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Robotics Starter Guide - Dream School

Robotics Starter Guide - Dream School Here you will get an overview of the field of Robotics. What is Robotics? Fundamentals of Robotics, Application of Robotics. What is Machine Learning? What is Artificial Intelligence? What is Computer Vision and more. This is a very basic starter guide to give you an understanding of the field. If you want to learn more in-depth, please visit www.dreamschool.xyz

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Get to know Robotics {our} way
Robotics
Starter Guide
Mahadi Hasan Meem
Table Of Contents
What is Robotics?
What are Robots?
Importance of Robotics
History of Robots 
Types of Robots 
Categorizing Robots
Application of Robots
Fundamentals of Robotics 
Comparison with Humans
What are Sensors?
What are Actuators?
The brain of the Robots
Power Systems of the Robots
Signal Systems of the Robots
Programming the Robots
What is Computer Vision?
What is Machine Learning?
What is Arti cial Intelligence?
What is Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics?
Design & Build Strategy 
Arduino introduction
Raspberry Pi Introduction
References
www.dreamschool.xyz
Robotics is an interdisciplinary
sector of science and engineering
dedicated to the design,
construction, and use of
mechanical robots. Our guide will
give you a concrete grasp of
robotics, including different
types of robots and how they're
being applied across industries.
1. Safety
2. Speed
3. Consistency
4. Perfection
5. Happier Employees
6. Job Creation
7. Savings
A robot is a machine - especially one
programmable by a computer - capable
of carrying out a complex series of
actions automatically
The importance of Robotics is enormous in this age of the Fourth
Industrial Revolution for our World.
What is Robotics? 
 What is a Robot?>
Importance of Robotics
 
Page 1
www.dreamschool.xyz
Let's check out the history of robots. Starting from the Early Rossum's Play of
Universal Robots to now.
Generally, there are ve types of robots:
1) Pre-Programmed Robots. Pre-programmed robots operate in a
controlled environment where they do simple, monotonous tasks. ...
2) Humanoid Robots. Humanoid robots are robots that look like and/or
mimic human behavior. 
3) Autonomous Robots.
4) Teleoperated Robots. 
5) Augmenting Robots.
History of Robots
Types of Robots
 
Page 2
www.dreamschool.xyz
Robots can be categorized according to their purposes of use. People don't like
these types of works. Robots can now help us with their increased capabilities.
Who likes to do Dirty tasks? For
example, sewage cleaning, waste
management are some of the tasks
that not everyone wants to do. 
People also get bored doing the same
tasks again and again.  Monotonous tasks
decrease productivity, decrease focus.
Tasks in the production line are better to
be automated with the help of robots. 
Also, the tasks which cause health
hazards are best suited to Robots.
Tasks like, demining robots, space
robots, underwater robots,
material handling robots, and
more. 
Categorizing Robots
Dumb
Dangerous
Dirty
 
Page 3
www.dreamschool.xyz
Helping ght forest res
Working alongside humans in manufacturing plants (known as co-bots)
Robots that offer companionship to elderly individuals
Surgical assistants
Last-mile package and food order delivery
Autonomous household robots that carry out tasks like vacuuming and
mowing the grass
Assisting with nding items and carrying them throughout warehouses
Used during search-and-rescue missions after natural disasters
Landmine detectors in war zones 
Warehouserobotics refers to theuseof
automated systems, robots, and specialized
softwareto transport materials, perform
various tasks and streamline/automate
warehouseprocesses
An industrial robot is a robot system used
for manufacturing. Industrial robots are
automated, programmable, and capableof
movement on threeor moreaxes.
Roboticwelding is oneof themost
common roboticapplications in the
industrial sector, being driven mainly by
theautomotivesector for thelast
several decades. Roboticwelding is
most productivewhen completing high-
volume, repetitivewelding tasks.
Application of Robots
Warehouse Robots
Welding Robots
Industrial Robots
 
Page 4

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Robotics Starter Guide - Dream School

  • 1. Get to know Robotics {our} way Robotics Starter Guide Mahadi Hasan Meem
  • 2. Table Of Contents What is Robotics? What are Robots? Importance of Robotics History of Robots  Types of Robots  Categorizing Robots Application of Robots Fundamentals of Robotics  Comparison with Humans What are Sensors? What are Actuators? The brain of the Robots Power Systems of the Robots Signal Systems of the Robots Programming the Robots What is Computer Vision? What is Machine Learning? What is Arti cial Intelligence? What is Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics? Design & Build Strategy  Arduino introduction Raspberry Pi Introduction References
  • 3. www.dreamschool.xyz Robotics is an interdisciplinary sector of science and engineering dedicated to the design, construction, and use of mechanical robots. Our guide will give you a concrete grasp of robotics, including different types of robots and how they're being applied across industries. 1. Safety 2. Speed 3. Consistency 4. Perfection 5. Happier Employees 6. Job Creation 7. Savings A robot is a machine - especially one programmable by a computer - capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically The importance of Robotics is enormous in this age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution for our World. What is Robotics?   What is a Robot?> Importance of Robotics   Page 1
  • 4. www.dreamschool.xyz Let's check out the history of robots. Starting from the Early Rossum's Play of Universal Robots to now. Generally, there are ve types of robots: 1) Pre-Programmed Robots. Pre-programmed robots operate in a controlled environment where they do simple, monotonous tasks. ... 2) Humanoid Robots. Humanoid robots are robots that look like and/or mimic human behavior.  3) Autonomous Robots. 4) Teleoperated Robots.  5) Augmenting Robots. History of Robots Types of Robots   Page 2
  • 5. www.dreamschool.xyz Robots can be categorized according to their purposes of use. People don't like these types of works. Robots can now help us with their increased capabilities. Who likes to do Dirty tasks? For example, sewage cleaning, waste management are some of the tasks that not everyone wants to do.  People also get bored doing the same tasks again and again.  Monotonous tasks decrease productivity, decrease focus. Tasks in the production line are better to be automated with the help of robots.  Also, the tasks which cause health hazards are best suited to Robots. Tasks like, demining robots, space robots, underwater robots, material handling robots, and more.  Categorizing Robots Dumb Dangerous Dirty   Page 3
  • 6. www.dreamschool.xyz Helping ght forest res Working alongside humans in manufacturing plants (known as co-bots) Robots that offer companionship to elderly individuals Surgical assistants Last-mile package and food order delivery Autonomous household robots that carry out tasks like vacuuming and mowing the grass Assisting with nding items and carrying them throughout warehouses Used during search-and-rescue missions after natural disasters Landmine detectors in war zones  Warehouserobotics refers to theuseof automated systems, robots, and specialized softwareto transport materials, perform various tasks and streamline/automate warehouseprocesses An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable, and capableof movement on threeor moreaxes. Roboticwelding is oneof themost common roboticapplications in the industrial sector, being driven mainly by theautomotivesector for thelast several decades. Roboticwelding is most productivewhen completing high- volume, repetitivewelding tasks. Application of Robots Warehouse Robots Welding Robots Industrial Robots   Page 4
  • 7. www.dreamschool.xyz Military robots are autonomous robots or remote-controlled mobile robots designed for military applications, from transport to search & rescue and attack. Drones are a form of Robots too. Military operations like search & Rescue and surveying are usually done with Robots. Robot painting produces top-quality results. Once properly programmed, an industrial painting robot can apply material without leaving behind drips, inconsistencies, overspray, etc. Paint and/or coating is applied precisely and consistently. Robots in medicine help by relieving medical personnel from routine tasks, that take their time away from more pressing responsibilities, and by making medical procedures safer and less costly for patients.  Military Robots Healthcare Robots Painting Robots   Page 5
  • 8. www.dreamschool.xyz Consumer robots and robotic devices are developed for use by the general public, mostly in a domestic or personal environment. Many of them are designed for everyday chores such as household robots, vacuum robots, lawn mowing robots, pool cleaning robots, etc. A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans. A rescue robot is a robot designed to aid in the search and rescue of humans. They may assist rescue efforts by searching, mapping, removing rubble, delivering supplies, providing medical treatment, or evacuating casualties. Consumer Robots Humanoid Robots Search & Rescue Robots   Page 6
  • 9. www.dreamschool.xyz Ther Robots that are in research & development by organizations, institutions for different purposes. Like, agriculture robots, security robots, and more.  A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle, driverless car, or robo-car, is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with little or no human input. In the future, self-driving cars are going to reduce traf c jams. There is a huge potential for innovation on the roads. The Cars simply use sensors to sense their environments and move accordingly after interpreting the data. R&D Robots Self-driving cars    Page 7
  • 10. www.dreamschool.xyz Human beings can sense with their senses, Robots can do that with the help of a type of component known as Sensors. Human beings can think with their brains, Robots can do that with Microprocessors. And human beings can act or react using their arms, legs, or any other mechanisms, Robots can do that with a type of component known as an Actuator.   Robots follow this principle. First, they sense, Then they plan and then they act. They have multiple components in their system that perform each of these tasks.  Fundamentals of Robotics Comparison with humans   Page 8
  • 11. www.dreamschool.xyz Sensors are devices that can sense signals from the environment. There are sensors that can sense light, heat, temperature, humidity, pressure, pulses, and many more things. Actuators are devices that can actuate/react to the signals from the brain of the robots. There are different types of Actuators out there. Check out the most common ones on the picture left. The brain of the robot is where the robot thinks. That is perform all logical reasoning and calculations.  It is the Microprocessors where they process the data and get meaningful information out and act accordingly. What are Sensors? What are Actuators? Brain of the Robots   Page 9
  • 12. www.dreamschool.xyz Robots and autonomous systems have been equipped with enhanced features over the past decade, thanks to the advances in signal processing, which provides ef cient and appropriate analysis of sensor data and enables autonomy. A robot isn't going anywhere without juice. Your body uses a complex process of breaking down food into chemicals that it then converts to energy for powering muscles, organs, and other systems. In robots, a number of different substances are used to give a robot its get-up-and- go.  1. AC Current 2. Batteries 3. Solar Cells 4. Pressure systems 5. Other power sources.    Power Systems  Signal Systems   Page 10
  • 13. www.dreamschool.xyz The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a flexible framework for writing robot software. It is a collection of tools, libraries, and conventions that aim to simplify the task of creating complex and robust robot behavior across a wide variety of robotic platforms. Programming of robots is basically giving instructions to robots to perform certain tasks. It has to be logical. We need to understand that robots are just like babies, they need to be given speci c instructions and need to be taught how to do things.  Programming of Robots ROS   Page 11
  • 14. www.dreamschool.xyz Arti cial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry.  Tasks in Computer Vision Optical character recognition (OCR) Machine inspection Retail (e.g. automated checkouts) 3D model building (photogrammetry) Medical imaging Automotive safety Match move (e.g. merging CGI with live actors in movies) Motion capture (mocap) Surveillance Fingerprint recognition and biometrics Computer Vision, often abbreviated as CV, is de ned as a eld of study that seeks to develop techniques to help computers “see” and understand the content of digital images such as photographs and videos. What is Computer Vision? What is Arti cial Intelligence?   Page 12
  • 15. www.dreamschool.xyz Kinematics is the study of motion without considering the cause of the motion, such as forces and torques. Inverse kinematics is the use of kinematic equations to determine the motion of a robot to reach the desired position. For example, to perform automated bin picking, a robotic arm needs precise motion from an initial position to the desired position between bins and manufacturing machines. The grasping end of a robot arm is designated as the end-effector. Robots then have to calculate the movement needed to perform the desired tasks and go back to the previous positions.  Machine learning is an application of arti cial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it to learn for themselves. The primary aim is to allow the computers to learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly. But, using the classic algorithms of machine learning, the text is considered as a sequence of keywords; instead, an approach based on semantic analysis mimics the human ability to understand the meaning of a text. What is Machine Learning? What is Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics?   Page 13
  • 16. www.dreamschool.xyz Next up in making our prototype is the Electronic circuit design. The graphical way to represent the Circuit elements and connection is known as Schematics.  Many software is available where you can design a 3D Model. Some common ones are, Solidworks, Autodesk Fusion 360. There is a website version for CAD design known as TinkerCAD. A site where you can design basic 3D  Objects.  1. Is it going to have Movement? 2. What Sensors to use? 3. How to Program for desired functions? 4. Is it working properly as intended? Next, we have to design a sketch, when the sketch is nalized we have to do a 3D Model of the Robot with dimensions. (length, width of the parts) and to get a better feel of how our robot is going to look. To design a robot rst, we have to decide on the purpose and functions of the robot. What is it going to do? Ask these questions to get clear. Design & Build Strategy Electronics & Schematics: 3D Design   Page 14
  • 17. www.dreamschool.xyz Arduino MCU is a common microcontroller to get started with Robotics and IoT. This board will act as the Brain of our Robots for now.  Arduino is quite affordable and available in almost every country.  Raspberry Pi is a MPU, Micro Processor Unit, that is a mini Computer. Raspberry Pi will be used for little advanced robots, where we can use ROS (Robot Operating System) to manage the activities of our Robots.  The Processing power of Raspberry pi is more than the Arduino Microcontrollers, Arduino MCU Raspberry Pi   Page 15
  • 18. www.dreamschool.xyz References:   https://www.searchenginejournal.com/generate-structured-data- automatically-computer-vision/373940/  https://www.dcvelocity.com/articles/50224-warehouse-robots-earn- their-diplomas  https://www.robots.com/articles/arc-welding-101  https://www.researchgate.net/ gure/A-summary-of-different-energy- sources-for-robotics-Power-generators-which-include- fuel_ g4_322859319 https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/ https://la.mathworks.com/discovery/inverse-kinematics.html https://www.tinkercad.com/ https://www.vector4free.com/free-vectors/hand-drawn-robot https://www.faulhaber.com/en/markets/factory-automation- robotics/sewer-robot/ https://singularityhub.com/2019/12/02/alphabet-is-developing-a-robot- to-take-over-boring-everyday-tasks/ https://www.army-technology.com/projects/uran-6-mine-clearing-robot/ https://builtin.com/arti cial-intelligence https://machinelearningmastery.com/what-is-computer-vision/ https://www.newtechsociety.org/the-importance-of-robotics-in-the- world-today-and-the-future/       Page 16