Image Processing(Beta1)

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A presentation based on the fundamentals of image processing

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Image Processing(Beta1)

  1. 1. IMAGE PROCESSING Presented By:- <ul><li>Niladri Sekhar Dutta </li></ul><ul><li>Anindya banerjee </li></ul><ul><li>Debasree Burman </li></ul><ul><li>Saswata Ghosh </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>A picture is “worth a thousand words” </li></ul><ul><li>Most people dislike going through pages of text specially on a computer screen so developers supplement words with pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures impart large amount of information in a compact way </li></ul><ul><li>The pictures that we see in our everyday life can be broadly classified into two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. An Image is a picture that depict some real world situation typically captured by a camera.An image can be Continuous Tone, Half-Tone or Bitone. Graphics implies a synthetic pictorial representation.Graphics can be categorized into Raster Graphic and Vector Graphic.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Image can either be black and white or greyscales having a number of grey shades or color containing a number of colour shades </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output of image processing gives us our desired modified image. </li></ul>Processing With the development of technology an image can be modified. Or in other words it can be processed.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Image processing involves three stages : </li></ul><ul><li>INPUT </li></ul><ul><li>EDITING </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT </li></ul>Three stages of Image Processing
  7. 7. <ul><li>Image input is the first stage of image processing. </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with getting the natural images into a computer system for subsequent work. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially it deals with the conversion of analog image into digital form. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done using two devices : </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul>INPUT
  8. 8. <ul><li>Once a digital version of an image is generated ,it is edited to manipulate the image in various way. </li></ul><ul><li>In the editing stage many operations can be performed to transform the image as per the requirements of the application.Operations include: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Copying </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Trimming </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the brightness ,contrast ,color tones. </li></ul>Editing
  9. 9. Image Processing Software <ul><li>An image processing software offers a wide variety of ways to manipulate images.Some of the tools are: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Painting and Drawing Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Color Selection Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Gradient Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Clone Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Retouching Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Text Tools </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Filters are mathematical algorithms which change images in certain pre-defined ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Using filters appearances of photographic images may be changed to resemble: </li></ul><ul><li>Emboss </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk and Charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Blur </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallize </li></ul><ul><li>The filters read in RBG values of the pixels and apply various mathematical operators to derive new values. </li></ul>Filters
  11. 11. Applications Of Various Filters
  12. 13. <ul><li>Output stage involves saving the transformed image in a file format which can be displayed on the monitor screen or printed paper . </li></ul><ul><li>The image pixels are actually strings of binary numbers and therefore referred to as Logical Pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>When the image are displayed on the monitor however,the logical pixels are directly mapped on to the phosphor dots of the monitor,which is referred to as the physical pixels. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters like resolution and bit-depth determine the appearance and final quality of the image. </li></ul>OUTPUT
  13. 14. <ul><li>The Analog to Digital conversion process involves three steps : </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization </li></ul><ul><li>Code Generation </li></ul>Analog To Digital Conversion
  14. 15. <ul><li>Sampling involves breaking the continuous wave into discrete set of points. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done by examining the waves at certain points and recording the values of the waves at these points discarding the other values. </li></ul>Sampling
  15. 16. <ul><li>In sampling input analog value must be held constant during conversion process to avoid inconsistencies due to changeing values.This operation is called SAMPLE-AND-HOLD ,which holds the current sample value constant until the next sample is obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>This constant value gives the sampled output its characteristic staircase look. </li></ul>Sampling
  16. 17. Original Signal Sampled Signal
  17. 18. Sampling sampled real image
  18. 19. <ul><li>The output of the set of sampling step is a set of sample values, which represents the changing analog signal. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step is to represent values as numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantization Level refers to the number of different sample values that can be used to represent a digital quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Since sampling values represent the amplitudes of the analog waves at different time instants, the process of selecting a few number of amplitude levels from a large set is know as Amplitude-Discretization. </li></ul>Quantization
  19. 20. <ul><li>After quantization step, we have a set of values quantized to a specific number of levels, occurring at specific instants of time (or space). </li></ul><ul><li>Code generation involves expressing the amplitude levels in terms of binary codes or numbers because that is finally how data would be represented within a computer. </li></ul>Code-Word Generation
  20. 21. Operations <ul><li>Some important image processing operations are: </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric transformations </li></ul><ul><li>Color corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Digital compositing or optical compositing </li></ul><ul><li>Image registration </li></ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Image segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images </li></ul>
  21. 22. Geometric transformations such as enlargement, reduction, and rotation
  22. 23. Color corrections such as brightness and contrast adjustments, quantization, or conversion to a different color space
  23. 24. Intensity Masking: Multiplying Two Images Digital compositing or optical compositing (combination of two or more images). Used in filmmaking to make a &quot;matte&quot;
  24. 25. Extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed images
  25. 26. Applied To <ul><li>Face detection </li></ul><ul><li>Feature detection </li></ul><ul><li>Lane departure warning system </li></ul><ul><li>Medical image processing </li></ul><ul><li>Microscope image processing </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing </li></ul>

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