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Succession Planting
for
Continuous Vegetable Harvests
Plan for continuous supplies of popular summer crops,
such as beans,...
Avoid gluts and shortages
Use your land and time to provide seamless
harvests of summer crops like beans, squash,
cucumber...
Our Story
We garden 3.5 acres of land,
producing vegetables and
berries for 100 people all
year at Twin Oaks Community.
We...
Find the
space:
Measure
and map
East Garden
227’ x 265’
(Includes
asparagus in half
of one plot)
Plots are 9,275-
10,600 f...
Fit in the
major crops
and use the
leftover
spaces for
summer
succession
crops
Fitting in summer succession crops
After locating the major
crops (including sweet corn),
following our rotation plan,
we ...
Summer
Succession
Crops Planning
Chart
• We list the spare
spaces in the plots
(in order of
availability) on the
left
• an...
Succession
Crops Planning
Chart
 We pencil in arrows,
fitting the succession
crops into the spaces
available.
 At the be...
Scheduling continuous harvests
 Many vegetable crops can be
planted several times during
the season, to provide a
continu...
Several approaches to succession crop
scheduling – which suits you?
1. Rough plan: “every two
weeks”
2. “No paperwork” met...
Rough Plan:
Every 2 weeks for beans
and corn,
Every 3 weeks for squash
and cucumbers and
edamame
Every 4 weeks for carr...
Spring and fall crops: carrots, beets
• We start sowing carrots mid–late February
• We sow every 4 weeks in March, April, ...
“No Paperwork” methods
 Sow another planting of
sweet corn when the
previous one is 1”–2"
tall
 Sow more lettuce when
th...
Sow several varieties with differing days-to-
maturity on the same day.
Determine your first spring planting date
Most growers are
probably adept at planting
as soon as possible in the
spring.
D...
Last
worthwhile
planting
date
Figure out the last
date for planting
each crop that gives
it a reasonable
chance of success...
Formula for frost-tender crops
Count back from the expected first frost
date, adding:
• the number of days from seeding to...
Example: Yellow Squash
• number of days from seeding to harvest 50
• average length of the harvest period 21
• 14 days to ...
Making a close-fit plan
Collect three pieces of
information for each
sowing of each crop:
• Sowing date
• Date of first ha...
Veg Finder
Example:
Squash
#3 WEST Plot J
Plant 6/23 120’
Planted…..
Harvesting…..
Finished…..
BEANS CUKES SQUASH CORN CAR...
Gather sowing
and harvest
start dates
Sowing
Date
Harvest
Start
4/18 6/1
4/21 5/19
4/23 5/25
5/14 6/3
5/15 6/21
5/20 7/5
5...
Make a graph -
Five steps
1. Plot a graph for each crop,
with sowing date along the
horizontal (x) axis and harvest
start ...
Step 1: Plot a graph
X axis = Sowing Date, across the bottom
11-May
31-May
20-Jun
10-Jul
30-Jul
19-Aug
8-Sep
28-Sep
18-Oct...
Step 2: Mark
the first
possible sowing
date, find the
harvest start
date for that
 Draw a line up from
your first possibl...
Step 3: Set
your last
worthwhile
harvest date
• Decide your last
worthwhile harvest start
date of the year
• Draw a line a...
Step 4: Divide the harvest period into a whole
number of segments, according to how often
you want a new patch
 Count the...
Step 5: Determine the sowing
dates needed to match your
chosen harvest start dates
• Draw a horizontal line from one harve...
Squash Succession Crops
Sowing date Harvest start
Apr 18 Jun 1
Apr 21 May 19
Apr 23 May 25
May 14 Jun 3
May 15 Jun 21
May ...
Smoothing the graph line
The line of the graph is often uneven, due to
differences in weather from year to year, and to
g...
Another Example: Sweet Corn
• Using our graph of corn sowing and harvest dates (on
the next slide) I estimate that April 2...
Reminder of the main goals of planned
succession planting:
Continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as
beans, squ...
Extra benefits from planned
succession planting:
Save space and work
• We used to do 6 plantings of cucumbers.
• The inter...
Cucumber Succession Crops
Sowing Date Harvest Start 0.880152 4622.504
4/23 6/18
4/25 6/3 38832 38900.58 38871
5/9 6/18
5/1...
Benefits of succession planting:
Avoid chancy sowings: sweet corn
• We used to make 7 sweet corn
plantings: April 26, May ...
Factors in
succession planting:
Keep it simple
• Cucumbers also take a little longer to mature than
squash.
• These two fe...
Other factors affecting
planting frequency:
Mexican bean beetles
Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Ser...
Bean Beetle Parasite
(Pediobius foveolatus)
• These tiny wasps do not overwinter, so buy them each year
unless you don’t g...
Bean Succession Crops
Sowing
Date
Harvest
Start
4/16 6/13
4/18 6/20
4/20 6/16
4/21 6/14
5/2 6/23
5/7 7/2
5/11 7/8
5/12 7/5...
Winter succession crops in the
hoophouse
To maintain continuous supplies of salad and cooking
greens, as well as radishes ...
Planning winter succession crops
• Hoophouse space is so valuable,
make best use
• Rate of growth is faster inside than
ou...
Gather information as you go
• Our hoophouse planting schedule includes a column for
Harvest Start date and Harvest Finish...
Factors to consider
• Seeds may take much
longer to germinate in
cold weather
• “Days to maturity”
number in the catalog
r...
Hoophouse
Succession
Planting
• 2 sowings of chard,
mizuna, scallions,
tatsoi, yukina
savoy
• 3 sowings of
turnips, bulb
o...
Back to the graphs
• Using succession crop
graphs follows the same
process as for outdoor
summer crops
• Keep good records...
Radish Succession Crops Graph
“Filler Greens”
• As well as scheduled
plantings, sow a few
short rows of lettuce,
spinach, Asian greens to
transplant and...
Follow-on Winter Hoophouse Crops
• Some people use the term “Succession Planting” to refer to a
succession of different cr...
Year-round lettuce part 1
Photo Credits Kathryn Simmons
The short version is that
we sow
• twice in January,
• twice in Fe...
Year-round lettuce part 2
Photo: Cold-hardy (not heat-tolerant) Tango lettuce. Credit Kathryn Simmons
• every 5 days in ea...
Lettuce Succession Crops
Sowing Date Harvest Start 1/0 1/13
1/5 4/12
1/15 4/15
1/25 4/17
2/5 4/20
2/15 4/26
2/25 5/1
3/5 5...
Growing Degree Days
 A measure of heat accumulation
 can indicate when it’s warm enough to plant tender crops,
 or when...
Growing Degree Days
 Average the maximum and minimum temperatures for
the 24 hour period, and subtract the base temperatu...
Resources 1
 ATTRA Market Farming: A Start-up Guide, https://attra.ncat.org/attra-
pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=18
 ATT...
Resources 2
 Virginia Co-operative Extension Service Fall Planting Guide
http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-334/426-334.html....
Resources 3 - books
 The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J. K. A. Bleasdale, P. J. Salter et al.
 Knott’s Handbook fo...
Succession Planting for
Continuous Vegetable Harvests
Plan for continuous supplies of popular summer crops,
such as beans,...
Succession planting for continuous vegetable harvests 2015 Pam Dawling 90mins
Succession planting for continuous vegetable harvests 2015 Pam Dawling 90mins
Succession planting for continuous vegetable harvests 2015 Pam Dawling 90mins
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Succession planting for continuous vegetable harvests 2015 Pam Dawling 90mins

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Plan for continuous supplies of popular summer vegetable crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers and sweet corn; cold-weather hoophouse greens and year-round lettuce. Avoid vegetable gluts and shortages.

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Succession planting for continuous vegetable harvests 2015 Pam Dawling 90mins

  1. 1. Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests Plan for continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers and sweet corn; cold- weather hoophouse greens and year-round lettuce. ©Pam Dawling 2015 author of Sustainable Market Farming www.sustainablemarketfarming.com www.facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming
  2. 2. Avoid gluts and shortages Use your land and time to provide seamless harvests of summer crops like beans, squash, cucumbers and sweet corn; cold-weather hoophouse greens and year-round lettuce. Photo credits Kathryn Simmons. Cucumber Generally. Lettuce Freckles.
  3. 3. Our Story We garden 3.5 acres of land, producing vegetables and berries for 100 people all year at Twin Oaks Community. We have a mixed garden system: • 60 permanent raised beds, each 4' × 90' (1.2 × 27.4 m), • 10 plots of 9,000–10,600 ft2 (836–985 m2), in three areas of “flat” garden.
  4. 4. Find the space: Measure and map East Garden 227’ x 265’ (Includes asparagus in half of one plot) Plots are 9,275- 10,600 ft2
  5. 5. Fit in the major crops and use the leftover spaces for summer succession crops
  6. 6. Fitting in summer succession crops After locating the major crops (including sweet corn), following our rotation plan, we look for any extra space in the plots, to fit in the minor crops: succession plantings of beans, summer squash and zucchini, cucumbers, edamame and cantaloupes. Green bean flowers, Photo Kathryn Simmons
  7. 7. Summer Succession Crops Planning Chart • We list the spare spaces in the plots (in order of availability) on the left • and the crops we hope to plant (in date order) on the right.
  8. 8. Succession Crops Planning Chart  We pencil in arrows, fitting the succession crops into the spaces available.  At the beginning and end of the season, and in mid-season when space in the main plots is tight, we also look for spaces in our raised beds.
  9. 9. Scheduling continuous harvests  Many vegetable crops can be planted several times during the season, to provide a continuous supply. Don’t stop too soon!  Typically, plants mature faster in warmer weather.  So, to get harvests starting an equal number of days apart, shorten the interval between one sowing date and the next as the season progresses.  Keep records and use information from other growers in your area to fine-tune planting dates. CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons.
  10. 10. Several approaches to succession crop scheduling – which suits you? 1. Rough plan: “every two weeks” 2. “No paperwork” methods 3. Sow several varieties on the same day 4. Plan first and last sowings, guess the rest 5. Plan a sequence of sowings to provide an even supply, using graphs 6. Use Accumulated Growing Degree Days data Squash drawing by Jessie Doyle
  11. 11. Rough Plan: Every 2 weeks for beans and corn, Every 3 weeks for squash and cucumbers and edamame Every 4 weeks for carrots 2 or 3 plantings of muskmelons (cantaloupes) at least a month apart. CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons.
  12. 12. Spring and fall crops: carrots, beets • We start sowing carrots mid–late February • We sow every 4 weeks in March, April, May • If needed, we sow once each in June and July • We make a huge fall planting in early August. • We don’t do succession plantings for fall carrots, just one big one, because we are growing bulk carrots to store for use all winter and don’t need multiple harvest dates. With fall crops, even a difference of 2 days in sowing dates can make a difference of 2-3 weeks in harvest date, because plants grow slower as days get shorter and cooler.
  13. 13. “No Paperwork” methods  Sow another planting of sweet corn when the previous one is 1”–2" tall  Sow more lettuce when the previous sowing germinates  Sow more beans when the young plants start to straighten up from their hooked stage
  14. 14. Sow several varieties with differing days-to- maturity on the same day.
  15. 15. Determine your first spring planting date Most growers are probably adept at planting as soon as possible in the spring. Don’t plant too early! Keeping old cucumber transplants on hold through cold early spring weather is just not worthwhile. Spacemaster bush cucumber in the hoophouse CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons.
  16. 16. Last worthwhile planting date Figure out the last date for planting each crop that gives it a reasonable chance of success. Virginia Co-operative Extension Service Fall Planting Guide http://pubs.ext.vt.ed u/426/426-334/426- 334.html WRONG CHART!!
  17. 17. Formula for frost-tender crops Count back from the expected first frost date, adding: • the number of days from seeding to harvest, • the average length of the harvest period, • 14 days to allow for the slowing rate of growth in the fall, and • 14 days to allow for an early frost (unless you have rowcover - there is often a spell of warmer weather after the first frosts, and you can effectively push back your first frost date.) Zephyr Summer Squash CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons.
  18. 18. Example: Yellow Squash • number of days from seeding to harvest 50 • average length of the harvest period 21 • 14 days to allow for the slowing rate of growth in the fall 14 • 14 days to allow for an early frost (but we have rowcover) 0 days before the first frost = total of these = 85 last date for sowing, with October 14 first frost date = July 21 But using rowcover to throw over the last planting during cold spells, the growing season is effectively 2 weeks longer, and we sow our last planting of squash on Aug 5. We sow our last beans 8/3, cucumbers 8/5. We sow our last edamame July 14. We sow our last sweet corn July16 (90 days before our average first frost) and we harvest from around Sept 22. Credit Brittany Lewis
  19. 19. Making a close-fit plan Collect three pieces of information for each sowing of each crop: • Sowing date • Date of first harvest • Date of last worthwhile harvest of that sowing
  20. 20. Veg Finder Example: Squash #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted….. Harvesting….. Finished….. BEANS CUKES SQUASH CORN CARROTS EDAMAME #1 29W, 29E Plant 4/16 180' dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 13W Plant 4/20 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 23W Plant 4/20 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #1 EAST Plot G 4x265’ Plant 4/26+4/29 1060' Bod Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 9E Plant 2/14 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 21W Plant 4/26 90’ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G Plant 5/14 176’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot I Plant 5/24 180’ slice 90' + pickle 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot I Plant 5/24 88’ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G 4x265' Plant 5/21 1060' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 BED 25E Plant 2/28 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G No-soak Plant 5/18 88’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/7 240’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot A north 4 x 180' 6/6 1080' Sug Pearl /KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 BED 12W Plant 3/13 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #3 EAST Plot I Plant 6/7 60’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #4 EAST Plot K Plant 6/29 175' dbl (5x35’) Planted Harvesting Finished #4 CENT Plot D Plant 7/15 240' slice 120' +pickle 120' Planted Harvesting Finished #4 EAST Plot K Plant 7/15 105’ (3x35’) Planted Harvesting Finished #4 WEST Plot A 6 x 180' 6/19 1080' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #4 BED 12E Plant 3/27 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #4 CENTRAL Plot D Plant 6/26 60’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #5 25E 22W Plant 7/19 180’ dbl (2x90’) Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 15E Plant 8/5 90' slicers Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 13E Plant 8/5 90’ Planted Harvesting Finished #5 WEST Plot A 6 x 180' Plant 7/2 1080' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 19W Plant 4/10 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #5 EAST Plot K Plant 7/14. 70’ (2x35’)dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #6 BEDS 9W, 9E Plant 8/3 180’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #6 CENTRAL Plot D 7 x 200' Plant 7/16 1400' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #6 BED 17W Plant 5/14 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #8 BED 1 CARROTS#8 BED 30W Only if needed Plant 7/8 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #7 Not this year, perhaps never again #7 BED 27E Only if needed Plant 6/11 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #8 BED CARROTS #9 Overwinter Raised Beds Plant 7/28 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished
  21. 21. Gather sowing and harvest start dates Sowing Date Harvest Start 4/18 6/1 4/21 5/19 4/23 5/25 5/14 6/3 5/15 6/21 5/20 7/5 5/25 7/4 5/29 7/7 6/12 7/20 6/15 7/20 6/30 8/2 7/1 8/8 7/2 8/11 7/4 8/8 7/5 8/10 7/14 8/14 7/18 8/17 7/19 8/28 8/3 9/9 8/4 9/5 8/5 9/15 8/7 10/2 8/9 9/25 8/12 10/5 For each crop, gather several years’ worth of planting and harvesting records in two columns (this example is squash).
  22. 22. Make a graph - Five steps 1. Plot a graph for each crop, with sowing date along the horizontal (x) axis and harvest start date along the vertical (y) axis. Mark in all your data. 2. Mark the first possible sowing date and find the harvest start date for that. 3. Decide the last worthwhile harvest start date, mark that. 4. Then divide the harvest period into a whole number of segments, according to how often you want a new patch. 5. Determine the sowing dates needed to match your chosen harvest start dates Next we’ll take one step at a time
  23. 23. Step 1: Plot a graph X axis = Sowing Date, across the bottom 11-May 31-May 20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug 8-Sep 28-Sep 18-Oct 1-Apr 21-Apr 11-May 31-May 20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug Y axis = Harvest Start Date
  24. 24. Step 2: Mark the first possible sowing date, find the harvest start date for that  Draw a line up from your first possible sowing date on the x axis to the graph line.  Draw a horizontal line from the point on the graph line to the y axis.  This is your first harvest date. Ours is around May 19. 11-May 31-May 20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug 8-Sep 28-Sep 18-Oct 1-Apr 21-Apr11-May31-May 20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug Y axis = Harvest Start Date
  25. 25. Step 3: Set your last worthwhile harvest date • Decide your last worthwhile harvest start date of the year • Draw a line across from this date on the y (harvest) axis to the graph line • Draw a vertical line from this point on the graph line to the x axis to show when you need to sow • Our Aug 7 sowing gave an Oct 2 harvest start. Too late! • Now we sow Aug 5 and harvest from Sept 24 11-May 31-May 20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug 8-Sep 28-Sep 18-Oct 1-Apr 21-Apr11-May31-May20-Jun 10-Jul 30-Jul 19-Aug Y axis = Harvest Start Date
  26. 26. Step 4: Divide the harvest period into a whole number of segments, according to how often you want a new patch  Count the days from first harvest of the first sowing to first harvest of the last sowing: May 19 - Sept 24 is 128 days of squash! (Plus the 30 days from the harvest start of the last sowing to the end = 158 days of squash!!)  Decide roughly how often you want a new patch coming into production  Divide the harvest period into a whole number of intervals. If we want fresh squash every 32 days, we’ll need 4 equal intervals between plantings (32 x 4 = 128).  Four intervals means 5 plantings. (P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P)  The harvest start dates will be May 19, June 20, July 22, Aug 23 and Sept 24.  Use the graph to get the planting dates needed. April 21, May 17, June 21, July 16, and Aug 5.  Sowing intervals are 26, 25, 25, 20 days – a bit shorter later in the season.
  27. 27. Step 5: Determine the sowing dates needed to match your chosen harvest start dates • Draw a horizontal line from one harvest start date to the graph line • Then drop a vertical line down to the horizontal axis • Read the date on the horizontal axis at this point • Repeat for each harvest start date • Write these planting dates on your schedule
  28. 28. Squash Succession Crops Sowing date Harvest start Apr 18 Jun 1 Apr 21 May 19 Apr 23 May 25 May 14 Jun 3 May 15 Jun 21 May 20 Jul 5 May 25 Jul 4 May 29 Jul 7 Jun 12 Jul 20 Jun 15 Jul 20 Jun 30 Aug 2 Jul 1 Aug 8 Jul 2 Aug 11 Jul 4 Aug 8 Jul 5 Aug 10 Jul 14 Aug 14 Jul 18 Aug 17 Jul 19 Aug 28 Aug 3 Sep 9 Aug 4 Sep 5 Aug 5 Sep 15 Aug 7 Oct 2 Aug 9 Sep 25 Aug 12 Oct 5 Apr 27 May 17 Jun 6 Jun 26 Jul 16 Aug 5 Aug 25 Sep 14 Oct 4 Oct 24 Apr12 Apr22 May2 May12 May22 Jun1 Jun11 Jun21 Jul1 Jul11 Jul21 Jul31 Aug10 HarvestStart Sowing Date Squash Succession Crops With several years of data you might get an very uneven line. Squash Succession Crops Graph with multiple years of data
  29. 29. Smoothing the graph line The line of the graph is often uneven, due to differences in weather from year to year, and to growing varieties with differing maturity dates. Practice with a pencil, drawing a line in the air just above the graph. When you’re fairly confidant, draw a smooth line, trying to hit most of points, leaving equal numbers of them above and below the graph line.
  30. 30. Another Example: Sweet Corn • Using our graph of corn sowing and harvest dates (on the next slide) I estimate that April 26, May 19, June 6, June 24, July 7, and July 16 would be good dates for 6 plantings to provide fresh eating every 15 days. • The planting intervals are 23, 18, 18, 13 and 9 days. • The intervals get noticeably shorter as the season goes on.
  31. 31. Reminder of the main goals of planned succession planting: Continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers and sweet corn; cold-weather hoophouse greens and year-round lettuce. Avoid gluts and shortages. Cucumber Generally. Photo credit Kathryn Simmons.
  32. 32. Extra benefits from planned succession planting: Save space and work • We used to do 6 plantings of cucumbers. • The intervals between sowings were 50, 30, 20, 16, and 17 days. • By using the graphs, we have been able to go down to 5 plantings, at intervals of 52, 25, 25 and 20 days. The sowing intervals decrease as the season warms up, as it takes fewer days for plants to mature. The first planting uses transplants and is very slow to mature — probably we could just start later still and lose nothing. • By moving the second planting 10 days later than it used to be, we are able to direct sow rather than transplant, which saves us time. • This revised schedule saves us from dumping cucumbers on our neighbors’ porches!
  33. 33. Cucumber Succession Crops Sowing Date Harvest Start 0.880152 4622.504 4/23 6/18 4/25 6/3 38832 38900.58 38871 5/9 6/18 5/14 7/3 5/15 6/22 5/27 7/15 #REF! #REF! 6/12 7/29 6/21 8/9 6/25 7/27 6/28 8/1 6/30 7/23 7/2 8/16 7/4 8/15 7/5 8/20 7/7 8/21 7/14 8/28 7/18 9/8 7/19 9/10 8/3 9/21 8/6 9/29 8/11 9/25 8/12 10/5 5/19 5/29 6/8 6/18 6/28 7/8 7/18 7/28 8/7 8/17 8/27 9/6 9/16 9/26 10/6 10/16 4/13 4/23 5/3 5/13 5/23 6/2 6/12 6/22 7/2 7/12 7/22 8/1 8/11 HarvestStartDate Sowing Date Cucumber Succession Crops
  34. 34. Benefits of succession planting: Avoid chancy sowings: sweet corn • We used to make 7 sweet corn plantings: April 26, May 17, June 2, June 16, June 30, July 14 and July 28. The intervals were 21, 15, and then 14 days. • We eliminated the late (and sometimes unproductive) 7th planting and increased the size of the 6th, sowing our usual range of 3 varieties. • Using the graph of our corn sowing and harvest dates, we switched to 6 plantings with intervals of 23, 18, 18, 13 and 9 days. Silver Queen Sweet Corn. Credit Kathryn Simmons
  35. 35. Factors in succession planting: Keep it simple • Cucumbers also take a little longer to mature than squash. • These two features would suggest making more plantings of cucumbers than of squash, • BUT. . . after looking at the graphs, we decided to plant both on the same set of dates, for simplicity. • If we could be satisfied with a new patch coming on- stream every 36 days, we could sow only four times. • Our squash plantings stay productive for around 40 days, but cucumbers sometimes only last 35 days.
  36. 36. Other factors affecting planting frequency: Mexican bean beetles Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org • Mexican bean beetles used to destroy our beans. • We needed 7 plantings at 15-day intervals. • After 2 weeks of harvesting a planting, we did “Root Checks.” • Now we buy the parasitic pedio wasp, and sow 6 times, not 7. • These sowing intervals are 28, 28, 22, 20 and 15 days. • We also get more beans than previously, and they’re prettier. • Bean photo credit Kathryn Simmons
  37. 37. Bean Beetle Parasite (Pediobius foveolatus) • These tiny wasps do not overwinter, so buy them each year unless you don’t get enough MBB to worry about. • Wasps are shipped to you as adults or as parasitized Mexican bean beetle larvae, called mummies. The adults emerge from the mummies, and the females lay eggs in your MBB larvae. • Timing is critical: order as soon as you see larvae. • Release 20 mummies = 400-500 wasps for every 1000 sq. ft. of beans (40 units/acre). 2013 prices $60/1000 adults, $30/20 mummies. Plus UPS Next Day Saver, about $20. • NJ Department of Agriculture Beneficial Insect Rearing Laboratory contact: Tom Dorsey at (609) 530-4192. See http://www.state.nj.us/agriculture/divisions/pi/prog/benef icialinsect.html
  38. 38. Bean Succession Crops Sowing Date Harvest Start 4/16 6/13 4/18 6/20 4/20 6/16 4/21 6/14 5/2 6/23 5/7 7/2 5/11 7/8 5/12 7/5 5/13 7/1 5/14 6/30 5/16 7/1 5/17 7/3 5/22 7/16 6/5 7/30 6/8 8/2 6/10 8/3 6/13 8/1 6/24 8/9 6/29 8/24 6/30 8/15 7/8 8/21 7/14 8/28 7/15 9/2 7/19 9/3 7/20 9/1 7/22 9/6 7/25 9/11 8/3 9/18 8/4 9/26 8/6 9/30 8/7 9/20 40700 40710 40720 40730 40740 40750 40760 40770 40780 40790 40800 40810 40820 40830 40645 40655 40665 40675 40685 40695 40705 40715 40725 40735 40745 40755 40765 40775 HarvestStartDate Sowing Date Bean Succession Crops Bean Succession Crops graph with several years’ data
  39. 39. Winter succession crops in the hoophouse To maintain continuous supplies of salad and cooking greens, as well as radishes and small turnips, we plan several winter successions of hoophouse crops.
  40. 40. Planning winter succession crops • Hoophouse space is so valuable, make best use • Rate of growth is faster inside than out • Plants tolerate colder conditions in a hoophouse than they could outdoors • Double plastic hoophouse in zone 7, with extra thick rowcover for an inner tunnel, salad greens can survive when it’s -12F (-24C) outside • Without the inner rowcover, they survive when it’s 14F (-10C) outside. Photo of tatsoi by Wren Vile
  41. 41. Gather information as you go • Our hoophouse planting schedule includes a column for Harvest Start date and Harvest Finish date. • In tiny print we the dates from recent years • We leave space to write in results from the current year
  42. 42. Factors to consider • Seeds may take much longer to germinate in cold weather • “Days to maturity” number in the catalog refers to spring - add 14 days or more • If the catalog is from a different bioregion, beware! Photo of Chinese cabbage by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  43. 43. Hoophouse Succession Planting • 2 sowings of chard, mizuna, scallions, tatsoi, yukina savoy • 3 sowings of turnips, bulb onions • 4 sowings of lettuce mix • 5 sowings of spinach and radish
  44. 44. Back to the graphs • Using succession crop graphs follows the same process as for outdoor summer crops • Keep good records and eliminate sowings that are too late to give a harvest – some crops bolt in January (Tokyp bekana and Maruba Santoh), some in February (tatsoi) Cherry Belle radishes. Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  45. 45. Radish Succession Crops Graph
  46. 46. “Filler Greens” • As well as scheduled plantings, sow a few short rows of lettuce, spinach, Asian greens to transplant and fill gaps as soon as they occur Large transplants of filler greens. Photo by Ethan Hirsh
  47. 47. Follow-on Winter Hoophouse Crops • Some people use the term “Succession Planting” to refer to a succession of different crops occupying a space. • We follow our first radishes with our second scallions on 11/17 • Our first baby brassica salad mix with our fifth radishes on 12/23 • Some of our first spinach with our second baby lettuce mix on 12/31 • Our first tatsoi with our fourth spinach on 1/15 • Our Tokyo bekana on 1/16 with spinach for transplanting outdoors • Our pak choy and Chinese cabbage on 1/24 with kale for planting outdoors • Our second radishes with our second baby brassica salad mix on 2/1
  48. 48. Year-round lettuce part 1 Photo Credits Kathryn Simmons The short version is that we sow • twice in January, • twice in February, • every 10 days in March, • every 9 days in April, • every 8 days in May, • every 6-7 days in June and July,
  49. 49. Year-round lettuce part 2 Photo: Cold-hardy (not heat-tolerant) Tango lettuce. Credit Kathryn Simmons • every 5 days in early August, • moving to every 3 days in late August, • and every other day until Sept 21. • After that we ease back to every 3 days until the end of September. • Those last plants will feed us right through the winter. Hot weather lettuce sowing  Lettuce likes 40°F–80°F (4°C–27°C).  Optimum 75°F (24°C) (germinates in only 2 days).  Max germination temperature is 85°F (29°C).  Sow late afternoon or at nightfall - better emergence than morning sowings.
  50. 50. Lettuce Succession Crops Sowing Date Harvest Start 1/0 1/13 1/5 4/12 1/15 4/15 1/25 4/17 2/5 4/20 2/15 4/26 2/25 5/1 3/5 5/5 3/15 5/11 3/25 5/18 4/5 5/25 4/15 6/4 4/20 6/11 5/6 6/23 5/17 7/1 5/25 7/7 6/1 7/13 6/8 7/20 6/15 7/31 6/22 8/6 6/29 8/12 7/6 8/18 7/13 8/24 7/20 8/30 7/27 9/5 8/3 9/11 8/5 9/13 8/15 9/27 8/25 10/12 9/5 11/10 9/15 12/16 9/15 9/20 12/16 9/25 1/13 #REF! #REF! 10/5 2/2 10/15 2/15 10/25 2/25 11/5 2/25 11/15 3/18 11/25 3/28 12/5 4/4 12/15 4/6 12/25 4/9 Dates from Coleman Italic dates approximate, from Twin Oaks 4/13 4/23 5/3 5/13 5/23 6/2 6/12 6/22 7/2 7/12 7/22 8/1 8/11 8/21 8/31 9/10 9/20 9/30 10/10 10/20 10/30 11/9 11/19 11/29 12/9 12/19 12/29 1/8 1/18 1/28 2/7 2/17 2/27 3/9 3/19 3/29 4/8 4/18 1/13 1/23 2/2 2/12 2/22 3/4 3/14 3/24 4/3 4/13 4/23 5/3 5/13 5/23 6/2 6/12 6/22 7/2 7/12 7/22 8/1 8/11 8/21 8/31 9/10 9/20 9/30 10/10 10/20 10/30 11/9 11/19 11/29 12/9 12/19 12/29 HarvestStartDate Sowing Date Lettuce Succession Crops
  51. 51. Growing Degree Days  A measure of heat accumulation  can indicate when it’s warm enough to plant tender crops,  or when they might be ready to harvest.  GDDs can also be used to plan dates for succession sowings.  GDDs reflect actual conditions, rather than simply the calendar, a method which will not work well now climate change has taken hold.  For most purposes a base temperature of 50°F (10°C) is used – roughly the temperature at which most plant growth changes start to take place. Each day when the temperature rises above the threshold, growing-degrees accumulate.
  52. 52. Growing Degree Days  Average the maximum and minimum temperatures for the 24 hour period, and subtract the base temperature. Add each day’s figure to the total for the year to date. This is the GDD figure.  Wikipedia has a good explanation at www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growing-degree_day  www.farmprogress.com has a free mobile phone app!  Using GDDs to plan for succession sowings of sweet corn http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/veg/htms/scpltsched.h tm  Using Heat Units to Schedule Vegetable Plantings, Predict Harvest Dates and Manage Crops http://smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/sfn/f11degreedays
  53. 53. Resources 1  ATTRA Market Farming: A Start-up Guide, https://attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=18  ATTRA Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for a Continuous Harvest, www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=20  ATTRA Intercropping Principles and Production Practices (mostly field crops, but the same principles apply to vegetable crops), www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=105  ATTRA Season Extension Techniques for Market Farmers, https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/viewhtml.php?id=366  SARE at www.sare.org -A searchable database of research findings  SARE’s Season Extension Topic Room  http://www.extension.org/organic_production The organic agriculture community with eXtension. Publications, webinars, videos, trainings and support. An expanding, accessible source of reliable information.
  54. 54. Resources 2  Virginia Co-operative Extension Service Fall Planting Guide http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-334/426-334.html. Wrong chart currently!  Growing Small Farms: http://growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/ Debbie Roos keeps this site up to the minute. Click on Farmer Resources  www.johnnyseeds.com. Winter growing guide  www.motherofahubbard.com Winter Vegetable Gardening  www.averagepersongardening.com info on winter gardening  Penn State Extension High Tunnels site www.extension.psu.edu/plants/plasticulture/crop- information  www.HighTunnels.org Information for growers section.
  55. 55. Resources 3 - books  The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J. K. A. Bleasdale, P. J. Salter et al.  Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Donald N. Maynard and George J. Hochmuth. The 2012 edition is free online from Missouri Extension  The New Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel, 1988, Rodale Books  The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, Richard Wiswall, Chelsea Green  Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, Vern Grubinger  The New Organic Grower, Eliot Coleman, 1995, Chelsea Green  The Winter Harvest Handbook, Eliot Coleman  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm, a free e-book download for online subscribers to Growing for Market magazine  The Hoophouse Handbook, 2nd edition, Lynn Byczynski  Nature and Properties of Soils, fourteenth edition, Nyle Brady and Ray Weil  Garden Insects of North America, Whitney Cranshaw  The Harvest Gardener, Susan McClure
  56. 56. Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests Plan for continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers and sweet corn; cold-weather hoophouse greens and year-round lettuce. ©Pam Dawling 2015 author of Sustainable Market Farming www.sustainablemarketfarming.com www.facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming

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