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Representation of politics

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Representation of politics

  1. 1. Representation & Ideology ‘ Representation is concerned with the way that people, ideas and events are presented to us through media texts.’
  2. 2. Gillian Dyer’s Questions <ul><li>What sense of the world is the media text making? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it claim is typical of the world and what deviant? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is really speaking? For whom? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it represent to us and why? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Representation” can be of: <ul><li>People/Social Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas &Values </li></ul>
  4. 4. David Cameron ‘PhotoShopped’ for Election Posters
  5. 5. David Cameron as seen by Guardian Cartoonist Steve Bell
  6. 6. David Cameron as seen by Work by Leon Kuhn ‘Morning Star’ Cartoonist (Communist)
  7. 7. David Cameron as seen by ‘Class War’ (Anarchist)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Police arrest photographer for displaying Cameron “**ker&quot; poster </li></ul><ul><li>A freelance photographer was arrested and handcuffed by police after displaying a poster in his home window describing David Cameron as a &quot;wanker” .David Hoffman said five police burst into his terrace home in Bow after a neighbour complained about the Class War poster in his ground-floor window. He said the officers told him he had broken the Public Order Act and threatened to return and arrest him if he displayed it again….Mr Hoffman, who has covered politics for more than 25 years, said he rotated the Cameron poster with a similar version featuring Lib-Dem leader Nick Clegg. He also has Gordon Brown and Nick Griffin versions but says there is no need to use the latter as it is &quot;self-explanatory&quot;. He was arrested on polling day last Thursday. He said: &quot;I think it’s a perfectly reasonable bit of free speech I’m entitled to make. They [the police] were very stroppy, very heavy. It’s political policing.” </li></ul><ul><li>LONDON EVENING STANDARD </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Daily Mail (Conservative) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Daily Mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Liverpool Post </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stuart Hall: Three Views <ul><li>There are three ways of viewing representation: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectionist </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul><ul><li>Constructionist </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stuart Hall: The Reflectionist View <ul><li>When we represent something, we are taking its true meaning and trying to create a replica of it in the mind of our audience — like a reflection. </li></ul><ul><li>The news producers take the truth of news events and simply present it to us as accurately as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG- WHAT IS ‘THE TRUTH’? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stuart Hall: The Intentional View <ul><li>This is the opposite of the Reflective idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The person doing the representing is presenting their own view of the thing they are representing. </li></ul><ul><li>The news producers take events and present them to us according to their own opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG- TOO MANY OPINIONS TO WORK! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stuart Hall: The Constructionist View <ul><li>Any representation is a mixture of: </li></ul><ul><li>The thing itself (reflection) </li></ul><ul><li>The opinions of the people doing the representation (intentional ) </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of the individual/group to the representation. </li></ul><ul><li>The context of the society in which the representation is taking place. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Constructionist View: Example <ul><li>Example: Black Athlete in 1936 Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>The thing itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Black athlete wins the race </li></ul><ul><li>The opinions of the people doing the representation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis and the (segregated) US </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of the individual to the representation. </li></ul><ul><li>( &quot;Hitler didn't snub me—it was FDR who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram.” Jesse Owens.) </li></ul><ul><li>The context of the society in which the representation is taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>(After Hitler came to power, before Civil Rights) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXIe5GbLSUs </li></ul>
  16. 16. ‘ The Ritz’: Constructionist View <ul><li>The News report is a mixture of: </li></ul><ul><li>The thing itself. </li></ul><ul><li>(paint was thrown, windows were broken ) </li></ul><ul><li>The opinions of the people doing the representation. </li></ul><ul><li>(It was vandalism/understandable/legitimate protest ) </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of the individual to the representation. </li></ul><ul><li>(We protesters think…..) </li></ul><ul><li>The context of the society in which the representation is taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>(‘Inevitable’ or ‘Vandalistic’ Cuts) </li></ul>
  17. 17. ‘ The Ritz’: Daily Mail <ul><li>200 arrested as hardcore anarchists fight police long into night in Battle of Trafalgar Square after 500,000 march against the cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Some were hellbent on storming – or destroying – any London landmarks synonymous with luxury or money. Others targeted companies associated with tax avoidance. Hundreds laid siege to The Ritz hotel, attacking it with paint and smokebombs. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1370053/TUC-anti-spending-cuts-protest-200-arrested-500k-march-cut.html </li></ul>
  18. 18. ‘ The Ritz’: Guardian <ul><li>Anti-cuts march draws hundreds of thousands as police battle rioters </li></ul><ul><li>More than a quarter of a million people have marched through central London to deliver a powerful message about the government's cuts in public spending. The generally good-natured mood was soured by violent and destructive attacks on symbols of wealth including the Ritz, banks and a luxury car dealer, and an occupation of the upmarket food store Fortnum and Mason. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/mar/26/anti-cuts-march-police-rioters </li></ul>
  19. 19. ‘ The Ritz’: ‘Class War’ View <ul><li>‘ BLACK BLOC WITH BRAINS’ OUTWITS COPS </li></ul><ul><li>Who were those masked strangers... I could only gawp in awe as they arrived – didn’t they look fucking fine and dandy – black and red flags all over, masked up, whooping, running, confident…and young! They charged - and the Bloc was big maybe about 600 at that stage –  headlong through the police line blocking Regent …….but by the time we arrived the birds had flown. The Bloc gave the cops the complete run around. Older hands described ‘a black bloc with brains’ a ‘Many Headed Hydra’  striking here and there and reappearing in unexpected places like the Viet Cong! Mobility….Mobility….mobility ……….the lessons were well learned and the targets exemplary. Mayfair was well and truly sacked. The Porsche showroom, The Ritz, Fortnam and Mason, Banks, Posh shops. The Fucking RITZ BLITZ – oh how I rue missing that. I saw sights to gladden an old man’s heart – ‘CLASS WAR- sprayed on smashed up posh shops. It was a Class War as the Ritz  diners COWERED over their silver knapkin rings. Cameron started it – we’ll finish it. No apologetics needed this morning. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dominant Reading Theory (Morely & Hall)
  21. 21. Halin’s Model
  22. 23. http://www.politicalcompass.org/test
  23. 25. http://www.politicalcompass.org/test
  24. 26. http://www.politicalcompass.org/test

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