5. Environmental Biology


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5. Environmental Biology

  1. 1. 5.1 Ecosystems <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term habitats and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term population and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term community and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term ecosystem and give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify habitats, populations and communities </li></ul><ul><li>within a given ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term species and give examples </li></ul>
  2. 2. Rearrange the following from the most simple to the most complex … Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Individual
  3. 3. The most simple to the most complex … Community Population Individual Ecosystem Biosphere
  4. 4. Individual Individuals Individual Population Community
  5. 5. <ul><li>The smallest group is a species . </li></ul><ul><li>A species is a group of living organisms which share the same general physical characteristics and can mate to produce fertile young . </li></ul><ul><li>All living organisms are divided into kingdoms e.g animal, plants, viruses etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Each kingdom is further divided into smaller groups containing fewer organisms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A mule is an infertile offspring of a cross between a horse and donkey Donkey X Donkey Donkey X Horse Mule Horse X Horse
  7. 7. Lion x tiger Sterile Horse x zebra Sterile L i g e r Z e b r o r s e
  8. 8. Fertile L a b r a d o o d l e Labrador x Poodle
  9. 9. 5.2 Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State the source of energy for a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what the arrows in a food chain indicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of food chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what a food web shows. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a food chain or web from information </li></ul><ul><li>about feeding relationships in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and apply the terms: producer, primary </li></ul><ul><li>consumer, secondary consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and apply the terms: herbivore, carnivore, </li></ul><ul><li>decomposer, predator, prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of decomposers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Producers and Consumers <ul><li>All organisms in an ecosystem need food to survive </li></ul><ul><li>How an organism obtains food can be divided into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Producers <ul><li>All green plants produce their own food </li></ul><ul><li>They use the sunlight's energy to synthesise food… PHOTOSYNTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the sun is the source off all energy in a food chain </li></ul>
  12. 12. Consumers <ul><li>Organisms that eat other organisms are consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume plant material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume animal material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume plant and animal material </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Food Chains <ul><li>Energy is transferred in the form of chemical energy in food from plants to animals and then to other animals </li></ul><ul><li>A producer can be eaten by a herbivore – primary consumer </li></ul><ul><li>A herbivore can be in turn eaten by an animal – secondary consumer </li></ul>
  14. 14. Green Plant ( producer ) Rabbit ( primary consumer ) Fox ( secondary consumer ) <ul><li>The feeding relationship is called a food chain , and is written as </li></ul><ul><li>Green Plant  Rabbit  Fox </li></ul><ul><li>The arrows in a food chain point from the food to the feeder and show the direction of energy flow </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fox Weasel Hedgehog Frog Snail Vole Rabbit Oak Primrose plant Owl
  16. 16. Tadpole Caddis fly larvae Pond weed Water flea Algae Perch Pike Water beetle Stickleback Freshwater snail
  17. 17. 5.3 Energy Flow in Food Chains <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State what a pyramid of energy shows and relate it </li></ul><ul><li>to a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain how the energy content at </li></ul><ul><li>each level in a pyramid of energy compares. </li></ul><ul><li>State what a pyramid of numbers shows and relate </li></ul><ul><li>it to a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>State what a pyramid of biomass shows and relate </li></ul><ul><li>it to a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain how the biomass at each level </li></ul><ul><li>in a pyramid of numbers compares. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a pyramid of numbers and a pyramid of </li></ul><ul><li>biomass for the same food chain may not have the </li></ul><ul><li>same shape. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Energy Loss <ul><li>Every time an organism eats another, energy is transferred from the food to the feeder. </li></ul><ul><li>Oak leaf  Caterpillar  Shrew  Badger </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of the energy available at each step of the food chain is passed on to the next step. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is lost. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Caterpillar eats the leaf Energy not used Some of the energy in the leaf passes out of the caterpillar in undigested food. Energy used Energy used The caterpillar uses some energy it gets from the leaf to move, feed and produce heat. This energy is lost to other animals in the food chain. Energy stored The rest of the energy the caterpillar gets from the leaf is stored in the body of the caterpillar. Only the stored energy is available to the next animal in the food chain.
  20. 20. Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Pyramid of Energy Represents the quantity of energy at each stage in a food chain as a horizontal bar in a pyramid-shaped bar chart.
  21. 21. Pyramid of Numbers <ul><li>The energy loss along a food chain usually means that the number of organisms that can be supported at each stage is fewer and fewer. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be shown as a ‘Pyramid of Numbers’. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pyramid of Numbers <ul><li>As you move up this food chain the size of the organism at each link _______ and the numbers of them _________ </li></ul>Pike = 10 Perch = 40 Snail = 80 Algae = 100
  23. 23. <ul><li>The graph is an irregular shape as one oak tree can provide many hundreds of greenfly with a source of energy contained in food. </li></ul>Blackbird = 10 Lady bird = 50 Greenfly = 500 Oak tree = 1 But…
  24. 24. Pyramid of Biomass <ul><li>A more accurate idea of the quantity of animal and plant material at each level of the food chain is obtained by recording the mass of the living organisms – Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>This information can be used to construct a pyramid of biomass </li></ul>Oak tree Greenfly Lady Bird
  25. 25. 5.4 Adaptation and Stability <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State the meaning of the term niche. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the description of a niche. </li></ul><ul><li>State what influences the distribution of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>State the meaning of the term adaptation . </li></ul><ul><li>Match an adaptation to a habitat or niche from </li></ul><ul><li>given information. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what makes an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict how a change in one population in a food web </li></ul><ul><li>may effect other populations in the web. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>An adaptation is a feature of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>which enables it to survive successfully in </li></ul><ul><li>it’s habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin's finches (also known as the </li></ul><ul><li>Galápagos Finches ) are 13 or 14 </li></ul><ul><li>different but closely related species of </li></ul><ul><li>finches Charles Darwin collected on the </li></ul><ul><li>Galápagos Islands in the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Each finch has a beak adapted to it’s </li></ul><ul><li>specific habitat and food. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Darwin’s Finches
  28. 28. 5.5 Biodiversity <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term biodiversity . </li></ul><ul><li>State the importance of biodiversity for </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>State the importance of biodiversity for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of human activities which cause </li></ul><ul><li>habitat destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Name ecosystems which could be affected by </li></ul><ul><li>deforestation. </li></ul><ul><li>State what is meant by the biodiversity crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how biodiversity is affected by pollution </li></ul><ul><li>and name some pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how biodiversity is affected by grazing. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Biodiversity is the variety of species which exists in an ecosystem. Maintaining biodiversity is important to humans for: Food Genetic Material Medicines Raw Materials Recreation
  30. 30. Human activity is destroying habitats and drastically reducing biodiversity as a result. Deforestation Tropical rainforest, oak woodland, pine forests Pollution Sulphur dioxide Acid Rain Untreated sewage Biodiversity Crisis
  31. 31. 5.6 Behavioural Adaptations in Animals <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the terms environmental stimulus and </li></ul><ul><li>behavioural response. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the behavioural response in a given </li></ul><ul><li>example. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of a given behavioural </li></ul><ul><li>adaptation. </li></ul><ul><li>State the condition of light and humidity which </li></ul><ul><li>woodlice prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>State how reliability can be improved in a choice </li></ul><ul><li>chamber experiment. </li></ul>
  32. 32. All animals, no matter how simple, show behavioural adaptations. <ul><li>An environmental stimulus is a change in an organism’s surroundings to which the organism is sensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>A behavioural response is a reaction by an organism to an environmental stimulus. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sea anemones: When tentacles are touched they pull them into their bodies. Survival value : Food. Catch prey as they pass by and trigger tentacles. Woodlice: Move quicker in a dry environment. Slow down in moist areas. Survival value : Stay in moist conditions where there is less danger of drying out. Swallow: Migrate south from Britain to Africa when day length decreases. Survival value : Flying insects needed for food are absent in Britain in winter. Plenty in Africa.
  34. 34. 5.7 Competition <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State the meaning of the term competition . </li></ul><ul><li>State the resources for which plants can compete. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some effects of competition on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>State the resources for which animals can compete. </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example of how two animal species living </li></ul><ul><li>together can avoid competition for food. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Competition is the struggle between members of a community for the same limited resources . Animals Plants Food Water Shelter Nesting Spaces Mates Nutrients Water Light (Root/leaf space)