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acquisition and learning language hypothesis


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Theoretical background to elf methodology's present

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acquisition and learning language hypothesis

  1. 1. THEORICAL BACKGROUND TO ELF METHOLOGY Group1: THE ACQUISITION – LEARNING HYPOTHESIS - Nguyễn Thị Thu Thủy - Nguyễn Thy San - Hoàng Tuyết Nhung - Nguyễn Ngọc Mai Quỳnh - Khuất Thu Mai - Chu Thị Hải Yến
  2. 2. - The acquisition – learning language is the first in five hypotheses of Stephen Krashen’s “monitor model”. - Stephen Krashen (1941-1992) is the professor emeritus at the University of the Southern California, He is a linguist, educational researcher, and activist.
  3. 3. What is the “Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis”?
  4. 4. Two different ways for adult second language leaner to develop skill/ability in second language: • Language acquisition • Language learning
  5. 5. A. Language acquisition • Definition: It’s is a subconscious process using language for real communication.
  6. 6. Language acquisition occurs passively and unconsciously through implicit, informal, or natural learning. Results: • Obtain the linguistic skills • Have the “feel” for correctness
  7. 7. B. Language learning • Definition: via a conscious process of study and attention to form and rule learning.
  8. 8. Language learning occurs actively and consciously through explicit or formal learning and instruction. Result: - Gain explicit knowledge about a language - Having knowledge and awareness about second language rules
  10. 10. THE ACQUISITION – LEARNING DISTINCTION Acquisition language Learning language - Similar to child first language acquisition - “pick up” a language - Subconscious - Implicit knowledge - Formal teaching does not help - Formal knowledge of language - “knowing about” a language - Conscious - Explicit knowledge - Formal teaching helps
  11. 11. 1.1 SIMILAR TO CHILD FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Definition: it requires meaningful interaction in the target language- natural communication in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.
  12. 12. children acquire their mother tongue through interaction with their parents and the environment that surrounds them.
  13. 13. 1.1 SIMILAR TO CHILD FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Conclusion: This suggests that it is through exposure to the language and meaningful communication that a first language is acquired, without the need of systematic studies of any kind.
  14. 14. 1.2 FORMAL KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE • Definition: people can be learn how to use language in accurately, error correction is maintained, helps the learner come to the correct mental representation of the linguistic generalization.
  15. 15. to adult students, a quick look at the current methodologies and language courses available clearly shows that courses revolve around grammar, patterns, repetitions,…
  16. 16. 1.2 FORMAL KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE • Conclusion: - In some other scenarios, in which there is a teacher, the work done in class is mostly grammatically oriented: tenses, rules, multiple choice exercises and so on… - Communication is set aside, neglected or even disregarded.
  17. 17. 2.1 “PICKING UP” A LANGUAGE • Definition: people acquire knowledge of a language by learning from their lives, their experience, perception, motivation,… • Manner : natural way • People are concerned about the messages they are conveying and understanding more than rules of the language.
  18. 18. Students talk to foreigners to improve listening and speaking skill
  19. 19. People live in ethnic minority communicate to foreigners
  20. 20. 2.2 KNOWING ABOUT LANGUAGE • Definition: people learn to know about rules which include structures, vocabulary, grammar,...clearly and exactly. Learners acquire knowledge of a language by learning in the fixed system ( in the school with teacher and books). • Manner: compulsory way. • People are concerned about the right form of the rule of the language when they use.
  21. 21. Students are taught about rules: structures, vocabulary, grammar,...
  22. 22. 3.1 SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION • Definitions: having a "feel" for correctness; we may not know exactly what rule was violated, but somehow know that an error was committed.
  23. 23. 3.1 SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION • Details: - These methods provide understandable second language input to the brain. - Hardly think about grammar rules or attempt to memorize words. - Spoken and written English grammar will improve tremendously.
  24. 24. A child spends hours each day with her peers to absorb the new language.
  25. 25. 3.1 SUBCONSCIOUS ACQUISITION • Goals: Develop linguistic ability.
  26. 26. 3.2 CONSCIOUS LEARNING • Definition: - A rule-based approach to new languages - Common in classroom settings: Teachers present students with grammar and pronunciation rules and then give examples of how these rules play out in real life.
  27. 27. 3.2 CONSCIOUS LEARNING • Details: - Using the conscious brain to analyze English grammar, memorize English vocabulary, and translate English messages. - Studying the mechanics of English word by word, rule by rule. - Knowing a lot about English grammar rules and translations– but you can’t speak or understand native speakers well.
  28. 28. Teachers present students with grammar and pronunciation rules and then give examples of how these rules play out in real life.
  29. 29. 3.2 CONSCIOUS LEARNING • Goals: Help the learner arrive at the right form of the rule.
  30. 30. 4.IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE & EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE • Explicit : directed stated, clear, obvious. Ex: Mary was so mad at her mother for grounding her. • Implicit: not directed stated, clues given to help readers find out. Ex: Mary glared at her mother, quickly spun on her heels, and slammed the door so hard that the neighbors probably heard. Clues : glared, spun, slam ==> reader can understand that she is angry
  31. 31. 5. EFFECT OF FORMAL TEACHING ON ACQUISITION AND LEARNING LANGUAGE • With learning: learning’s goals is conscious rules, and error correction is thought to help the learner get the right form of the rules =>Language teaching helps learning a lot.
  32. 32. 5. EFFECT OF FORMAL TEACHING ON ACQUISITION AND LEARNING LANGUAGE • Ex: A student wrote: “He used to living in the countryside”. His teacher corrected his sentence: “He is used to living in the countryside” and forced him to repeat, practice correctly many times => The student remembered that structure and never write it incorrectly .
  33. 33. 5. EFFECT OF FORMAL TEACHING ON ACQUISITION AND LEARNING LANGUAGE • With acquisition: in fact, rules, and error correction are not noticed much in real communication. People notice the truth value much more than form. .
  34. 34. => Language teaching does not help.
  35. 35. • Ex: Parents don’t usually care about their children’s grammar mistakes. If the child says that: “I want eat candy”, the parents won’t correct because its meaning is clear in the context. If the child says that: “I am older than my older sister”, the parents will correct it: “I am younger than my older sister”.
  36. 36. As teachers, it is our duty to make sure that our students “acquire” rather than “learn” the language.
  37. 37. Thanks you for listening!!!