Module 5 - Evaluating energy efficiency opportunities


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  • Bullet 1 – mention the 4 metricsBullet 2 – there are both direct and indirect benefiits and costs relating to any projectBullet 3 – opportunities must be ranked according to given criteria
  • Module 5 - Evaluating energy efficiency opportunities

    1. 1. Evaluating Energy EfficiencyOpportunitiesModule 5
    2. 2. Disclaimer This material has been developed as part of the UTS Business School and Ernst & Young ‘Leadership & Change for Energy Efficiency in Accounting & Management’ project. The project is supported by the NSW Office of Environment & Heritage as part of the Energy Efficiency Training Program. For more information on the project, please go to: This presentation is for educational purposes only, and does not contain specific or general advice. Please seek appropriate advice before making any financial decisions.2
    3. 3. Agenda► Introduction► Feasibility Analysis ► Simple Payback ► Net Present Value ► Internal Rate of Return ► Accounting Rate of Return► Other Considerations► Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC)► Case Study3
    4. 4. Outline 5.0 Contr ol 1.0 Define and monitor ener gy ener gy baseline Ener gy Efficiency 2.0 Measur e 4.0 Implement 2 ener gy data Oppor tunities 3 3.0 Analyse efficiency oppor tunities4
    5. 5. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this module, you will:► Be able to complete a financial analysis of an opportunity and calculate various metrics that can be used to evaluate a project ► Payback ► Net present value ► Internal rate of return ► Accounting rate of return► Be able to identify and quantify where possible the wider business costs and benefits resulting from an implemented opportunity► Have a system for prioritising all the evaluated opportunities to maximise the value of energy savings 5
    6. 6. Introduction► This module provides a framework for the financial evaluation of energy and emissions reduction initiatives. When evaluating any such project, the decision to proceed should occur within the broader decision making process of your business.► To ensure the successful implementation of any new energy saving measure you should, as a minimum: ► Produce a detailed cash flow of each alternative ► Ensure that all costs and benefits are included ► Consider any investment allowances, grants and taxation issues ► Undertake the financial appraisal of each ► Implement and monitor the performance of the project6
    7. 7. Simple Payback PeriodThe payback period is the time required for the cash inflowsto equal the original cash investment, i.e. how long it takesto get your money back Payback Period (PP) = The Costs of the Project/ Investment Annual Cash Inflows/ Savings E.g. A lighting retrofit project costs $200,000 and the expected returns are $40,000 annually. PP = $200,000 / 40,000 = 5 years. 7
    8. 8. Net Present ValueNPV is what the project is worth today.Projects with identical simple payback periods can have very different netpresent values depending on the timing and duration of cash flows.E.g. Two $100,000 projects, each has a simple payback period of two years. Investment Payback NPV Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 Yr 8 Yr 9 Yr 10 todayProject A 2 ($12k) ($100k) $50k $50kProject B 2 $188k ($100k) $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50kThe projects are equal when using payback period, but project B is clearlysuperior, so projects with identical simple payback period can be ranked bycalculating the present value of future cash flows. NPV Yr 1 Yr 2 Project A $87k $50k $50k Project B $83k $100k8
    9. 9. Internal Rate of Return (IRR)► Discount rate at which the benefits equal the costs (i.e. NPV = 0) ► The higher the cash flows after the initial investment, the higher the discount rate needed to achieve NPV of zero, so a higher return► Indicates whether funds to be spent on energy saving investments could be better deployed in other projects, or in an interest bearing deposit► Investments are compared against a required rate of return that a business sets for proposals ► If a project’s internal rate of return is greater than required rate of return then it can be accepted ► If it falls below the required rate of return then it should be rejected► Can be calculated easily in Excel using IRR and XIRR functions Investment IRR Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 Yr 8 Yr 9 Yr 10 todayProject A 21% ($100k) $25k $25k $25k $25k $25k $25k $25k $25k $25k $25kProject B 49% ($100k) $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k $50k 9
    10. 10. Accounting Rate of Return (ARR)► Investments are compared against a required rate of return that a business sets for proposals ► If a project’s accounting rate of return is equal to or greater than required rate of return then it can be accepted ► If it falls below the required rate of return then it should be rejected► The higher the ARR the more attractive the investment Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) = Average Cost Saving Initial Investment10
    11. 11. Feasibility analysisMethod Benefits DisadvantagesPayback ► Easy to compute ► Ignores the benefits that ► Easy to understand occur after the payback period ► Ignores the time value of moneyNet present ► Accounts for changing ► Needto select anvalue value over time, i.e. time appropriate discount rate value of moneyInternal Rate of ► Provides a benchmark for ► Need to select anReturn what should and should appropriate benchmark IRR not be invested in ► Doesn’t give an indication of the absolute value of a projectAccounting ► Easy to compute ► Ignores the time value ofRate of Return money11
    12. 12. Consider the full benefitsEnergy efficiency actions often have benefits other than the obviousreductions in direct costs, e.g. converting from standard fluorescenttubes to triphospher tubes will not only save on electricity costs, but willalso:► Increase lamp life, thereby reducing the cost of ordering, purchasing, storing and installing replacement lamps► Improve lamp light output, quality and reliability, potentially allowing the use of fewer fittings and/ or improving productivity through better lighting levelsBenefits could include (but are not limited to):► Reduced energy savings (gas, electricity, fuels)► Reduced maintenance savings► Savings from not having to purchase carbon offsets► Value of Energy Savings Certificate or equivalent produced12
    13. 13. Consider the full costs► Costs go beyond the initial purchase price when you make a capital investment.► When comparing more than one opportunity, merely looking at the purchase and installation price can ignore operational costs such as maintenance costs and can result in the company paying more over future years.► Consider both capex and opex budgets in the financial analysisCosts could include (but are not limited to):► Cost of the capital asset► Cost of alterations to existing capital assets► Repair costs► Consultancy fees13
    14. 14. Consider other funding opportunities► When a grant or tax incentive is provided, this should be deducted from the initial implementation cost of the project.► This may include: ► Clean Technology Innovation grants ► Clean Technology Investment grants ► Clean Technologies Food and Foundries grants ► R&D tax incentives14
    15. 15. Prioritising the implementation of opportunities► All opportunities need to be scanned and prioritised to ensure your company’s limited resources are directed to those projects most likely to deliver the desired benefits.► Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC): ► Marginal abatement cost curves are a decision making tool used to analyse investments in presence of a carbon price ► MACCs can be used at an enterprise level, or can be used by governments to assess impacts at a state, regional, and national level ► When a MACC is determined for an entity, the curve represents the marginal cost of the last unit of emission abated by that entity15
    16. 16. Source: Carbon Growth Plan.pdf 16
    17. 17. How to Create a MACC1. Short-list a selection of carbon abatement options2. Collect the relevant inputs for each abatement option; including: operational inputs, technical and regulatory information, financial and economic inputs3. Build a customised analytical modelKey outputs include: ► Identification of the cost effectiveness of various abatement options ► Visual representation of the scale and effectiveness of these options ► Identification of opportunities to profitably engage in carbon trading ► Identification of the measures required to meet a set carbon cap ► Assessment of the point where it is most efficient to simply purchase more carbon credits on the market, identification of efficiency improvements available at the current $/t price 17
    18. 18. Summary► Selecting which projects to undertake can be done by comparing the different investment appraisal metrics for each project providing they have all been prepared on a consistent basis► Ideally all the investment appraisal metrics should be considered ► Using one metric in isolation could lead to misleading results and potentially incorrect decisions being made ► Once the cash flows have been prepared, all metrics should be easy to calculate► NPV, IRR. Payback and ARR are all financial metrics. Additionally, you can prioritise using tools such as a marginal abatement cost curve.18
    19. 19. Case Study 1 – Company A► Company As head office is considering an upgrade of its lighting in one of its manufacturing plants.► The project will involve changing the existing lamps to new LED lights, which are 20% more energy efficient and will reduce the number of lamps needed by 30 per cent. The project will also involve the installation of time-delay switches, occupancy sensors and devices that detect daylight control lighting levels. These measures localise the control of lights so they are not running unnecessarily.► The LED lamps last 5 times longer than the existing lamps. Furthermore, testing has found that the improved lighting quality will reduce the product defect rate by 3%.► For an investment of $27k to buy and install the new lighting system, the consultant has advised Company A that it will save 200,000 kWh per annum19
    20. 20. Case Study 1 – Company AWhat are the costs and benefits for Company A?Savings► Electricity savings► Reduced maintenance costs► Reduced replacement costsCosts► New lighting and fixtures20
    21. 21. Case Study 2 – Company B► Company B’s brick manufacturing business has identified that it could potentially use the landfill gas from the landfill it owns to replace the natural gas that is it purchasing from its gas retailer to fuel its kiln. ► The project would involve constructing a landfill gas capture facility – cost $1.5m ► The company has secured a grant of $25,000 of the cost of plant and equipment to implement this project. ► Upgrades to the equipment also mean that less energy is required to run the kiln ► The company commissioned a consultant who found that the annual savings in natural gas used in the kiln from the project would be 130,000 GJ ► The landfill capture equipment has the potential to capture 400,000GJ. Neighbouring manufacturers to Company B have also expressed interest in purchasing landfill gas.21
    22. 22. Case Study 2 – Company BWhat are the costs and benefits for Company B?Savings► Natural gas savings► Carbon abatement savings from landfill► Carbon abatement savings from natural gas► Grant receivedCosts► New capital equipment - $1.2m22
    23. 23. Case Study 3 – Company ABC► How would Company ABC go about prioritising the energy efficiency opportunities it has identified?23
    24. 24. Thank youModule 5