth, social status,
or geography Information Poor
& Information Rich
Tim Berners Lee
INCL...
Secure encryption
Freedom of expression State surveillance (eg PRISM)
State Censorship
Tim Berners Lee
PRIVACY,FREE
EXPRES...
NEW MEDIA
Automated ‘Creativity’
Database logic
Variable Texts
Personalised Information
Lev Manovich ‘DATABASE’ MEDIA
As o...
NEW MEDIA
CONVERGENCE CULTURE
PARTICIPATORY CULTURE
COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE
OLD MEDIA
SEPARATE MEDIA
PLATFORMS
PASSIVE AUD...
Aleks Krotoski: The Great Levelling
The (Tim Berners Lee) Web was built around two conflicting tendencies and
these are st...
eMedia
Electronic versions/add-ons
to ‘old media’
EG: eMail, Messaging,
Online Newspapers
Pay to view Movies
User Generate...
Lev Manovich
‘Software takes Command’
Automation
• Decreases “human intentionality” in the
creative process.
• EG: Photoshop filters
• Blurs lines between profe...
Database Logic
“The Internet, which can be thought of as one huge
distributed media database, also crystallized the basic
...
Variability
• Old media involves human creator(s)
composing a fixed/stable text that is then
copied and distributed throug...
Customization / Personalization
• You enter information about yourself and then
the automated software creates a
personali...
Henry Jenkins: Media Convergence
JENKINS: CONVERGENCE
• ‘By convergence, I mean the flow of content
across multiple media platforms, the
cooperation betwee...
PARTICIPATORY CULTURE
• “In this emerging media system, …consumers
are transformed into participants who are
expected to i...
COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE
• “Because there is more information out there
…than we can store in our heads, there is an
added ...
Tim O’Reilly’s Web 2.0: The Six Features
1. User Generated Content
2. The Wisdom of Crowds
3. Data on an epic scale (Big D...
The Network Effect (Tim O’Reilly)
We have extended our central
nervous system itself in a global
embrace, abolishing both space
and time as far as our plane...
Hot Medium
extends single sense in high definition
low in audience participation
engenders specialization/fragmentation
de...
Four epochs of history:
Oral (tribe) culture
Manuscript culture
Gutenberg galaxy
Electronic age (The Global Village)
McLuh...
“..The medium is the message.
This is merely to say that the
personal and social
consequences of any medium -
that is, of ...
I Love New Media
‘…men at once become fascinated by any
extension of themselves in any material other than
themselves
(McL...
The physical fact of instant
transmission has been uncritically
raised to a social fact, without any
pause to notice that ...
The Frankfurt School (Marxist): Saw all Media as ‘Mass
Deception’. Is the New Media any different?
Films, radio and magazi...
The Media Gods
David Gauntlett
We used to just watch and listen
Using our own time- and at times set
for us by the Media
The Media also used our ‘Cognitive Surplus’
Media technology was expensive
The Media ‘Gods’
Media handed ‘down from on high’
Each Media had it’s own platform
But all these were centralized
Web 2.0 isn’t ‘one way’- It’s interactive
New Media co-exist with the old platforms
New Media values ‘User Generated Content’
And encourages participation from all
There isn’t a sudden change
New media enters ‘the mix’ of media usage
Tim Berners-Lee invented Web 1.0
Web 1.0 was like individual gardens
Web 2.0 is like a shared allotment
Old Media used/wasted time
New Media is more of a ‘past-time’ or hobby
New Media is ‘feminised’- part of keeping
busy- not ‘vegging out’ (Active v Passive)
The Wisdom of Crowds e.g. ‘Tag Clouds’
A tendency to
celebrate certain key
texts produced by
powerful media
industries
Media Studies 1.0 Media Studies 2.0
An int...
The ‘Long Tail’- Chris Anderson
I Love New Media
‘…men at once become fascinated by any
extension of themselves in any material other than
themselves
(McL...
Clay Shirky
NEW MEDIA
Slacktivism
Lifestyle Politics
Cyberhedonism
Surveillance
Censorship
Propaganda
OLD MEDIA
Activism
‘Street’ Poli...
Field Positions in New Media - T.D.Sampson
Computer
scientists
The
McLuhanists
The Media
Marxists
Dominated by scientific ...
Political Positions
Libertarians Liberal Pluralists ‘c’Conservative
Political Belief
People should be able to do what
they...
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A2 Media Studies: New Media theories

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Summary of Media Theorists

A2 Media Studies: New Media theories

  1. 1. Key New Media Theories
  2. 2. OLD MEDIA The ‘Media Gods’ Passive Audience ‘Appointment to view’ Expensive Separate Platforms Centralized Wasted Time/Cognitive Surplus NEW MEDIA Web 2.0 User Generated Cross Platform Inexpensive to produce Decentralized Social ‘Making is connecting’ David Gauntlett The Media Gods As opposed to ‘Making is connecting’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlzu8UYidTY
  3. 3. NEW MEDIA Global Village ‘Cool Media’ OLD MEDIA The Gutenberg Galaxy ‘Hot’ Media Marshall McLuhan The Medium is the Message As opposed to ‘We have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace.'
  4. 4. NEW MEDIA Lean Forward ‘Lean back 2.0’ OLD MEDIA Lean back Nielsen Lean Forward, Lean Back As opposed to ‘On the Web, users are engaged and want to go places and get things done. The Web is an active medium. While watching TV, viewers want to be entertained. They are in relaxation mode and vegging out; they don't want to make choices. TV is a passive medium.’
  5. 5. Nielsen: Lean Forward/Lean Back
  6. 6. Different communication protocols. Competing (expensive) commercial software Military/Scientific/Academic users URLs Every ‘page’ has an address html Shared non-commercial software W3 Non Commercial body governs the rules (such as domain names and codes) Tim Berners Lee The Internet The World Wide Web ‘No barriers’ 'I have always imagined the information space as something to which everyone has immediate and intuitive access, and not just to browse, but to create.'
  7. 7. Includes all, irrespective of wealth, social status, or geography Monopolies (like Google) Concentrate power and make the web brittle Tim Berners Lee DECENTRALISATION As opposed to ‘By design, the Web has no centre, anyone can create….'
  8. 8. Open source software (Linux, HTML) Common Standards (W3C consortium) Copyrighted commercial software. Tim Berners Lee OPENNESS As opposed to ‘Openness empowers People.'
  9. 9. Includes all, irrespective of wealth, social status, or geography Information Poor & Information Rich Tim Berners Lee INCLUSION As opposed to ‘The Power of the Web flows from it’s universality.'
  10. 10. Secure encryption Freedom of expression State surveillance (eg PRISM) State Censorship Tim Berners Lee PRIVACY,FREE EXPRESSION, SECURITY As opposed to ‘Censorship on the web...directly attacks freedom of expression.'
  11. 11. NEW MEDIA Automated ‘Creativity’ Database logic Variable Texts Personalised Information Lev Manovich ‘DATABASE’ MEDIA As opposed to ‘“The Internet, which can be thought of as one huge distributed media database ….' OLD MEDIA Creative ‘Authors’ ‘Library’ logic Stable texts (like books) ‘Impersonal’ Information
  12. 12. NEW MEDIA CONVERGENCE CULTURE PARTICIPATORY CULTURE COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE OLD MEDIA SEPARATE MEDIA PLATFORMS PASSIVE AUDIENCE CULTURE INDIVIDUAL INTELLIGENCE Henry Jenkins CONVERGENCE CULTURE As opposed to ‘The Power of the Web flows from it’s universality.'
  13. 13. Aleks Krotoski: The Great Levelling The (Tim Berners Lee) Web was built around two conflicting tendencies and these are still playing out…….. • Big (Media) Corporations • Government Control/Censorship • Centralised Infrastructure • Market Capitalism • Intellectual property • Surveillance • BIG BROTHER • Libertarian • Utopian/ Communitarian • Open Sourced • Crowd Sourced • Open Architecture • Anti Establishment • Hackers & Pirates • DISRUPTIVE
  14. 14. eMedia Electronic versions/add-ons to ‘old media’ EG: eMail, Messaging, Online Newspapers Pay to view Movies User Generated Content Audiences become the producers The Wisdom of Crowds Audiences share their favourites, tags and reviews The Network Effect Audiences communicate with each other directly. Tim O’Reilly: Web 2.0 Web 1.0 The web as a New way of publishing existing Media Content (Another Platform) Invented the term ‘Web 2.0’ and said there were six big ideas that make it work; the most important to Media being: Web 2.0 The Web as a Social Network
  15. 15. Lev Manovich ‘Software takes Command’
  16. 16. Automation • Decreases “human intentionality” in the creative process. • EG: Photoshop filters • Blurs lines between professional and amateur.
  17. 17. Database Logic “The Internet, which can be thought of as one huge distributed media database, also crystallized the basic condition of the new information society: overabundance of information of all kinds…By the end of the 20th century, the problem became no longer how to create a new media object such as an image; the new problem became how to find the object which already exists somewhere…The emergence of new media coincides with the second stage of a media society, now concerned as much with accessing and re- using existing media as with creating new one”
  18. 18. Variability • Old media involves human creator(s) composing a fixed/stable text that is then copied and distributed through mechanical means. • New media (like flickr) “give rise to many different versions. And rather than being created completely by a human author, these versions are often in part automatically assembled by a computer”
  19. 19. Customization / Personalization • You enter information about yourself and then the automated software creates a personalized interface to the database just for you. • Reveals a post-industrial logic. (Example: amazon recommendations)
  20. 20. Henry Jenkins: Media Convergence
  21. 21. JENKINS: CONVERGENCE • ‘By convergence, I mean the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they wanted. ’
  22. 22. PARTICIPATORY CULTURE • “In this emerging media system, …consumers are transformed into participants who are expected to interact with each other ...each of us constructs our own personal mythology from bits and fragments of information we have extracted from the ongoing flow of media around us and transformed into resources through which we make sense of our everyday lives.”
  23. 23. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE • “Because there is more information out there …than we can store in our heads, there is an added incentive for us to talk amongst ourselves about the media we consume. …Consumption has become a collective process... None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources …. Collective intelligence can be seen as an alternative source of media power. ”
  24. 24. Tim O’Reilly’s Web 2.0: The Six Features 1. User Generated Content 2. The Wisdom of Crowds 3. Data on an epic scale (Big Data) 4. Architecture of Participation 5. Network effects 6. Openness
  25. 25. The Network Effect (Tim O’Reilly)
  26. 26. We have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned. Rapidly, we approach the final phase of the extensions of man.. the technological simulation of consciousness, when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of human society. Mcluhan: Saw The New Media is an ‘extension of man’
  27. 27. Hot Medium extends single sense in high definition low in audience participation engenders specialization/fragmentation detribalizes excludes extends space creates ‘Horizontal’ associations Cool Medium low definition (less data) high in audience participation engenders holistic patterns tribalizes includes collapses space creates ‘vertical’ associations Mcluhan: Media ‘Hot’, Media ‘Cool’
  28. 28. Four epochs of history: Oral (tribe) culture Manuscript culture Gutenberg galaxy Electronic age (The Global Village) McLuhan wrote that the visual, individualistic print culture would soon be brought to an end by what he called "electronic interdependence": when electronic media would replace visual culture with aural/oral culture. In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base." McLuhan's coinage for this new social organization is the global village. Mcluhan: The Global Village and the ‘Guttenberg Galaxy’
  29. 29. “..The medium is the message. This is merely to say that the personal and social consequences of any medium - that is, of any extension of ourselves - result from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each extension of ourselves, or by any new technology.” Mcluhan: The Medium IS the Message
  30. 30. I Love New Media ‘…men at once become fascinated by any extension of themselves in any material other than themselves (McLuhan, The Gadget Lover: Narcissus as Narcosis 1964)
  31. 31. The physical fact of instant transmission has been uncritically raised to a social fact, without any pause to notice that virtually all such transmission is at once selected and controlled by existing social authorities ... Raymond Williams (1974) Raymond Williams : The Media is always dominated by the rich and powerful in society (Marxist Perspective)
  32. 32. The Frankfurt School (Marxist): Saw all Media as ‘Mass Deception’. Is the New Media any different? Films, radio and magazines make up a system which is uniform as a whole and in every part… are one in their enthusiastic obedience to the rhythm of the iron system…any trace of spontaneity from the public in official broadcasting is controlled and absorbed by talent scouts, studio competitions and official programs of every kind selected by professionals. Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (1944)
  33. 33. The Media Gods David Gauntlett
  34. 34. We used to just watch and listen
  35. 35. Using our own time- and at times set for us by the Media
  36. 36. The Media also used our ‘Cognitive Surplus’
  37. 37. Media technology was expensive
  38. 38. The Media ‘Gods’
  39. 39. Media handed ‘down from on high’
  40. 40. Each Media had it’s own platform
  41. 41. But all these were centralized
  42. 42. Web 2.0 isn’t ‘one way’- It’s interactive
  43. 43. New Media co-exist with the old platforms
  44. 44. New Media values ‘User Generated Content’
  45. 45. And encourages participation from all
  46. 46. There isn’t a sudden change
  47. 47. New media enters ‘the mix’ of media usage
  48. 48. Tim Berners-Lee invented Web 1.0
  49. 49. Web 1.0 was like individual gardens
  50. 50. Web 2.0 is like a shared allotment
  51. 51. Old Media used/wasted time
  52. 52. New Media is more of a ‘past-time’ or hobby
  53. 53. New Media is ‘feminised’- part of keeping busy- not ‘vegging out’ (Active v Passive)
  54. 54. The Wisdom of Crowds e.g. ‘Tag Clouds’
  55. 55. A tendency to celebrate certain key texts produced by powerful media industries Media Studies 1.0 Media Studies 2.0 An interest in the massive long tail of independent media projects such as those found on YouTube and many other … forms of DIY media.. ‘DIY’ and the ‘Long Tail’
  56. 56. The ‘Long Tail’- Chris Anderson
  57. 57. I Love New Media ‘…men at once become fascinated by any extension of themselves in any material other than themselves (McLuhan, The Gadget Lover: Narcissus as Narcosis 1964)
  58. 58. Clay Shirky
  59. 59. NEW MEDIA Slacktivism Lifestyle Politics Cyberhedonism Surveillance Censorship Propaganda OLD MEDIA Activism ‘Street’ Politics Evgeny Morozov Slacktivism As opposed to‘The Net is NOT inherently liberating; its liberating potential may shrink or grow depending on the circumstances .'
  60. 60. Field Positions in New Media - T.D.Sampson Computer scientists The McLuhanists The Media Marxists Dominated by scientific agendas state and corporate development Emphasises the determining role of the media Critical approach to the culture industries (Frankfurt School) Defined by (negative) political economy approach to new media (Westminster School) ‘Pioneers’ and ‘heroes’ build the Internet Big influence on ‘positive’ versions of new media theory and popular concepts. From Manovich to Wired Magazine Study of ‘meaning’ and dominate ideology in communication process (British Cultural Studies and Media Studies Tradition) Representation and semiotics French structuralism and poststructuralism – Barthes, Derrida Innovation leads to the digital, the Internet and the Web. Software practices… Software studies – Matt Fuller Post-representational approaches Postmodernism/post Marx – Foucault, Baudrillard Deleuze and Guattari Italian automatists Hardt and Negri
  61. 61. Political Positions Libertarians Liberal Pluralists ‘c’Conservative Political Belief People should be able to do what they want with the minimum of state control. The weaknesses of the few shouldn’t prevent the freedom of the many. Different communities should be able to live together with a core of common values, such as the rule of law and the primacy of free speech. It takes centuries to develop a strong culture and institutions. Novel ideas need to learn to fit in with existing values.The Jury is still out. Philosophy ‘Information wants to be free’ Regulation and control have no place in the new territory of Cyberspace. The technology can be empowering and educational It is a ‘great leveller’, but all citizens must have access to the web as a ‘digital entitlement’. Regulation may be needed to ensure (safe) access. The technology will tend to damage traditional values and economic systems including: Literacy, Decency, Expertise, Authority, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Copyright Causes Piracy and Censorship Digital Citizenship, Safe access Internet Porn (Paedophilia etc), Damage to young people, Criminality, Privacy

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