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Light, EM Spectrum, and the
Big Bang Theory
Electromagnetism
• It is necessary to understand that
electrical charge (positive/negative) and
magnetism (north/south) are different
aspects of the same force --
electomagnetism.
• Oppositely charged objects, such as a
proton and an electron, attract one
another, while particles with the same
charge repel each other.
How do we look at the
universe?
Ch10Ch10
Space-Time
• We see everything as it once was.
Young Old
Ch10Ch10
60s
50s
Baby Boomer
Universe
40s
Farther away we look, further back in time we see!
90s
80s
70s
Ch10Ch10
What We See
What do we see when we
look?
We see light!
Light energy is carried by particles called
Photons, which move at –the speed of light!!
All photons move in waves-
The distance between wave “peaks” is
called the Wavelength
Different energies of light have longer or shorter
wavelengths…
***The shorter the
wavelength, the
more energy the
photon has
**Remember, no matter what
the wavelength, all light
travels the same speed
Speed of light
• Light travels at 300,000,000
meters/second
• It takes 8 minutes for a light wave (or a
photon) to travel from the sun to the earth.
• We see the moon because it reflects the
sun’s light
• It takes 1 second for light reflected off the
moon to reach the earth.
 
 
 
 
 
 
   The waves can pass through the object
  The waves can be absorbed by the object.
  The waves can be reflected  off the object.
  The waves can be scattered off the object.
   The waves can be refracted through the object.
Radio
(Low Frequency & Very High
Frequency)
• Emitted by
– Astronomical
Objects
– Radio Station
transmitters
• Detected by
– Ground based
radio
telescopes
– Radios
Microwave
• Emitted by:
– Gas clouds
collapsing into
stars
– Microwave Ovens
– Radar Stations
– Cell Phones
• Detected by
– Microwave
Telescopes
– Food (heated)
– Cell phones
– Radar systems)
Infrared
(Near and Thermal)
• Emitted by
– Sun and stars
– TV Remote
Controls
– Food Warming
Lights (Thermal)
– Everything at room
temp or above
• Detected by
– Infrared Cameras
– TVs, VCRs,
– Your skin
An animal, or a human body, for example, emits
some infrared radiation that can be detected
by an infrared camera
Color is related to temperature
Visible
• Emitted by
– The sun and other
astronomical objects
– Laser pointers
– Light bulbs
• Detected by
– Human eyes
– Cameras
– Plants
– Telescopes
Color
• White light is not a single colour; it is
made up of a mixture of the seven
colours of the rainbow.
We can demonstrate this by
splitting white light with a
prism:
This is how rainbows are
formed: sunlight is “split up”
by raindrops.
The colours of the rainbow:
• Red
• Orange
• Yellow
• Green
• Blue
• Indigo
• Violet
Adding colours
• White light can be split up to make separate colours.
These colours can be added together again.
• The primary colours of light are red, blue and green:
Adding blue and red
makes magenta
(purple)
Adding blue and
green makes cyan
(light blue)
Adding all
three makes
white again
Adding red
and green
makes yellow
Seeing colour
• The colour an object appears depends on the colours
of light it reflects.
For example, a red book only reflects red light:
White
light
Only red light
is reflected
A white hat would reflect all seven colours:
A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light
(and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue):
Purple light
White
light
Using coloured light
• If we look at a coloured object in
coloured light we see something
different. For example, consider a
football kit:
White
light
Shorts look blue
Shirt looks red
• In different colours of light this kit would look different:
Red
light
Shirt looks red
Shorts look black
Blue
light
Shirt looks black
Shorts look blue
Using filters
• Filters can be used to “block” out different colours of light:
Red
Filter
Magenta
Filter
Ultraviolet
• Emitted by
– Tanning booths (A)
– The sun (A)
– Black light bulbs (B)
– UV lamps
• Detected by
– Space based UV
detectors
– UV Cameras
– Flying insects (flies)
X-ray
• Emitted by
– Astronomical objects
– X-ray machines
– CAT scan machines
– Radioactive minerals
– Airport luggage scanners
• Detected by
– Space based X-ray
detectors
– X-ray film
– CCD detectors
Chandra X-ray Observatory
• Chandra is designed to
observe X-rays from high
energy regions of the
universe, such as the
remnants of exploded
stars.
• The most sophisticated
observatory built to date.
• Deployed by the Space
Shuttle Columbia on July
23, 1999,Chandra X-ray
Observatory
Gamma Ray
• Emitted by
– Radioactive materials
– Exploding nuclear
weapons
– Gamma-ray bursts
– Solar flares
• Detected by
– Gamma detectors and
astronomical satellites
– Medical imaging detectors
Sources of g-ray Emission
• Black holes
• Active Galaxies
• Pulsars
• Diffuse emission
• Supernovae
• Gamma-ray bursts
• Unidentified
The potential energy in this rock is about to be
converted to kinetic energy (energy of movement)
Each type of element, due to its unique size, gives
off its own unique wavelengths of light- this allows
astronomers to determine what elements they are
observing
Exploring the EMS with
NASA Missions
ASTRO-E2
Chandra
CHIPS Con-X
GALEX
GLAST
HETE-2
INTEGRAL
MAP
RXTE
SWAS
XMM-Newton
Swift
Energy
(eV)
Radio Infrared Visible UV X-ray Gamma ray
The sun gives off
the full range of
wavelengths of
light (called the
Electromagnetic
Spectrum)
And the universe for that matter!
What have we noticed?
Our Universe is Cooling!
Dicke and Gamov calculated that if the Universe is
cooling, we should be able to detect microwave
radiation throughout the sky …
I’m Gamov
I’m Dicke
Long
wave-
-length
Low
temperature
In 1964, the radiation predicted by Gamov was
detected with this antenna by Penzias and Wilson
antenna
Penzias
Wilson
In fact, the snow that you can see on an untuned TV
is also due in part to that radiation emitted by the
Universe!
We’ve a lot of
work today !
Original temperature of the radiation : 3000 K
Today, it is only 3 K
The cooling says how far the light has travelled
13,7 billion years : the age of the Universe
In 2003, the WMAP satelite took a picture of the
universe with small fluctuations of temperature
WMAP measured the same data everywhere.
So, the big-bang must have taken place at the same
time everywhere
Our Universe is Expanding!
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
Doppler Effect
• The Doppler effect
says that things
moving away from
you look redder than
they would if they
weren’t moving.
• Things moving
towards you look
more blue.
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
Edwin Hubble
• Using the Doppler effect, Edwin
Hubble discovered that when we
look at the universe everything is
redder.
• The only explanation for
everything moving away from us
is that the universe is expanding.
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
If the universe is cooling and
the universe is expanding,
the simple explanation is that it
used to be smaller and hotter
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
So what does heat have to do
with anything?
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
Heat is Energy and according to
Einstein…
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
E = m c2
Energy is Matter
Matter is Energy
Lots of energy makes
lots of matter
and vice versa!!!!!!
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
Consider an Ice Cube
• Heat it and it
– Melts
– Boils
– Turns to steam
– H2O breaks up into hydrogen and oxygen
atoms
– The electrons get ripped off the atoms and
electrons and atomic nuclei scurry around
– Atomic nuclei get broken up into protons and
neutrons
– Protons and neutrons get ripped apart into
particles called quarks.
f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f
So what do we think happened
When the universe wasWhen the universe was
young and hot…young and hot…
 infinitely dense point notinfinitely dense point not
governed by our physical lawsgoverned by our physical laws
or timeor time
 all matter and energy containedall matter and energy contained
in one pointin one point
When the universe wasWhen the universe was
young and hot…young and hot…
 Everywhere—all atEverywhere—all at
once—space wasonce—space was
filled with all matterfilled with all matter
 No fireNo fire
 No soundNo sound
 Just energy turnedJust energy turned
into matterinto matter
Three minutes laterThree minutes later
 Atoms are formedAtoms are formed
1 billion years later1 billion years later
 First stars areFirst stars are
formedformed
5 billion years later5 billion years later
 Galaxies areGalaxies are
formedformed
9 billion years later9 billion years later
 Earth is formedEarth is formed

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Light em&bigbang

  • 1. Light, EM Spectrum, and the Big Bang Theory
  • 2. Electromagnetism • It is necessary to understand that electrical charge (positive/negative) and magnetism (north/south) are different aspects of the same force -- electomagnetism. • Oppositely charged objects, such as a proton and an electron, attract one another, while particles with the same charge repel each other.
  • 3. How do we look at the universe?
  • 4. Ch10Ch10 Space-Time • We see everything as it once was. Young Old
  • 5. Ch10Ch10 60s 50s Baby Boomer Universe 40s Farther away we look, further back in time we see! 90s 80s 70s
  • 7. What do we see when we look?
  • 9. Light energy is carried by particles called Photons, which move at –the speed of light!! All photons move in waves- The distance between wave “peaks” is called the Wavelength Different energies of light have longer or shorter wavelengths…
  • 10. ***The shorter the wavelength, the more energy the photon has **Remember, no matter what the wavelength, all light travels the same speed
  • 11. Speed of light • Light travels at 300,000,000 meters/second • It takes 8 minutes for a light wave (or a photon) to travel from the sun to the earth. • We see the moon because it reflects the sun’s light • It takes 1 second for light reflected off the moon to reach the earth.
  • 13.
  • 14. Radio (Low Frequency & Very High Frequency) • Emitted by – Astronomical Objects – Radio Station transmitters • Detected by – Ground based radio telescopes – Radios
  • 15. Microwave • Emitted by: – Gas clouds collapsing into stars – Microwave Ovens – Radar Stations – Cell Phones • Detected by – Microwave Telescopes – Food (heated) – Cell phones – Radar systems)
  • 16. Infrared (Near and Thermal) • Emitted by – Sun and stars – TV Remote Controls – Food Warming Lights (Thermal) – Everything at room temp or above • Detected by – Infrared Cameras – TVs, VCRs, – Your skin
  • 17. An animal, or a human body, for example, emits some infrared radiation that can be detected by an infrared camera Color is related to temperature
  • 18.
  • 19. Visible • Emitted by – The sun and other astronomical objects – Laser pointers – Light bulbs • Detected by – Human eyes – Cameras – Plants – Telescopes
  • 20. Color • White light is not a single colour; it is made up of a mixture of the seven colours of the rainbow. We can demonstrate this by splitting white light with a prism: This is how rainbows are formed: sunlight is “split up” by raindrops.
  • 21. The colours of the rainbow: • Red • Orange • Yellow • Green • Blue • Indigo • Violet
  • 22. Adding colours • White light can be split up to make separate colours. These colours can be added together again. • The primary colours of light are red, blue and green: Adding blue and red makes magenta (purple) Adding blue and green makes cyan (light blue) Adding all three makes white again Adding red and green makes yellow
  • 23. Seeing colour • The colour an object appears depends on the colours of light it reflects. For example, a red book only reflects red light: White light Only red light is reflected
  • 24. A white hat would reflect all seven colours: A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light White light
  • 25. Using coloured light • If we look at a coloured object in coloured light we see something different. For example, consider a football kit: White light Shorts look blue Shirt looks red
  • 26. • In different colours of light this kit would look different: Red light Shirt looks red Shorts look black Blue light Shirt looks black Shorts look blue
  • 27. Using filters • Filters can be used to “block” out different colours of light: Red Filter Magenta Filter
  • 28. Ultraviolet • Emitted by – Tanning booths (A) – The sun (A) – Black light bulbs (B) – UV lamps • Detected by – Space based UV detectors – UV Cameras – Flying insects (flies)
  • 29. X-ray • Emitted by – Astronomical objects – X-ray machines – CAT scan machines – Radioactive minerals – Airport luggage scanners • Detected by – Space based X-ray detectors – X-ray film – CCD detectors
  • 30. Chandra X-ray Observatory • Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from high energy regions of the universe, such as the remnants of exploded stars. • The most sophisticated observatory built to date. • Deployed by the Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999,Chandra X-ray Observatory
  • 31. Gamma Ray • Emitted by – Radioactive materials – Exploding nuclear weapons – Gamma-ray bursts – Solar flares • Detected by – Gamma detectors and astronomical satellites – Medical imaging detectors
  • 32. Sources of g-ray Emission • Black holes • Active Galaxies • Pulsars • Diffuse emission • Supernovae • Gamma-ray bursts • Unidentified
  • 33. The potential energy in this rock is about to be converted to kinetic energy (energy of movement) Each type of element, due to its unique size, gives off its own unique wavelengths of light- this allows astronomers to determine what elements they are observing
  • 34. Exploring the EMS with NASA Missions ASTRO-E2 Chandra CHIPS Con-X GALEX GLAST HETE-2 INTEGRAL MAP RXTE SWAS XMM-Newton Swift Energy (eV) Radio Infrared Visible UV X-ray Gamma ray
  • 35. The sun gives off the full range of wavelengths of light (called the Electromagnetic Spectrum)
  • 36. And the universe for that matter!
  • 37.
  • 38. What have we noticed?
  • 39. Our Universe is Cooling!
  • 40. Dicke and Gamov calculated that if the Universe is cooling, we should be able to detect microwave radiation throughout the sky … I’m Gamov I’m Dicke
  • 42. In 1964, the radiation predicted by Gamov was detected with this antenna by Penzias and Wilson antenna Penzias Wilson
  • 43. In fact, the snow that you can see on an untuned TV is also due in part to that radiation emitted by the Universe! We’ve a lot of work today !
  • 44. Original temperature of the radiation : 3000 K Today, it is only 3 K The cooling says how far the light has travelled 13,7 billion years : the age of the Universe
  • 45. In 2003, the WMAP satelite took a picture of the universe with small fluctuations of temperature
  • 46. WMAP measured the same data everywhere. So, the big-bang must have taken place at the same time everywhere
  • 47. Our Universe is Expanding!
  • 48. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f Doppler Effect • The Doppler effect says that things moving away from you look redder than they would if they weren’t moving. • Things moving towards you look more blue.
  • 49. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f Edwin Hubble • Using the Doppler effect, Edwin Hubble discovered that when we look at the universe everything is redder. • The only explanation for everything moving away from us is that the universe is expanding.
  • 50. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f If the universe is cooling and the universe is expanding, the simple explanation is that it used to be smaller and hotter
  • 51. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f So what does heat have to do with anything?
  • 52. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f Heat is Energy and according to Einstein…
  • 53. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f E = m c2 Energy is Matter Matter is Energy Lots of energy makes lots of matter and vice versa!!!!!!
  • 54. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f Consider an Ice Cube • Heat it and it – Melts – Boils – Turns to steam – H2O breaks up into hydrogen and oxygen atoms – The electrons get ripped off the atoms and electrons and atomic nuclei scurry around – Atomic nuclei get broken up into protons and neutrons – Protons and neutrons get ripped apart into particles called quarks.
  • 55. f Don Lincoln, Fermilab f So what do we think happened
  • 56. When the universe wasWhen the universe was young and hot…young and hot…  infinitely dense point notinfinitely dense point not governed by our physical lawsgoverned by our physical laws or timeor time  all matter and energy containedall matter and energy contained in one pointin one point
  • 57. When the universe wasWhen the universe was young and hot…young and hot…  Everywhere—all atEverywhere—all at once—space wasonce—space was filled with all matterfilled with all matter  No fireNo fire  No soundNo sound  Just energy turnedJust energy turned into matterinto matter
  • 58. Three minutes laterThree minutes later  Atoms are formedAtoms are formed
  • 59. 1 billion years later1 billion years later  First stars areFirst stars are formedformed
  • 60. 5 billion years later5 billion years later  Galaxies areGalaxies are formedformed
  • 61. 9 billion years later9 billion years later  Earth is formedEarth is formed