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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING08/10/12     Digital Image Processing   1
Why do we need to study DIP?  Interest in digital image processing methods     stems from two aspects:  1) Improve images ...
1.1 What is a digital image ?. An image may be defined a two-dimension function f(x,y)    (x,y) ---- coordinate for a poin...
1.2 The Origins of Digital image Processing. The first application was in newspaper industry in 1920s08/10/12             ...
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.                                                                            Digital      ...
1.3 Objectives of digital image processing1.Improve qualities of images so that human can interpret  them better.  Such as...
1.4 Three level-processes for a digital image.Low-level processes:reduce noises,contrast enhancement and so on, from an im...
1.5 What can digital image processing do?                                 . Digitizing an image ( convert an continuous im...
1.5.1 Digitizing an image       It is the first step of digital image processing                          Y. Sample ( like...
1.5.2 Enhancing an image.Original Image Enhanced Image    08/10/12            Digital Image Processing   10
1.5.3 Restoring an imageWhen an image damaged, we can recover it         torn             Cracked parts08/10/12           ...
1.5.4 Compressing an image         Original image 257kb            Compressed image 147kbRedundant Info.    08/10/12      ...
Segmenting an    image      Original image                    Segmented image08/10/12               Digital Image Processi...
1.5.6 Recognizing an imageTake car license plate recognition as an example. 08/10/12                 Digital Image Process...
1.6 Digital image processing and computer graphics.. The differences between them can be shown as follows.               I...
Some examples about their differences.A simple example for computer graphics is that when we input thecenter coordinates (...
1.7 The flow of a typical digital image processing systemOriginal                                                    Proce...
1.8 The elements of a digital image processing systemImage acquisition: Digital camera or scanner or video camera;Image st...
1.9 Some Applications of digital image processing    It is widely used in industry,medical image, commerce,    entertainme...
Application of Fingerprint System. Cracking a criminal case with the help of fingerprint recognition,. Personal Identity C...
(3) Traffic Management  The key is car license plate recognition based on image--- Acquiring the image of a car license pl...
(4) Traffic Control. It can be widely used to the following aspects.. Charge automatically on freeway   --- Auto-record th...
(5) Traffic Control .. Park management    Automatically record the car license plate and recognize it    and control passi...
(6) EntertainmentAn example --- Human face beautifying08/10/12              Digital Image Processing   24
1.10 Some examples of Using DIP Based on EM spectrum(1) The electromagnetic spectrum arranged according to energy per phot...
(3) Gamma-Ray ImagingNuclear medicine: Inject a patient with a radioactive isotope that can emitgamma-ray. It is used in l...
08/10/12   Digital Image Processing   27
(4) X-ray ImagingBe widely used in Medical diagnostics, Industry, Astronomy and so on.When X-rays penetrate an objects, th...
08/10/12   Digital Image Processing   29
(5) Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band Applications of ultraviolet “light” include lithography,industrial inspection, microsc...
(6) Imaging in the Visible and Infrared BandsThe visual band of the electromagnetic spectrum is the mostfamiliar in our ac...
These examples range from                          pharmaceuticals and micro-                          inspection to mater...
iii) Weather observation and prediction also are major    applications of multi-spectral imaging from satellites.08/10/12 ...
(7) Imaging in the Microwave Band      A typical application in the microwave band is radar.08/10/12                  Digi...
(8) Imaging in the Radio Band    The major applications in the radio band are in medicine and    astronomy. In medicine ra...
Comparison with other bands08/10/12               Digital Image Processing   36
1.11 How to digitize an image For an image we must digitize it so that it can be processed by computers. For an image, we ...
A simple model is f(x,y)= i(x,y)r(x,y)  i(x,y) --- intensity of the incident light             0 < i (x,y) <    ∞   r(x,y)...
Take a picture as an example.            Yf (x,y)                                                       X     08/10/12    ...
Sampling --- Digitize the spatial coordinates ( pixel )Quantizing --- Digitize the intensity function f (x,y)An image proc...
Suppose there are N pixels along horizontal direction X and                   M pixels along vertical direction Y.and ther...
For any point (x,y) in the digital image       x ∈ [ 0,1,......N − 1]            y ∈ [ 0,1,......M − 1]       f ( x, y ) ∈...
As for the quality of a digital image, the larger are M, Nand L, the better is the image.                     2  For a squ...
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Image processing

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Image processing

  1. 1. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 1
  2. 2. Why do we need to study DIP? Interest in digital image processing methods stems from two aspects: 1) Improve images for human interpretation; 2) Process images, include storage,transmission and representation for autonomous machine perception.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 2
  3. 3. 1.1 What is a digital image ?. An image may be defined a two-dimension function f(x,y) (x,y) ---- coordinate for a point in a plane. f ---- intensity or gray or color in the position (x,y). Digital image digitize to the function f and coordinates (x,y) let them become discrete values. Usually f,x and y are all finite values.. Pixel a point in a digital image is called pixel.. Digital Image Processing regarded as a discipline from an image to another.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 3
  4. 4. 1.2 The Origins of Digital image Processing. The first application was in newspaper industry in 1920s08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 4
  5. 5. Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. Digital Processing, 2nd ed. www.imageprocessingbook.com Chapter 1: IntroductionThey were not real image processing, only image encoding and printingand some improvements. © 2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. WoodsIn 1960s, computer and its programming were brought into, the trueimage processing began.Two important events push forward digital image processing.1) Space Program --- First Moon Probe ( America, in 1964);2) In medicine --- CAT or CT (Computer Axial Tomography early 1970s) Using X-rays generates image. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 5
  6. 6. 1.3 Objectives of digital image processing1.Improve qualities of images so that human can interpret them better. Such as enhancement, restoration and so on.2.Process pictures and extract some information from them for machine perception. Such as image analysis, image recognition and so on. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 6
  7. 7. 1.4 Three level-processes for a digital image.Low-level processes:reduce noises,contrast enhancement and so on, from an image to another, improve the image quality;.Mid-level processes: extract some attributes from an image, segment an image, extract object contour in an image.High-level processes: recognize objects in an image for analysis There is no obvious boundary between digital image processingand computer vision. Computer vision: Machine perception based on vision or to usecomputers to emulate human vision. Image recognition is a little likethis. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 7
  8. 8. 1.5 What can digital image processing do? . Digitizing an image ( convert an continuous image to a digital one) . Enhancing an image ( Let an image better suit for a specific application) . Restoring an image ( Recover a damaged image) . Compressing an image ( Store it with less bytes ) . Segmenting an image ( Partition objects in an image from background ) . Recognizing an image ( Tell what the objects are in an image )08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 8
  9. 9. 1.5.1 Digitizing an image It is the first step of digital image processing Y. Sample ( like these grids). quantization F(x,y) X x 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 9
  10. 10. 1.5.2 Enhancing an image.Original Image Enhanced Image 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 10
  11. 11. 1.5.3 Restoring an imageWhen an image damaged, we can recover it torn Cracked parts08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 11
  12. 12. 1.5.4 Compressing an image Original image 257kb Compressed image 147kbRedundant Info. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 12
  13. 13. Segmenting an image Original image Segmented image08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 13
  14. 14. 1.5.6 Recognizing an imageTake car license plate recognition as an example. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 14
  15. 15. 1.6 Digital image processing and computer graphics.. The differences between them can be shown as follows. Image1 Image2 image processing Data Image3 Computer GraphicsImage1 and Image2 are different: Image2 is gotten by processing image1;Image3 is produced or generated by converting data, which maybe avirtual image; Some examples are as follows. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 15
  16. 16. Some examples about their differences.A simple example for computer graphics is that when we input thecenter coordinates (x,y) and a radius R, a circle ( image) can beproduced by computer graphics system. R (x,y) 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 16
  17. 17. 1.7 The flow of a typical digital image processing systemOriginal Processed imageimage Camera or Pre- An interpretation Processing Scanner processing Control Signals Digitization Enhancement Restoration Controlled Devices Compression Recognition Analysis 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 17
  18. 18. 1.8 The elements of a digital image processing systemImage acquisition: Digital camera or scanner or video camera;Image storage: all kinds of digital memory, such as hard disk, tape, optical disk and so on;Image processing: Computers with software;Image display: Displayer or all kinds of hardcopy devices.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 18
  19. 19. 1.9 Some Applications of digital image processing It is widely used in industry,medical image, commerce, entertainment and so on.(1) Industry monitoring system e.g. Temperature control , automatically adjust temperature based on the color in the flame image.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 19
  20. 20. Application of Fingerprint System. Cracking a criminal case with the help of fingerprint recognition,. Personal Identity Card, Store the fingerprint image in the ID card.. Entry management --- The conference permission entrance --- Large park with multi-entrances 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 20
  21. 21. (3) Traffic Management The key is car license plate recognition based on image--- Acquiring the image of a car license plate Using camera or video camera--- Enhancement processing Adjusting the distribution of the gray level in an image--- Segmentation Segmenting letters or digitals in the plate--- Recognition Telling what the letters or digitals are08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 21
  22. 22. (4) Traffic Control. It can be widely used to the following aspects.. Charge automatically on freeway --- Auto-record the car license plate --- Distinguish the type of car --- Recognize the plate --- Connecting the credit card system automatically 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 22
  23. 23. (5) Traffic Control .. Park management Automatically record the car license plate and recognize it and control passing-bar to switch on or off. .. Monitor the driver with over-speed on freeway automatically record the car license plate with over-speed and recognize it.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 23
  24. 24. (6) EntertainmentAn example --- Human face beautifying08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 24
  25. 25. 1.10 Some examples of Using DIP Based on EM spectrum(1) The electromagnetic spectrum arranged according to energy per photon.(2) X-ray and Visual bands of spectrum are the most familiar images in actual application, such as X-ray in medical inspection and so on. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 25
  26. 26. (3) Gamma-Ray ImagingNuclear medicine: Inject a patient with a radioactive isotope that can emitgamma-ray. It is used in locating sites of bone pathology,such as infectionor tumors.PET --- Positron Emission Tomograph 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 26
  27. 27. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 27
  28. 28. (4) X-ray ImagingBe widely used in Medical diagnostics, Industry, Astronomy and so on.When X-rays penetrate an objects, there is a different amount of absorptionfor different parts in the object , so an image is generated in the film to besensitive to X-ray energy. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 28
  29. 29. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 29
  30. 30. (5) Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band Applications of ultraviolet “light” include lithography,industrial inspection, microscopy,lasers,biological imaging,and astronomical observations. i) Ultraviolet light is used in fluorescence microscopy. ii) Fluorescence microscopy is an excellent method for studying material that can be made to fluorescene.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 30
  31. 31. (6) Imaging in the Visible and Infrared BandsThe visual band of the electromagnetic spectrum is the mostfamiliar in our activities. So their applications are also the widestcompared with other bands. And infrared band is often viewedvisual light.Here we show some applications of the visual light in lightMicroscopy,astronomy,remote sensing,industry,and law enforcement.i) Some examples of images obtained with a light microscope. 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 31
  32. 32. These examples range from pharmaceuticals and micro- inspection to materials characterization.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 32
  33. 33. iii) Weather observation and prediction also are major applications of multi-spectral imaging from satellites.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 33
  34. 34. (7) Imaging in the Microwave Band A typical application in the microwave band is radar.08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 34
  35. 35. (8) Imaging in the Radio Band The major applications in the radio band are in medicine and astronomy. In medicine radio waves are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 35
  36. 36. Comparison with other bands08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 36
  37. 37. 1.11 How to digitize an image For an image we must digitize it so that it can be processed by computers. For an image, we usually use the intensity function f(x,y) to represent it. (x,y) --- the location of a point in the image; f (x,y) --- the intensity of the point (x,y); It is obvious that 0< f(x,y) < ∞08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 37
  38. 38. A simple model is f(x,y)= i(x,y)r(x,y) i(x,y) --- intensity of the incident light 0 < i (x,y) < ∞ r(x,y) --- the coefficient of the reflection, depend on the object light casts 0 < r(x,y) < 108/10/12 Digital Image Processing 38
  39. 39. Take a picture as an example. Yf (x,y) X 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 39
  40. 40. Sampling --- Digitize the spatial coordinates ( pixel )Quantizing --- Digitize the intensity function f (x,y)An image processed by sampling and quantizing is calledthe digital image.It is also the procedure from a continuous image toa discrete one.Uniform sampling --- If all sampled points are equal spacesUniform quantizing --- If all grey-level intervals are the same ( From the darkest to the brightest ) 08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 40
  41. 41. Suppose there are N pixels along horizontal direction X and M pixels along vertical direction Y.and there are L gray levels, a digital image cab be representedby the following matrix.  f (0,0) f (0,1) .... .... f (0, M − 1)   f (1,0) f (1,1) .... .... f (1, M − 1)    f ( x, y ) ≈  .... .... .... .... ....     .... .... .... .... ....   f ( N − 1,0)  f ( N − 1,1) f ( N − 1, M − 1)  08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 41
  42. 42. For any point (x,y) in the digital image x ∈ [ 0,1,......N − 1] y ∈ [ 0,1,......M − 1] f ( x, y ) ∈ [ 0,1,......L − 1] n m k Usually, N =2 and M = 2 L= 2 So the number, b, of bits required to store a digital image: b = M ×N×k08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 42
  43. 43. As for the quality of a digital image, the larger are M, Nand L, the better is the image. 2 For a square image, we have M=N, so b = N ×m U s u a l l y08/10/12 Digital Image Processing 43

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