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Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme

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Selemani Masala & Tatu Mwaruka's (TASAF) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme

  1. 1. Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net programme Presented to the Transfer Project workshop Arusha, April 3rd 2019 S. Masala, T. Mwaruka and P. Kijazi TASAF Management Unit
  2. 2. Presentation outline 1. PSSN intervention and graduation logic and impact on households, adolescents and women – Discussion 2. PSSN Livelihoods Enhancement component and the Adolescent Cash Plus model – Discussion
  3. 3. + CCTs (HH with children and pregnant women) Incl. monthly community sessions PWP (HH with adults able to work) Plus savings promotion PSSN: A system to support the poor and vulnerable in Tanzania Income generating activities, Savings, Training Education, health and nutrition services Human capital accumulation and sustained reduction of poverty v Smooth consumption, accumulation of assets v Participation for several years *A household becomes a beneficiary of both programs Unified registry of Beneficiaries Common targeting
  4. 4. TASAF-PSSN graduation strategies • TASAF-PSSN phase II will apply the following graduation strategies – Recertification of programme participants • Combination of community-based listing and proxy means-test • Can lead to exit or to continued stay in the programme – Voluntary exit (following communication campaign) – Automatic Exit after completion of cycle of Livelihood Enhancement activities
  5. 5. MAIN IMPACT FINDINGS 4/10/2019 9
  6. 6. ThePSSNfurther reduced theshareof householdsliving under theabsolute poverty line  In absence of the program, and thanks to improvements in Tanzanian economic situation,basicneedspovertydecreased(1.8%) compared tobaseline  However,there wasa slight increasein the adjusted food poverty (0.7%)  Separately, theprogramgeneratedan additional decreasein povertyof 10% and12% respectively 69.2 67.9 61.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 Baseline Control PSSN BelowBasic Needs Poverty Line (%) 63.5 64.0 56.3 100 80 60 40 20 0 Baseline Control PSSN BelowAdjusted Food Poverty Line (%)
  7. 7. Fooddiversity increased, related to better performance of children & adults at school/work  Without the program, the likelihoodof low dietary diversity increasedby 2.8 p.p. Howeverwith theprogram, the likelihood of low dietary diversity decreased by 6.1 p.p.  Intheabsenceof theprogram, theshareof householdsundera PoorFood ConsumptionScore(FCS)decreased by 11.1 p.p. compared to the baseline, the program generated anadditional decrease of 4 p.p. 54.1 50.1 Shareof householdsfalling under Poor FCS 65.0 Baseline Control PSSN 73.0 75.8 69.7 Likelihood of LowDietary Diversity (%) Baseline Control PSSN
  8. 8. Theprogram intensified farming activities, and increased investmentin productive assets 61.0 78.7 100 90 80 72.2 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Baseline Control PSSN 35.9 42.1 60.7 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0  Inabsenceof theprogram there wasan overall improvementonthelikelihoodof cultivating a farm and owninglivestock,by 1.2 p.p., and 6.2 p.p. each  Theprogram further improved theseproductiveoutcomes: Shareof householdscultivatingany farm plotincreasedby 6.5p.p. Shareof owningany livestock by18.6 p.p.,whichisalso related to improved resiliencetoshocks Cultivate any farm plot (%) Own any livestock (%) Baseline Control PSSN
  9. 9. Householdshad morecapacity to respond to shocks and relied lessonnegative copingstrategies  Theprogram reduced negative coping strategies in general (CSIreduced by 16.7%), driven by a decrease in household’sreliance onrelatives/friends (by 5.4 p.p.) Note: higher CSImeanshigher risk (i.e. negative) coping strategies 7.8 6.5 10 8 6 4 2 0 Coping Strategies Index (CSI) Control PSSN 18.6 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Help from Relatives/Friends (%) 26.0 Control PSSN
  10. 10. No effect onhealth expenditure, but program increased registration to health insurancethreefold  Registration to CHFisnota PSSNco-responsibility, however,the program hasmade important efforts to promote enrolment.Thisisin line with findings from spot checks 11.0 32.7 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0  No impact onhealth related expenditures  Partly explained by the threefoldincreasein shareof householdshaving at least onememberregisteredunderCommunityHealthFund(increaseby 21.7 p.p.) Health Insurance (%) Control PSSN
  11. 11. School attendance by treatment status and interview wave Children ages 4-16 at baseline 0 .2.4.6.8 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Baseline Endline School Attendance Impact School Attendance Impact Treatment Control Age at baseline
  12. 12. Education [Qualitative findings] “My young brothers were having problems to attend school because they had no uniforms and exercise books, but now they attend school without any problems.” [19-year old male, Mbogwe] “I have seen big improvements in my life and family as a whole. I have school uniforms, food and exercise books. I see myself as having someone to hold my hand and assist me, and for now I am hoping to study up to form six if TASAF will continue to release funds. As a family we own chicken and goats and we are planning to have more as assets. I am working hard in my class and I am sure I will perform well in my exams”. [17-year old male, Itilima]
  13. 13. LIVELIHOODS ENHANCEMENT
  14. 14. Livelihoods Enhancement Framework 18 Conditional Cash Transfer – consumption support + intergenerational poverty reduction Public Works – consumption support Basic skills/awareness training Productive Grant “Light coaching” provided via continued participation of HH in CCT Savings (COMSP, mobile money, individual) START Extreme poverty PW continues Some HHs eligible for Grant
  15. 15. Livelihoods Enhancement Framework Productive GrantBasic skills and awareness training on economic activities Savings promotion (COMSIP, A scheme which responds to proposals put forward by beneficiary households applying for the grant to start/ improve their IGAs. Eligibility: - Participated in LE orientation sessions - Participated in basic skills and savings training - Participated in a business preparation training - Prepared business plan for his IGA Modality: One-time grant Agrees to: - Participate in orientation session on use of grant, including being linked to training on the chosen LE option and livelihood opportunities - Provision of regular hands-on support to beneficiaries during implementation Training beneficiaries on LE opportunities, transformation, marketing, entrepreneurship skills, business plans preparation, record keeping. Eligibility: all households Savings are made with the purpose of increasing the ability of program beneficiaries to save for future needs and investments. Content: LE opportunities, constitution preparation, savings mobilization, loan and conflict management, record keeping Eligibility: all households with labor capacity Coaching and mentoring
  16. 16. Livelihood Enhancement: Implementation status • ToTs on Basic skills on economic activities have been conducted in eight PAAs. • Pilot training to beneficiaries was done in Bagamoyo, where beneficiaries were able to prepare proposals including business plans and applied for productive grants. However, the roll out of the training and provision of productive grants were not done as the two activities were rescheduled to July 2019 • A total of 11,699 Savings groups have been formed comprising of 151,821 beneficiaries (112,962 F and 38,859 M) • Pilot on behavioural design activities is on progress • Support to adolescents and youth through pilot interventions has been done, which include training on business skills and provision of productive grants is on progress (Cash Plus) • 20
  17. 17. LIVELIHOODS ENHANCEMENT – CASH PLUS
  18. 18. • Adolescents: a key population to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty • PSSN has a positive impact on safe transitions to adulthood • The youth well-being impact evaluation highlighted positive changes for young people in PSSN families in fields of education, basic needs, and social support • Yet, cash is important but not sufficient to address all barriers to safe and productive transitions to adulthood • Addressing early marriage and pregnancy, improving health, and providing livelihood opportunities requires more • Powerful synergies can be created when linking adolescents in PSSN households to other services and interventions • Hence, TASAF and partners developed the Cash Plus model and agreed to have it accompanied by a rigorous impact evaluation Cash Plus rationale
  19. 19. Target population: Male & female adolescents aged 14-19 years (1,500 youth) Location: 4 districts in Tanzania’s Southern Highlands region (65 villages) Partners: TASAF, Tanzania AIDS Commission (TACAIDS), Ministry of Health UNICEF Program components: The Cash: PSSN households receiving bi-monthly transfer The Plus: Adolescents in PSSN households receiving 1. Livelihoods and life skills training (12 weeks) 2. Mentoring, referrals and a productive grant (9 months) 3. Linkages to adolescent friendly SRH, HIV services Cash Plus – The Intervention
  20. 20. Evaluation design • Cash Plus is accompanied by a rigorous impact evaluation • The evaluation has a treatment (PSSN cash transfer and Cash Plus for adolescents) and a control group (PSSN cash transfer only) • Measurements done at baseline (mid-2017), mid-line (mid- 2018), and end-line (mid-2019) • After baseline, 65 participating and 65 control villages were selected • In total, 2,458 adolescents participate in the survey (spread over treatment and control group) • The evaluation also includes health facility and community survey instruments
  21. 21. Cash Plus midline survey (mid-2018) • Conducted after 12-week training program for adolescents • Can expect changes in: – Knowledge (business plans, where to seek HIV/SRH services) – Attitudes (gender equitable attitudes, etc.) – Aspirations (future schooling, employment) • Most likely too soon to see – Changes in behavior (livelihoods, HIV, SRH, transitions to adulthood, violence) – Substantive increases in economic activities
  22. 22. Summary of midline findings Domain Total number of outcomes /indicators Number of statistically significant impacts Education 9 1 Economic activities (participation, hours) 17 3 Aspirations (educational, occupational) 10 0 Attitudes (quality of life, self- esteem, social support, locus of control) 5 0 Attitudes on gender 5 1 Contraceptive knowledge 17 3 HIV knowledge 4 1 HIV risk (perceived, tested) 5 SRH visits and reasons for visit 8 1 Total 63 10
  23. 23. Intervention increased economic activities Figure 8.2. Youth participation in any economic activities, by interview wave and treatment status.
  24. 24. Economic activities Qualitative findings elaborate the difference in those who conducted a business before and after livelihood training. Me, before I started training I was cooking buns, but after I started training we were taught simple business plan, I started selling soap, salt and juice. Female, 14 years, Rungwe Participants who reported having started businesses prior to the training cited financial difficulties at home as the main reason for their interest in business: I mean, you look at how the system of life goes at home, and a person when you reach 16 or 17 years, you must know how life goes. You will be surprised you need money and then you ask from Mama and Mama says she doesn’t have, that’s why you have to evaluate and act. Female, 15 years, Rungwe
  25. 25. Protective effects: Youth school dropout between baseline and midline Proportion who dropped out of school by midline, by gender and treatment
  26. 26. Intervention increased gender-equitable attitudes, particularly among males GEM Scale, by gender, treatment and time
  27. 27. Conclusion • Adolescent Cash Plus intervention is: – Addressing multiple vulnerabilities of adolescents in Tanzania – Running on a government platform – Providing evidence on a pilot within extremely poor, marginalized youth • After 12 weeks of training, positive impacts on knowledge and attitudes: – Participation in economic activities – More gender equitable attitudes – More knowledge of modern contraceptives – Increased knowledge of HIV prevention • Changes in behavior take more time, and we will measure at end-line (June – July 2019)

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