Taha Science Isu


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A science project by Taha

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Taha Science Isu

  1. 1. Unit 1-Sustainability of ecosystems Chapter 1 Pages 4-36
  2. 2. Instructions <ul><li>Bolded words will represent keywords in our text book so please remember to pay special attention to them </li></ul><ul><li>Italic words will represent important words that are not considered keywords in the text book </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 1.1 Capturing energy from the sun
  4. 4. Energy <ul><li>All organisms use energy. Energy is the fuel of ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is transferred through food chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy isn’t created but instead is absorbed by plants. </li></ul><ul><li>If it wasn’t for plants this couldn’t have ever existed! </li></ul><ul><li>- Plants Produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>We are consumers and like most creatures we don’t make energy but instead we consume it as it moves up the food chain towards us </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>All of our activities; </li></ul><ul><li>even thinking require </li></ul><ul><li>energy. The same goes </li></ul><ul><li>for other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>An Ecosystem is an </li></ul><ul><li>area were organisms </li></ul><ul><li>interact with each other </li></ul><ul><li>with their environment </li></ul><ul><li>of energy and matter </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food chains <ul><li>Food chains are formed when organisms in </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystems interact ex. When herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>consume plants ( Producers ) the energy is </li></ul><ul><li>transferred from the plants to the herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>and when those herbivores are eaten by </li></ul><ul><li>carnivores the energy is transferred again, I </li></ul><ul><li>will elaborate on this topic later in this </li></ul><ul><li>presentation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Producers, Secondary consumers & Primary consumers <ul><li>As mentioned earlier most producers are plants, although there are a few exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers are animals like plant eaters (herbivores) who feed on the producers directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers are animals like foxes & wolves who feed on the primary consumers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 1.2 Feeding levels Pages 8-17
  9. 9. Comparing food chains <ul><li>If you were to divide food chains into </li></ul><ul><li>different levels you would set producers on </li></ul><ul><li>one trophic level , Primary consumers would </li></ul><ul><li>make the next and Secondary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>would make the 3 rd . </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that some consumers may consume organisms from more than one trophic level. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How energy is used <ul><li>Most of the energy consumed by trophic consumers is used just to stay alive, however organisms need energy to complete daily activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Useless energy is usually deposited as waste. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of energy that is transferred from one trophic level to the next is 5-20%, this shows how much less energy there overall would be available for creatures higher on the food chain. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pyramid of numbers
  12. 12. Pyramid of Biomass
  13. 13. Pyramid of energy flow <ul><li>As explained earlier energy when transferred from one tropic to the next is overall reduced, and this is the purpose of the pyramid of energy flow, to show us a comparison of energy flow in ecosystems. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chapter 1.3 Populations
  15. 15. Population <ul><li>Changes in temperature, food, weather and other factors, especially human disruption all can have an effect on the population of certain species. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of competition between species: </li></ul><ul><li>Intraspecific competition is competition among members of the same species </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecific competition is competition among different species </li></ul>
  16. 16. Density <ul><li>Population density is a huge problem for many populations of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Density dependant-factors increase in significance as a population grows. </li></ul><ul><li>Density independent-factors are very different. Instead these factors don't relate to the density of a population. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 1.4 Feeding people
  18. 18. Agriculture <ul><li>Different areas have different properties that affect the productivity of those regions. </li></ul><ul><li>When we eat wheat we get energy directly from the plants however when eat meat we usually receive energy from a place much higher in the food chain, thus there is logically less energy available for humans this way. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Quick Key terms review <ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Primary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Tropic levels </li></ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of energy flow </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Intraspecific competition </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecific competition </li></ul><ul><li>Population density </li></ul><ul><li>Density-dependant factors </li></ul><ul><li>Density-independent factors </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Biological magnification </li></ul>
  20. 20. Questions <ul><li>What are the differences between the pyramid of numbers and the pyramid of biomass?, explain with a example. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between inter and intra specific competition? </li></ul>
  21. 21. The END BY: Taha Only 32 more slides! Just kidding